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Bushels of coke and charcoal....

466,900 losses to the billholders by any failure of Value of raw material .........

$604,493 Number of hands employed..

708

one or more of the branches. Average wages per month....

$33 61 4. Twelve free banks, established unTons of wroughi iron made....

14,416 der a recent law of Ohio. Value of entire products..... ... $1,076,1924

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12 Free.
444,490
90,896

8,487
22,205
14,473
23,093

6,252
703,985

19,366

12,920
..
12,048..

Old.
32,826..
384,060.. 128,465

3,676..

22,608..
$749,180.. 4,456.675.. 1,547,250.. 361,730

-
354,960.. 913,428..
237,095.. 328,770..

817,110.: 770,711.. 180,528
1,502,027.. 3,548,650..1,213,690.. 912,676

636,496.. 121.391.. 166,034 171,637.. 136,390.. 50,088.. 325,084.. 316,010..

280..
151,418..

49 Stato.
..$2,202,500..10,346,815..3,169.038.. 1,068,900

140,928..

42,740..

315,250.. 2,025,765.. 660,460.. 215,938 Circulation..... 1,144,512.. 8,120,813.. 1,488,470.. 609,870

67,817.. Totals........$4,792.165.. 17,158,614..5,558,060..2,497,400

903,524..

269,178.. 1.854,415.. Totals........ $4,732,164..17,118,613..5,580, 160.. 2,397,398

11 Indopend.

364,815..
555,412..
85,972..
36.390..
29,271..
73,140..
304,210
120,404..

22,054..
105,115..

197,210..

..
Safety Fund. ... 1,143,410..
Due banks......
Capital..
Deposits.....
Surplus......
Bills payable...
Discounts......
Dividends......
Miscellaneous..
State bonds..... 1,195,930.,
Loans...
Bank-notes.....
Specie...
Due by banks...
Eastern funds..
Checks, &e....
Real property...
Miscellaneous..

BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF OH10.It appears, by the annual official report of the state of these institutions, made up to the 1st November, 1852, that there are now sixty-eight banks in the state, viz. :

1. Five of the original chartered institutions, including the Life Insurance and Trust Company.

While the deposits amount to $6,972,000, 2. Eleven independent banks, doing and the aggregate circulation is $11,business under a general law, and de- 373.000, it will be seen that the banks positing bonds as collaterals per is- have specie on hand to the amount of sues.

$2,631,000, or about 25 per cent. of cir3. Forty branches of the state bank culation, and deposits in the Eastern of Ohio, each independent in itself, its cities to the extent of $3,287,900. In capital, loans, profits, &c., but under the addition to which, the state holds collaoccasional supervision of the Board of teral bonds to the amount of $2,803,000, Control, and each liable to contribute for to meet the issues of these institutions.

ART. II.-FLORIDA-ITS POSITION, RESOURCES, AND

DESTINY.

There is not perhaps any state of the United States, various circumstances confederacy that can be more benefited have combined to retard the developby the construction of judicious works ment of their valuable commercial, agri. of internal improvement, and by the im- cultural, and other resources. provement of its harbors, than Florida. The fortifications then near Pensacola, Thirty-one years have elapsed, since the that at St. Mark's, the fort at St. Augusprovinces of East and West Florida were tine, and an old defence called Fort taken possession of by the United States George, near the mouth of the river St. under the treaty of cession concluded in John's, were all the military defences 1819. No works of internal improve- worth mentiouing existing in the provinment, except the "King's road” in East ces at the cession. The United States Florida, and a short and small canal, have since established a navy yard, and (never completed,) near Lake Okechoke ; works for the repair of vessels of war, and De Brahme's surveys in 1765, &c., and erected other forts, and built a nawere commenced by the British or Span- val and marine hospital near Pensacola; ish governments, whilst the provinces are building fortifications at the Tortuwere under the control of either of those gas and at Key West; and near the powers; and since their transfer to the mouth of the St. Mary's River; and have Military Defences-Land Titles-Removal of the Indians. 313

placed the fort at St. Augustine in good public records of Congress, and of the fedcondition; but no other part of the ex- eral departments, will verify the declaratensive and exposed gulf and sea coast tion, that scores of Floridians have been of the state is in any degree fortified; refused payment of just claims, or postnor are there proper preparations made poned on the most frivolous pretexts and for the construction, at an early period, discreditable suspicions. of such defences. The entire Atlantic If attempts have been made in any and gulf coast of the United States, from instance, by individuals claiming to be. Passamaquoddy to the Rio del Norte, is long to Florida, to obtain from the fedeabout 3,500 miles, and of this extent the ral treasury claims not founded in strict coast and reefs of Florida, from St. Mary's justice; such dishonorable exceptions around the Tortugas to the Perdido, do not excuse wholesale imputations comprise upwards of 1,200 miles, extend- against the citizens of the state generally, ing over 8 deg. of latitude and 71 deg. nor justify the excitement of prejudices of longitude, being more than one third against them, and the withholding payof the whole coast.

ment of just demands. Within a few years past, our “coast Both of the provinces, when acquired survey'' has been commenced; but with by the United States, (excepting only a meagre and inadequate appropriations; small portion of country around the city not at all in just proportion either to the of Pensacola, at the western extremity, necessities of the work, or to the amounts and the region contiguous to the city of yielded for such surveys in other sec- St. Augustine, and to the lower part of tions, less important to the whole country. the river St. John's, in East Florida,) No canal or rail-road has been constructo' were in the possession of warlike and ed by the federal government in Florida, hostile bands of savages. The territobut the expenditure of a few thousands ries, when ceded, were covered with of dollars, whilst Florida was a territory,) British and Spanish titles to lands, some for the removal of obstructions in some for tracts of several thousands of acres. of the rivers and harbors, and for two or The “Forbes Grant," extending from the three partial surveys of important routes St. Mark's to the west side of the Apalaof a national character, has given rise to chicola river, and including also the site allegations, that profuse grants have been of the city of Apalachicola and several made for her benefit. She has, too, been thousands of acres contiguous thereto, unjustly reproached as being the cause further west, and the adjacent islands of of the immense expenditures so profit- St. George and St. Vincent, and Dog lessly made in the Seminole war; and Island, and reaching upwards of sixty by some she is held responsible for all miles from the coast into the interior, the folly, waste, extravagance, impo- covered an area of upwards of one mil. sitions, peculations and frauds, commit- lion two hundred thousand acres. Most ted in that war by the employés of the of the lands which had not been previ. federal government, though not citizens ously granted were included in the conof the state. A similar class have had cessions by the king of Spain to the duke the infamous audacity to impute to her of Alagon, the Chevalier de Vargas, and people the purposed origination of the the count of Punon Rostros, clandestinely war, and a desire for its protraction, as made, whilst the treaty of cession was a source of pecuniary gain. A devasta- being negotiated, and which, though anted frontier of several hundred miles, nulled by a codicil to the treaty, are still and the butchery by the savages of hun- claimed by the grantees, and those to dreds of men, women and children, whom the grants have been assigned, to throughout the state, and the utter ruin be valid and in force. A decision has brought upon many of her citizens by recently been given by the United States that war, ought to be sufficient to prove Court in Florida, in a suit brought upon the falsity of this accusation. Those the Alagon or " Hackley grant," against who have propagated, or countenanced its validity. The procrastination, since such unscrupulous slanders against the 1821, of the definitive ascertainment and people of Florida, have not, when chal- confirmation or rejection of alleged lenged, exposed a single case in which Spanish titles, have been a serious evil any citizen of the state has obtained to the state, and aided to retard its set. payment of any demand against the Uni- tlement and progress. ted States, founded on fraud; and the The removal of many of the Indians from the upper and middle sections to occurred, owing it is alleged, by the citi. below 28 deg. north lat., on the Penin- zens, to the depredations of the Indians sula, was effected about 1825, under the outside of the country reserved for them; treaty made with the chiefs at Camp and, on the other hand, asserted by those Moultrie, in 1823. Though this measure inimical to the people of Florida, to be opened a large portion of the country to occasioned by the encroachments of the settlement, and, when adopted, was gen- frontier population upon the Indian reerally commended, experience has pro- servation. The officers of the federal ved that it was injudicious policy. It government have not restrained the Inhas been the prolific cause of subsequent dians to the limits of the “reservation;" troubles and of great sacrifice of life and and while this duty is neglected, collis. property by the people of Florida, and ions and conflicts between the savages of immense expenditures by the fede- and the settlers near to the lines are inev. ral government-the responsibility for itable. Means are now being adopted to which, as before stated, has been most effect the removal of the few hundred unjustly attributed to the inhabitants of warriors and women and children yet the state. The measure referred to has remaining, (and it is said in a state of put back the state at least the fifth of a destitution,) on the lower end of the pencentury. Four large bands or towns of insula, and which efforts, it is hoped, may Indians, located on the Apalachicola, re- be successful; but if they fail, prompt mained there till 1834, when they were and efficient measures will certainly be removed peaceably, in conformity with taken by the state government to abate treaty stipulations, to the Indian territory this evil, so blighting to the prosperity west of the Arkansas. In 1835 the Se- of Florida. minoles, Miccossukies and other tribes It is a striking fact in the history of concentrated, as above stated, near the the provinces of Florida, that since their fastnesses of the peninsula, in resistance first discovery by the Spaniards, nearly to the enforcement of treaties stipulating three centuries and a half ago, they have for their emigration west of the Arkansas, never enjoyed twenty successive years commenced predatory hostilities that of peace and tranquillity undisturbed by soon ripened into open war, which domestic warlike conflicts or foreign lasted for seven years, and was attended hostile invasion. They have changed with but limited and partial creditable owners and masters several times. The success to the federal government, or to late disturbances with the Seminoles its officers, either in arms or diplomacy. brought destruction and ruin upon many The best measure adopted by the United Floridians, and the insecurity to life and States during the war, was the “armed property since 1835, not only deterred occupation" act of 1842; though the po- emigration to Florida, but hundreds of licy pursued by the federal government, worthy and valuable citizens abandoned in the execution of the law, until the their plantations, and with their families act of the 1st July, 1848, was passed, de- went to other southern states, where they creased its benefits. The contest was would not be daily liable to massacre and abandoned by the United States in 1842, devastation, owing to the neglect by the an "arrangement" with the yet unsub: federal government of the duty of produed Indians then being made (similar tection. to two others after 1835, which they had The creation by the territorial legisviolated) by the general officer com- lature of some ten or a dozen banks, to manding the United States regular forces three of which were given territorial in Florida; and which last "arrange- bonds or guaranties to raise their capital, ment,” in disregard of the previous trea- and the failure of all these corporations ties, stipulated that those Indians, headed prior to, or in 1837; the inability of any by the chiefs Arpiarka and Bowlegs, of them to retrieve their credit, and the might remain on the peninsula ! Their liability imputed by the foreign holders whole number, it is estimated, cannot of the faith bonds" and " guaranties exceed eight hundred, and they are on to the state of Florida, since organized, paper restricted to prescribed limits, em- for several millions of dollars, has been a bracing many hundreds of square miles serious drawback to the settlement and in area. Since that“ arrangement" re- growth of the state. The state constitu. peated disturbances, attended by blood- tion expressly inhibits the state legislashed and destruction of property, have ture from levying any tax for the re.

BanksCommercial Restrictions, and other Grievances.

315

demption of these imputed obliga- the provinces (then belonging to Spain) tions; those who effected the adoption were invaded by the troops of the United of such restriction, contending that the States; and the withholding of protection people of the state are not justly respon- to the citizens of Florida during the prosible for the improvident acts, allowed tracted Indian hostilities which comby Congress, of the territorial authorities, menced in 1835, and the refusal to who, they insist, were the creatures indemnify the many hundreds of citizens solely of federal legislation and federal whose property was devastated by the executive power, and also that the bonds savages, owing to the flagrant neglect of were purchased by the holders in disre- the federal government to fulfil its duty gard of the conditions of the acts of of affording proper protection to them; incorporation, and with full knowledge and likewise the refusal to pay others of all the facts. Some contend, also, their just dues for supplies furnished that the territorial banks were created to troops in service, and for services renwithout any competent legal power in dered the federal government; are all the territorial legislative council therefor. matters that have been severely felt in

The annexation of Texas first, and the Florida, and have all materially retarded subsequent acquisition of California, and its prosperity. the discovery of gold there, also diverted The only rail-road in Florida, now in emigration from Florida to those states. operation, is the Tallahassee and St.

These events have greatly retarded Mark's road. It was built about 1834, the growth and prosperity of the state; by an incorporated company. It now and the present backward condition of runs from Tallahassee to the sea-port, at her internal improvements, should not the site of the ancient Spanish fortress be mentioned, without also adverting, at of St. Mark's, at the junction of the St. the same time, to them, as her apologies. Mark's and Wakulla rivers, a distance

Her people are as public spirited and of about 23 miles, and is in good condi. as enterprising as those of any other tion. Between twenty and thirty thousection, but their energies have been sand bales of cotton, and large amounts stified by the series of untoward circum- of other produce, and of merchandise, are stances alluded to. Blessed with a annually transported over this road. It genial climate and a fruitful soil, and originally crossed the St.Mark's river, and advantages for improvement, with faci. run to a point on the Bay of St. Mark's lity and cheapness unsurpassed by any or Apalache, a short distance below its country, it is believed Florida is destined present terminus, where a flourishing in time to become a populous, and one village soon sprang up, but which was of the richest and most prosperous states in 1843 totally demolished by an unpreof the Union.

cedented hurricane and flood from the The severe restrictions imposed in gulf, by which many lives were lost. 1822 and 1834 upon our Cuba and Porto This rail-road is now owned chiefly by Rico trade, are ably and fully exposed Gen. Call. The cost of construction, of by Senator Mallory, in his recent pam- rebuilding it, and of repairs, has prophlet on that subject. They are a se- bably been $250,000, but it is generally rious grievance to the state. But for considered to be a good investment. If those restrictions, we should sell annually it is intersected by the contemplated to those islands many thousands of dol. great central road hereafter spoken of, lars worth of agricultural products, stock, it will increase in value. The Georgia &c. The restrictions should be forth with Brunswick Company, hereafter alluded abrogated, if the commercial and agri- to, it is understood, desire to connect cultural interests of the gulf and Atlan- with this road; and projects have been tic southern states are entitled to any in contemplation to extend the Tallaconsideration; and indeed the dictates hassee road to Thomasville, Georgia, of sound policy and equal justice to and to other points in Georgia, without every section of the Union, imperatively reference to the Brunswick Company. demand the repeal of those laws. Such extension will add to its import

It is proper also to state here, that the ance. failure of the federal government to Plank roads are being projected at fulfil in good faith its obligation to indem- several detached points in Florida, for nify Spanish inhabitants for the spolia- short distances, and one several miles in tions of 1812, 1813, 1814, and 1818, when length is now in course of construction

from New Port (a rival town to St. amount of merchandise for transportaMark's, situated a few miles above it, on tion into the interior, and has besides the St. Mark's river) to the Georgia line. considerable trade.

A small private rail-road was con- Some miles of the Florida, Alabama, structed a few years ago, leading to and Georgia rail-road, near Pensacola, Forsyth and Simpson's extensive manu. was graded, as hereinafter stated, several factories and mills, near Bagdad, on years ago, but that work has been susBlack Water river, West Florida, but it pended for the present. became useless, and has been taken up. Excepting some local improvements

In 1835 a company was incorporated at the city of St. Augustine, made by to build a canal or rail-road, to connect the federal government, and which were the Apalachicola river (through lake necessary for the preservation of its proWimico) with St. Joseph's bay; at which perty there, the foregoing, it is believed, it was intended to establish a shipping comprise all the works of the character port for the produce brought down the heretofore constructed, or partially conChattahooche and Flint and Apalachi- structed, in Florida, cola rivers, and from the surrounding Florida has several capacious and country; and for receiving and forward- secure harbors, and of easy entrance. ing merchandise to the interior; and as No less than twenty-six important rivers : a rival to the city of Apalachicola. A the Perdido, the Escambia, the Blackroad about nine miles long was put in water and Yellow rivers, (through St. operation, but in consequence of the Mary de Galvez bay,) the Choctawhatdifficulties attending the passage of large chie, the A palachicola, (into which flow steamboats through the shoal waters of the Chattahooche and the Flint,) the the lake, it was abandoned in 1839; and Ockolockonee, the St. Mark's and Waanother road running from St. Joseph, kulla, (through St. Mark's or Apalachee north, about 30 miles, to Iola, a village bay,) the Wacissa and Oscilla, the Suestablished on the west side of the Apa- wanee or Little St. John's, and its tribulachicola a mile above the Chipola river, taries, the Withlacoochy, and Alapahau, was constructed at an expense of up- and Santaffee, the Weethlockoochee or wards of $300,000 dollars. “A bridge of Amixura, the Hillsborough, the Nokoshosuperior construction, several hundred tee or Manatee, the Talachopko or Peas yards in length, was thrown across the creek, the Caloosahatche, the Otsego, Chipola, and the rail-road continued upon the two Caximbas, the Galivans river, it. A town was soon built at the southern Harney's river, and Shark river, besides terminus, on the bay of St. Joseph, which other streams of lesser note, flow from, bay has an excellent harbor, easily or through the state, into the Gulf of accessible to merchant vessels of the Mexico. The five first-named rivers first class usually employed in southern extend into the State of Alabama. They trade. In 1841 the rail-road, in conse- already bear upon their waters to the quence of pecuniary embarrassments of Florida Gulf shipping ports valuable the company, occasioned by its immense products, which could be greatly inexpenditure, was abandoned; and soon creased by comparatively trifling artifiafter the rails were taken up, and sold to cial “internal improvements," and the a rail-road company in Georgia. Many value of the public and private lands in persons contend that the site has superior Alabama, contiguous to them, much advantages, and that with judicious enhanced. The Chattahooche river is management it would have succeeded; the boundary between Alabama and and that it may be resuscitated at some Georgia, and is navigable for steamfuture period, under favorable auspices. boats for upwards of 150 miles northward The proper and judicious improvement from its junction with the Flint, where of the harbor of Apalachicola would they form the Apalachicola. The Flint of course prevent this, and especially if extends upwards of 100 miles into one the inland communication along the of the most productive sections of Georcoast (hereafter mentioned) from South gia. The Ockolockony, the Oscilla, the Cape to the Mississippi, is undertaken. Suwanee, and the two first named of its Apalachicola now ships to foreign ports tributaries, all extend into Georgia; and and coastwise upwards of $6,000,000 if all of them are not susceptible by artiworth of cotton and other produce an- ficial improvement of being made navi. nually, and receives a corresponding gable for steamboats of a large class,

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