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DE BOW'S REVIEW:

A MONTHLY JOURNAL

of

COMMERCE, AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT, STATISTICS,

ETC., ETC.
ESTABLISHED JANUARY 1, 1846.

VOL. XIV.

APRIL, 1853.

No. IV.

ART. 1.-PROGRESS OF OHIO, HISTORICAL AND

STATISTICAL.

UNDER Marquette's discoveries in Mississippi river. After the colonies re1673, the French laid claim to all the nounced their allegiance to the British region watered by the Mississippi and crown, in 1776, the different states its tributaries; and after D’Iberville's claiming western lands under their resexpedition from France, which explor- pective charters, ceded them to the Unied northward up the Mississippi, as ted States as common property, and the Marquette had done southward from Ca- English claim was relinquished by the nada, forts were located, and colonies treaty of Paris, in 1783. planted at different points throughout The Ohio river had been proposed for the whole extent of country-all subject our western boundary by Mr. Oswald, to the general authority of Louisiana. the commissioner on the part of England; And thus originated their claim to the but, as is well known, John Adams interritory northwest of the Ohio river, sisted upon the Mississippi as the boundwhile the English based theirs, not only ary, and it was thus settled by that neupon the grants of different monarchs, gotiation. It was in 1784 Virginia cedembracing the whole extent of land from ed her right to the lands north of the sea to sea, but upon the ground that the Ohio river - Connecticut, MassachuSix Nations owned the entire valley of setts, New-York, and Pennsylvania the Ohio, and had placed it, with them- shortly afterwards following her examselves, under the protection of England; ple. The Indian title was extinguished, the English, also, asserting the purchase first by a treaty at Fort Stanwix with of a portion of the land.

the Six Nations, and subsequently by a An English trading company was second one with the Wyandotts, Delaformed in 1748, styled the Ohio Com- wares, &c., at Fort McIntosh. Surveys pany, whose trading-house or fort on the and sales were then made by Congress, Great Miami, attacked and destroyed the “New-England Ohio Company's by the French, in 1752, was the first purchasing a tract lying adjacent to the English settlement in the Ohio valley Scioto and Muskingum rivers, and there upon record. Braddock's defeat in 1755, commencing in the spring of 1788 the gave encouragement to the Indians to settlement of Marietta, at the mouth of encroach eastwardly. After several trea- the Muskingum, the first permanent ties and outbreaks, they were defeated one in Ohio. A previous attempt at the by Lord Dunmore at Point Pleasant, in mouth of the Scioto, where Portsmouth a severely contested battle, which was now stands, was abandoned, on account followed soon afterwards by a final of difficulties with the Indians. In the peace.

same year with the settlement at MaIn 1763 took place the cession of Ca- rietta, General Arthur St. Clair was apnada to England by France, and with it pointed by Congress governor over the all her claim to the territory east of the new territory-Winthrop Sargeant, se

VOL. XIV.

cretary-and as judges, Samuel Holden November, 1791, General St. Clair, at Parsons, James Mitchell Varnum, and the head of an army of nearly 3,000 men, John Cleves Symmes, who organized approaching the Indian towns, was at: the territorial government, and made tacked near what is now the line of and adopted suitable laws.

Darke and Mercer counties, by the In 1787, John Cleves Symmes, a combined forces of nearly all the northmember of the Old Congress from New. west tribes, and experienced a total and Jersey, and formerly chief justice of that most disastrous defeat. The Indian difstate, with associates, contracted with ficulties were, in consequence, multiCongress for the purchase of one million plied, and for a time emigration ceased acres of land, lying between the two entirely. Washington, as President, Miamis, and extending back north- urged the prosecution of this protective wardly from the Ohio river. The second war; but it was not until 1794 that an settlement in Ohio was made in this army was assembled at Greenville, untract, at Columbia, a point five miles der Gen. Anthony Wayne. In August above Cincinnati, October, 1788. Soon of that year he obtained a decisive vic. afterwards, Symmes sold to Mathias tory over a force of two thousand Indians, Denman, of New-Jersey, about eight at the Rapids of the Maumee. When their hundred acres of his purchase, opposite country was laid waste, and they saw the mouth of the Licking. Five hun- the American forts springing up around dred and fifty dollars was the sum paid them, they at length submitted and sued for these eight hundred acres of land, on for peace. When we consider the fierce which now stands the principal business and unrelenting warfare waged by the portion of the city of Cincinnati. The Indian tribes upon the white settlements first cabin upon this site was erected in of the West, during the thirty-seven December, 1788. The settlements that years of almost uninterrupted conflict, followed were, Manchester, on the Ohio from 1757, when the first white man river, the first effected in the country, was killed in Kentucky, down to the lying between the Scioto and Little Mi. period of Wayne's victory, we may ami rivers, by General Massie and form some faint idea of the toil, and others, in the winter of 1790; Gallipo- perils, and suffering of the bold and lis, by immigrants from France, in the hardy race of pioneers who effected the same year; Hamilton, laid off by Israel colonization of the vast western world. Ludlow, late in 1794; Dayton, by the An Indian chief, at the conclusion of a same, in 1795; Cleveland, surveyed and treaty, yielding up the right of soil in laid out in the fall of 1795; Chillicothe, Kentucky, said to Boone, * Brother, we laid out by General Massie, in 1796 ; have given you a fine land, but I think and Portsmouth, settled since 1805. The you will have trouble to settle it.And tract reserved by Connecticut, in her his prediction was fully verified, there cession to the general government, sic and elsewhere, of lands purchased of tuated east of the Cuyahoga, found pur- the Indians. chasers in her own and other states, and Hostilities being at an end, population by the year 1800 numbered one thou- rapidly increased in the rich farming sand settlers.

district between the Miamis-settlers Though the Indian treaties had been spread outward from Marietta. Connecrenewed and confirmed, they were con- ticut sent many to her reserved tract, tinually violated by hostile portions of bordering on Lake Erie; and in 1798 the the different tribes, and in 1789, nine inhabitants of the territory were 5,000 persons were killed in Symmes' pur- in number, with eight organized counchase. Block-houses were built by the ties. The territory was then entitled, by alarmed settlers, and Major Doughty, the ordinance of 1787, to representatives with one hundred and forty men from in a territorial legislature, the first meet. Fort Harmar, Marietta, in June, 1789, ing of which took place in Sept., 1799. commenced Fort Washington, the site Wm. Henry Harrison, then secretary of of the present city of Cincinnati. The the territory, and since President of the Indian aggressions still continuing to United States, was at that time elected intimidate them, General Harmar with to Congress. 1,300 men marched against their towns, In 1802 Congress authorized a conand attacked them, but was unsuccess- vention to form a state constitution; it ful, and retreated back to Cincinnati. In assembled at Chillicothe, and on the

Indian Wars--State Constitution-Nature of the Soil.

309

29th November adopted and signed a and sandstone that lie above and below constitution of state government, by them, constitute a soil of great excelwhich act Ohio took her place amongst lence, that has within itself the renovatthe states of the Union. The first Gene- ing power to prevent its exhaustion under ral Assembly under the state constitution the most constant culture. When thowas held at Chillicothe in 1803. In 1805 roughly tested, seven-eighths of the soil the United States acquired, by another of Ohio will be found well adapted to the Indian treaty, the portion of the reserve permanent production of wheat. of Connecticut lying west of the Cuya- On the south-east and south, Ohio has hoga river, and in subsequent treaties a river-shore four hundred and fifty miles the Maumée and Sandusky regions were in length, which is visited by steamers ceded by the Indians, thus extinguishing from four to eight months of every year. all their claims in Ohio. In 1811 the Its interior streams, though worthless for Indians, after a series of outbreaks, were navigation, are invaluable as feeders for defeated by General Harrison, then canals, and for the water-power which governor of the Indiana territory, at the they almost everywhere afford. By far famous battle of Tippecanoe. During the greatest concentration of capital is this same year the first steamer ever in the south-western portion of the state, launched upon the western waters made in and around Cincinnati. Cleveland the voyage from Pittsburgh to New-Or- and the country around it may be ranked leans. In 1816 the seat of government the second in the state for wealth and was removed from Chillicothe to its business; Zanesville forms the third present location at Columbus, situated focus of wealth, and on account of the in the centre of the state, upon the fine beds of coal and iron in the surScioto river.

rounding country, bids fair to become It would seem almost superfluous to extensively engaged in manufacturing. speak of the fertile character of the soil Tfumbull, Ashtabula, Geauga, and of Ohio, but there are some varieties, Portage, are rich in fine cattle and the owing to geological formation, which productions of the dairy. The southmay be properly noticed. That part eastern and central counties constitute which has transition lime-rock for its at present the most productive wheat upper stratum is of course possessed of a region in the United States. The Scioto soil remarkably durable, and well adapt- valley is distinguished for its corn, cattle, ed to wheat and grass. This portion and hogs, which it produces in great embraces nearly half of the state, the abundance. The north-western quarter eastern line of it commencing at the of the state is too new to have acquired lake, near the mouth of the Huron river, much wealth of any kind; but when and passing in a southerly direction, well settled it will be second to none but leaves Columbus a few miles east, and the south-west, and it may even overtouches the Ohio river in Adams county, take that rich and beautiful section. Its All lying west of this line is emphatic position for commerce and manufactures cally a limestone country. A great part is remarkably good, and its soil will yield of the ten counties constituting the Con- abundantly all the productions grown in necticut Reserve is based on shale and other parts of the state. sandstone, and although good land, and Ohio has twenty-five millions of acres capable of producing, with careful cul- nearly every acre of which may be ture, all kinds of grain and fruit suitable cheaply brought into tillage, and its to the climate, yet, lacking calcareous average fertility exceeds that of the best matter in the soil, it is less fertile than interval lands or primitive countries. If the rest of the state. The middle and it were all under culture in wheat, it south-eastern section of Ohio is much might produce five hundred millions of more uneven than the western and nor- bushels, being nearly five times as mucb thern, the streams having carried away as is grown in the United States. It the earth to a greater extent, because it fully able to sustain in comfort and 1 was from its nature less able to resist the piness ten millions of people; and action of flood and frost. This great that number it would average but section has the debris of the lime strata, the square mile, or one person that lie in the coal series, scattered on 24 acres. In climate we belie i was all its hill sides and valleys; and min- state equals it for mildness Disions gling with the debris of the beds of shale ity. Its winter cold ap

heat are greatly tempered on the north feet deep, where it is met by the Indiana by the extensive body of water which portion of the same size to Fort Wayne. bounds it in that direction, and its The Wabash and Erie canal in Ohio, southern part has the advantage of the with its side-cuts, is 91 miles long. The soft breezes from the Gulf. Taken as Miami canal, which joins it 84 miles a whole, it is probably not excelled, if it above Defiance, is 170 miles in length, is equaled, in the healthfulness of its and has navigable feeders: 1st, the Sid climate by any sister state. Its position ney feeder, 13 miles; 2nd, the Warren among the states would seem to give it county canal, 22 miles; and the Whitea better title to be called the Keystone water canal, 25 miles-in all, 321 miles State than Pennsylvania; for it holds a of navigable canal within the western middle ground between the north-east part of the state, and terminating at the and north-west; and should Canada be- western extremity of Lake Erie. come an integral part of this country, From the above it appears that Ohio Ohio will be more central than any other has within her borders, including the stale. Before that time arrives, she bids three-mile Milan canal, 920 miles of fair to have more natural and artificial navigable canals, built at an expense of ways of intercourse, connecting her with seventeen millions of dollars." the north and south, the east and west,

TOLLS RECEIVED IN 1851. to the farthest bounds of the nation, than 20 any other of the confederacy. The Ohio Muskin

Ohio Canal....

$436,009 91 Muskingum improvement

48,418 30 river gives her southern border cheap Hocking Canal.

11,814 87 intercourse with all the states of the

(Walhonding Canal...

2,615 42 Miami and Erie Canal......

357,494 25 Mississippi basin, extending westward to the foot of the Rocky Mountains, Total.............................$856,352 75 southward to the Gulf, and north to the RAIL-ROADS.-Ohio stands second in Falls of St. Anthony Lake Erie fur- number of miles of rail-road in operation, nishes to her northern counties still su- New-York having 2,150, and Ohio 1,418. perior facilities for intercourse with the Pennsylvania has 1,211, Massachusetts, north-west to the 49th degree of latitude, 1,140, and Georgia stands next, 857.and towards the north-east to the ocean, New York has 1,004 miles in progress, and by means of the Erie canal to the and Ohio 1,736, placing the Empire and eastern states. Her artificial ways to Buckeye states on precisely the same connect these natural highroads, and to figures, when roads completed and in give all portions of her people easy access progress are added-3,154 miles. We to them, are honorable to her industry give from the American Rail-road Journal and enterprise. The Ohio canal, begun the roads completed and in progress in in 1825 and completed in 1832, is 309 Ohio:miles long, 40 feet wide at the water sur

RAIL-ROADS'IN OHIO. face, and 4 feet deep. Its branches, be

Names of Rail-ronds.

pleted. ginning at the south, are: 1st, the Co

grens

Cleveland and Columbus.... lumbus feeder, 9 miles long; 2nd, the

Columbus and Lake Erie.....

60.... Hocking canal, 56 miles; 3rd, the Mus- Dayton and Springfield branch.... 24....

Findlay Branch..

16... kingum improvement, 91 miles; 4th,

Little Miami... the Walhonding canal, 25 miles; 5th, Mad River...

134.... the Canton side-cut, 19 miles; and the Sandusky and Mansfield ....

56.... Xenia and Columbus ......

54.... Mahoning canal, 81 miles—making in

Bellefontaine and Indiana. all 596 miles of artificial navigation in Cincinnati and Marietta.. eastern Ohio, terminating in Cleveland. Erie and Kalamazoo

Springfield and London ... and touching the Ohio river at Ports

Cleveland and Pittsburgh ......... 100.. mouth and Marietta The Mahoning Cleveland, Norwalk

Cleveland, Norwalk and Toledo.....

87...

Cleveland, Painsville and Ashtabula canal is connected with the Pennsyl

Columbus, Urbana and Piqua.......

Cincinnati, Wilmington & Zanesville makes a continuous line of artificial

Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton....

Dayton and Western ... highway to Philadelphia. The Wabash

Greenville and Miami..... and Erie canal, from its eastern termi. Hamilton and Eaton .....

Hillsboro' and Cincinnati. nation to its junction with the Miami,

Ironton........ 68 miles, is more than double the size of Junction.. the Ohio; and thence to the state line. Ohio and Indiana...

Ohio and Mississippi.... 20 miles, it is fifty feet wide and five Ohio and Pennsylvania...

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Miles com.

In pro

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135....

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84....

72....

131

Tolls-Rail-roads-Coal-Agricultural Productions, fc.

311

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Average wages per month males.......

Miles com- In pro

Miles com- In pro- The following tables are from the cenNames of Rail-ronds.

pleted. gress. Ohio Central.....

82 sus report of 1850: Scioto and Hocking Valley........

90 Steubenville and Indiana.....

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONS OF OHIO.

150 Springfield, Mt. Vernon, & Pittsburgh

110 Acres of land improved.....

.: 9,730,650 Dayton and Michigan ......

140 Value of farming implements and maHudson and Akron branch..

50 chinery ...........

$12,716,153 Cincinnati and Dayton.....

• Value of live stock.................... $43,276,187 Carrollton branch

Number of bushels of wheat...... 14,967,056 Tuscarawas branch ...

Indian corn......

59,788,750 Wheeling and Wellsville.

38..
Pounds of tobacco.....

10,480,967 Pounds of wool...

10,089,607 Total ...........................1,418 1,736 Wine (gallons).

44,834 Butter (pounds)...

34,180,458 COAL.—“Rich as Ohio is in her arable

Cheese (pounds)..

21,350,478 Hay (tons)...............

1,360,636 lands and in their vast product of grain, Dew-rotted hemp (tons)....

628 she is not more so in that than in her mi

Water-rotted hemp (tons).....

464

Flaxseed (bushels).................... neral resources. It is almost impossible to Maple sugar (pounds)..........................

185,598

4,521,643 estimate the amount of coal in the state. Value of home-made manufactures..... $1,696,601 It is nearly incredible when we come to

NUMBER OF MANUFACTORIES. estimate it in a single county. Take, Cotton.............. 8 Pig iron............. 35 for example, the county of Tuscarawas, Woolen..............130 Wrought iron....... 11 on the Ohio canal. This county has 550

Castings.............183 square miles, and coal inay be obtained

COTTON GOODS, on every mile of it. In Professor Ma- Capital invested..

....... $297,000 Bales of cotton...

4,270 ther's valuable Report on Geology, it is Tons of coal..

2,152 estimated that this county has imbedded Value of raw material....

... $ 237,060

males...... 132 in it more than eighty thousand millions of Number of hands employed

females.....

269 bushels of coal !-enough to supply the

Average wages per month females.... state, should its population be quadrupled

$9 05 " Value or entire product...

$394,700 for centuries to come. So the county of Yards of sheeting, &c...

250,000 Muskingum can furnish ten thousand Pounds of yarn......

433,000 millions of bushels. These are interior

WOOLEN GOODS. counties, which at present supply almost Capital invested...

$870,220 nothing compared with the counties of Pounds of wool used ...

... 1,657,726 Tons of coal.....

2,110 Meigs, Athens, and Summit. Coal may Value of raw material.

$578,423 be found in twenty counties-comprising Number of hands employed

s males .....

903 females....

298 a belt, commencing on the Ohio river,

Smales ...... $20 14 from the Scioto to the Hockhocking, and Average wages per month females..... $10 44 stretching a little east of north to the Value of entire products....

1,111,027 Yards of cloth manufactured ...

1,374,087 Lake. The principal mines are those Pounds of yarn......

65,000 of Pomeroy in Meigs county, Nelson

PIG IRON. ville, in Athens, and Tallmadge, in Sum

Capital invested........................$1,503,000 mit; but coal is mined in small quanti- Tons of ore used........

140,610 Tons of mineral coal .............

21,730 ties in various other places in the coal Tons of

Bushels of coke and charcoal.....

5,428,800 region.”

Value of raw material, fuel, &c...

$630,037 The following tabular view of the Number of hands employed...

2,415 Average wages per month....

$24 48 increased product of coal, compiled from

Tons of pig iron made, ...

52,658 statistical documents, is very nearly Value of entire products .......... ....$1,255,850 correct:

CASTINGS. In the above-mentioned number of Capital invested.

... $2,063,650 counties :

Tons of pig iron.

37,555 “ of old metal.

1,843 Years, No. of bush. Years. No. of bush. " of ore..

2,000 “ of mineral coal.....

30,006 1840............ 2,382,368 1847............3,084,823

Bushels of coke and charcoal...

355,120 1843 ...........2,907,805 1848............6,538,968

Value of raw material, fuel, &c

$1,199,796 Number of hands employed..

2,758 The comparison shows that:

Average wages per month...

$21 32 Tons of castings made.....

37.399 From 1840 to 1843 the increase was...... 24 per ct. Value of other products...

$208,700 1843 to 1847

of entire products...

..$3,069,350 # 1847 to 1848

WROUGHT IROX. By the year 1860, the coal production Capital invested.

$620,800

Tons of pig metal....... of Ohio will probably exceed twenty Tons

13,675 of blooms used....

2,900 millions of bushels per annum.

“ of mineral coal..

22, 755

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