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Number of Churches-Value of Church Property.

221

337

No. of

Aggregate accom- Average accom Total value of As'age val. Denominations. Charches.

modations

modations Church property. of property. Methodist........

12,467..
4,209,333.

14,636,671.

1,174 Moravian.....

331
112,185. ... 338...

443,347.

1,339 Presbyterian....

4,584.
2,040,316.

445
14,369,889.

3,135 Roman Catholic.....

1.112.
620,950.
558. .. 8,973,838.

8,069 Swedenborgian ..

15.....
5,070.
338.
108,100.

7,206 Tunker .........

52....
35,075......... 674....

46,025.

885 Union.......

619....
213,552 ... 345....

690,065... 1,114 Unitarian......

253..
136,367

565.
3,268,122.

13,449 Universalist ...

494...
205,462.

415..

1,767,015... . 3,576 Minor Sects....

325.
115,347
354

741,980......... 2,283 Total.................... 36,011 .........13,849,896......... 384.........$86,416,639.......... $2,400

By the annexed tables it will be seen merce, it has seemed proper, while exthat the total value of church property hibiting the actual condition of agriin the United States is $66,416,639, of cultural industry in the middle of the which one half is owned in New York, century, to present in connection thereMassachusetts and Pennsylvania. In with some history of the character, inthe tables we specify the principal out troduction and increase of the most im. of more than one hundred denominations portant of the agricultural productions of returned, although between some of these our country, and of their former and prethere are but slight shades of difference sent commercial consequence to ourin sentiment, or form of church govern- selves and other governments. Realizment. About thirty are returned as ing that all human life is dependent “African," thirty as "Independent," and upon it, and that the earth would be twenty as “Protestant," without distin- nearly depopulated by a year's failure, guishing them more particularly. These nearly all the nations of the earth, from and all the churches not properly classed the remotest period, have maintained under the heads given, are included in institutions preëminently calculated for “Minor Sects." All the varieties of the promotion of agriculture, honoring Baptists, Methodists and Presbyterians husbandry, and encouraging the adare included under their general heads, vancement of the science. except where distinctly specified.

Agriculture is now fostered by the There is one church for every 557 free nations of the continent of Europe ; it inhabitants, or for every 646 of the en- is publicly taught in institutions detire population.

signed for this special purpose, and in The average number the churches many of their colleges; and the result will accommodate is 384, and the ave- has been that, as formerly, while the rage value is $2,400.

ancients encouraged agriculture, and it Churches are more numerous in pro- received the attention of orators, and portion to the population, in Indiana, its praises and precepts were recited Florida, Delaware and Ohio, and less nu. by the bards and sung by the poets, merous in California, Louisiana and Iowa. and monarchs participated in its labors,

Those in Massachusetts are the larg. learning and agriculture went hand in est, and have the greatest average value. hand, so that the greatest geniuses of the

The preceding tables present interest- age identified themselves with its proing facts respecting the relative value motion; so in these later years, where and size of the churches in the several properly fostered and encouraged, it has states, and those of different denomina- received the attention of some of the tions. They also show the number of greatest intellects and scholars who churches to the total population.

have striven to throw most light upon AGRICULTURE.—As agriculture is a this "grand art of rendering mankind branch of industry coeval with the his- happy, wealthy and powerful." tory of mankind, its connection with the In view of what has been done by general welfare of the nation so intimate, other nations, of the little which has its reciprocal bearing on manufactures been accomplished by the official docuso immediate, both admitted to form the ments of our country, and in view of the base of prosperity and power of the peo- fact that we possess no regularly organple-as it is a branch of science, the ized office for the dissemination of agriprosperity of which, in all its resources, cultural information, although such an affects individuals of every order, and establishment was urged by Washington, without which there could be no com- and many of his successors in office to

the present time, it is hoped that the de- reciprocally, and lead to a more general votion to this subject of more space than and perfect sympathy. The subject is needed for a mere table of figures repre- one worthy a more able pen, and I senting our products of agriculture will would shrink from the task, conscious of be tolerated, and that you will approve inability to do justice to the subject, did the short history attempted for each of I not suppose that this feeble effort may our great productions of agriculture, well present points of practical value, for em. calculated as such an account will be to bellishment by those better adapted for make our people better acquainted the duty. with the importance of their productions

STATEMENT SHOWING THE NUMBER OF ACRES OF IMPROVED AND UNIMPROVED LAND, IN FARMS, CASX VALUE THEREOF, AND AVERAGE CASH VALUE PER ACRE IN EACH STATE, ETC.:

Cash value of land, Aeren of im. Acres of unimproved

improved and States.

proved land.
land in farms.

Total.

unimproved. Maine .......... 2,039,596.... 2,515,797.

4,555,393 ...,

$54,861,748 New Hampshire ....

2,251,488.
1,140,926.
3,392.414.

55,245,997 Vermont ..........

2,601,409.
1,524,413.
4,125,822.

63,367,227 Massachusetts ....

2,133,436.
1,222,576.
3,356,012.

109,076,347 Rhode Island

356,487.
197,451
533,938

17,070,802 Connecticut ......

1,768,178.

615,701
2,383,879.

72,726,422 New-York ..... 12,408,968.... 6,740,120. 19, 119,088..

554,546,642 New Jersey.

1,767,991

984,955
2,752,946.

120,237,511 Pennsylvania .....

8,628,619
6,294,728
14,923,347..

407,876,099 Delaware..

580,862
375,282
956,144.

18,880,031 Maryland .....

2,797,905.
1,836,445.
4,634,350.

87,178,545 District of Columbia

16,267
11,187...
27,454.

1,730,460 Virginia.... 10,360,135.. 15,792,176. 26,152,311..

216,401,441 North Carolina ...... 5,453,977. 15,543,010 ....

20.996,987..

67,891,766 South Carolina ..

4,072,651
12,145,049.. 16,217,700..

82,431,684 Georgia.... 6,378,479. 16,442,900.

22,821,379..

95,753,445 Florida.

349,049.
1,236,240,
1,585,289.

6,323,109 Alabama.....

4,435,614.
7,702,067
12,137,681..

64,323,224 Mississippi ....

3,444,358.
7,046,061
10,490,419.

54,738,634 Louisiana..

1,590,025.
3,939,018.. 5,529,043

75,814,398 Texas ....... 639,107. 14,454,669. 15,093,776.

16,398,747 Arkansas

781,531
1,816,684

2,598,213...... 15,235,245 Tennessee

5,175,173

13,808,849.... 18,984,022.... 97.851,212 Kentucky

11,368,270

10,972,478.. 22,340,748... 154,330,262 Ohio.

9.851,493.
8,146,000...... 17,997,493..

358,756,603 Michigan.

1,929,110,
2,454,780...... 4,383,890.

51.872,446 Indiana...

5,046,543.
7,746,879.... 12,793,442

136,385,173 Illinois......

5,039,545.
6,997,867.... 12,037,412...

96,133,290 Missouri...

2,938, 425.
6,794,245,
9,732,670...

63,225,543 lowa ........

824,682.
1,911,382
2,736,064....

16,057,567 Wisconsin.....

1,045,499.
1,931,159
2,976,658.

28,528,563 California.

62,324
3,831.571...... 3,893,895..

3,874,041 Minnesota Territory.

5,035.
23,846..... 28,881

161.948 Oregon ...

132,857.
299,951..
432.808.

2,849,170 Utah..........

16,333
30,516..... 46.849..

311,799 New Mexico ..........

166,201
124,370....
290,571..

1,653,952 Aggregate....................118,457,622. ........184,621,348........303,078,970........$3,270,733,093

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States.
Maine..
New Hampshire ....
Vermont ..........
Massachusetts...
Rhode Island .....
Connecticut.
New-York .....
New Jersey
Pennsylvania...
Delaware.
Maryland ......
District of Columbia
Virginia .............
North Carolina.....
South Carolina..
Georgia .........
Florida......
Alabama.
Mississippi...

Ay'ge canh

Ar'ge ench value

value per acre. States.

per Aere. $12 04 Louisiana........

313 71 .... 16 28 Texas

1 09 15 36 Arkansas......

5 88 32 50 Tennessee.... 30 82 Kentucky ... 30 50 Ohio 29 00 Michigan.... 43 67 Indiana ..... 27 33 Illinois ..... 1975 Missouri ....

.. 6 18 81 lowa........ 63 03 Wisconsin.... 8 27 California ........ 3 23 Minnesota Territory .. 5 08 Oregon do. 4 19 Utah

do.
3 99 New Mexico do

30 Average cash value per acre, including
22 States, Districts, and Territories... ...$10 79

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Lands Farming Implements Domestic Animals.

223

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IMPROVED LAND.-The statement un- prices of labor so low, as to create less der this head in the agricultural table necessity for such machines; and noshows that the average quantity of im- where does the same amount of ingenuproved land, by which is meant only ity appear to have been exercised in their such as produce crops, or in some man- preparation as is evinced with our mener add to the productions of the farmer, chanics and husbandmen. is about seven and one-third acres to In some portions of the old world each inhabitant; but as perhaps two- where the necessity is felt and acknowlfifths of the population live in towns and edged by the intelligent, a predominatvillages, and are engaged in other pur. ing prejudice not unfrequently exists suits than those of agriculture, the pro- among others in the community against portion of improved land to be assigned what is new, and prohibits the introducto each person occupying or working it tion of anything not stamped with the may be assumed to be not less than approval of their ancestors, nor covered twelve acres. In the New England with the venerable moss of antiquity. States, the average for the whole popu- Here, however, no such sentiment influlation is a little more than four acres to ences the farmer to reject a useful inveneach person ; in New-York and Pennsyl. tion. vania, three and nine-tenth acres ; in the No greater delight was enjoyed by other Middle States the same. In Vir- foreigners in London, during the great ginia the proportion is about seven Industrial Exhibition, than that by Ameacres ; in South Carolina, six acres; in ricans on the trial of the reaping maKentucky, twelve acres; and in Tennes- chines and the triumphant success of see, five acres. The cash value of the the American Reaper. Of the whole farms in the United States is set down sum expended in articles of this charat $3,270,733,093.

acter, New-York has invested $22,084,UNIMPROVED LAND.-This return is 926; Pennsylvania, $14,722,541; Louto be understood as including the unim. isiana, $11,576,938' (perhaps to a great proved land connected with or belonging extent in machinery for crushing sugarto those farms from which productions cane); Ohio, $12,750,585; Kentucky, are returned. In the present unsettled $5,169,037; Virginia, $7,021,772. state of large portions of the country, DOMESTIC ANIMALS.—When we conthis classification is of less practical sider the social condition of nations, long utility than it will become at a future congregated and civilized, and necessaday, when similar returns will enable rily existing under the impulses of utilius to form calculations respecting the tarianism, it is not surprising that man, quantity of land brought into requisition whether possessing a permanent abode, annually for agricultural purposes. The or having emigrated to a distant land, preceding table exhibits the quantity should become attached to those animals and value of the improved and unim. which have proffered to him their perproved land belonging to the farms and fect obedience, sagacity, courage, plantations of the several states, and of strength, velocity, milk, fleeces, flesh, course it includes the value of the build. &c., and should regard them with admiings thereon.

ration, gratitude, and even affection. VALUE OF FARMING IMPLEMENTS AND Such, doubtless, was the case with most MACHINERY.-For no stronger proof of of the adventurers who first sought a new the ingenuity and activity of the Amer. home on our shores, and brought with ican mind need we search, than that de. them those animals which would render veloped in the readiness with which la- them the most assistance and subserve bor-saving expedients for carrying on the the best purposes for clothing and food. commonest operations in agriculture are The first animals introduced into Amediscovered and applied. One hundred rica from Europe were by Columbus, in and fifty-one millions of dollars would his second voyage, in 1493. He left appear to be at this time invested in im. Spain as admiral of seventeen ships, plements and machinery for aiding and bringing a collection of European trees, abridging the work of the hands in cul- plants, and seeds of various kinds, a nnmtivating the earth and in preparing its ber of horses, a bull and several cows. produce for consumption. In most civil. The first horses brought into any part ized countries of the old world, so great of the territory at present embraced in is the density of the population, and the the United States, were landed in Florida by Cabeza de Vaca, in 1527, forty-two in poultry and swine. Hence it may be number, all of which perished or were concluded that their importation folotherwise killed. The next importation lowed soon after the first settlement in was also brought to Florida by De Soto, 1620. In the year 1629, one hundred in 1539, which consisted of a large num- and fifteen cattle were brought over in ber of horses and swine, among which the "Grand Embarkation," besides some were thirteen sows, the progeny of the horses and mares, several conies, and latter soon after increasing to several forty-one goats. hundreds.

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In 1750, the French of Illinois were in The Portuguese took cattle and swine possession of considerable numbers of to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, in horses, cattle, and swine. . the year 1553. Thirty years after theyThe present stock of the United States had multiplied so abundantly, that Sir consists of the offspring of the animals Richard Gilbert attempted to land there first introduced into the country; the to obtain supplies of cattle and hogs for crosses of the original breeds with one his crew, but was wrecked.

. another, or the intermixture of the proSwine and other domestic animals geny of these crosses with those of more were brought over to Acadia by M. L. recent importation and the pure-blooded Escarbot, a French lawyer, in 1604, the animals brought directly from Europe, year that country was settled. In 1608 or the crosses of these with one another. the French extended their settlement in- The principal breeds of horses adaptto Canada, and soon after introduced va- ed for specific purposes, in the middle, rious animals.

northern, and western states, are the In 1609, three ships from England Norman, the Canadian, the Morgan, the landed at Jamestown, in Virginia, with Conestoga, or Pennsylvanian, the Virmany emigrants and the following do- ginian, and the Kentuckian. For carmestic animals, namely, six mares, one riages of heavy draught, the Conestogas horse, six hundred swine, five hundred are regarded by many as the best. For domestic fowls, with a few sheep and the saddle, draught, and other useful goats. Other animals had been previ. purposes, the Morgans are highly prized, ously introduced there. In 1611, Sir especially in New York. For roadsters, Thomas Gates brought over to the same the Normans and Canadians are fresettlement one hundred cows, besides quently sought. For blood, the Virginother cattle. The year following Sirians and Kentuckians generally take the Ralph Lane imported some cows from lead. the West Indies. In 1610, an edict was Among the various races of cattle exissued in Virginia prohibiting the kill- isting among us, where strict regard is ing of domestic animals of any kind on paid to breeding, with a definite object penalty of death to the principal, burn- in view, a preference is given to the ing the hand and loss of the ears to the Durhams or Short Horns, the Herefords, accessory, and twenty-four hours' whip- the Ayrshires, and the Devons. The ping to the concealer.

Durhams, from their rapid growths, earAs early as the year 1617, the swine ly maturity and capability of taking on had multiplied so rapidly in the colony fat, are adapted only for high keeping, that the people were obliged to palisade or to the richest pastures of the middle Jamestown to prevent being overrun and northern states, and those of Ohio, with them. In 1627, the Indians near Kentucky, and other parts of the west. the settlement fed upon hogs, which had The males, when judiciously crossed become wild, instead of game. Every with the other breeds, or with the comfamily in Virginia, at that time, who had mon cows of the country, often beget the not an abundance of tame hogs and poul. best of milkers, and for this purpose they try, was considered very poor. In 1648, have been especially recommended. some of the settlers had a good stock of The Herefords, on the contrary, from bees. In 1657, sheep and mares were their peculiar organization, are better forbidden to be exported from the prov. adapted for poor or indifferent pastures, ince. By the year 1722, or before, sheep and regions subject to continued drought; had somewhat multiplied, and bore good and for this reason they are well suited fleeces.

for California, New Mexico, Texas, and As early as 1629, the Plymouth colony other parts of the South. The oxen of of Massachusetts possessed cattle, goats, this breed are good in the yoke, and the

Varieties of Sheep, Swine, Cattle, and Horses.

225

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cows, when properly fed, give an abun- swine; in 1830-1, 2,184 horses, 1,540 dance of milk. The Ayrshires are best mules, 5,881 cattle, 8,262 sheep, and'14,suited for a cool, mountainous region, or 690 swine; in 1840–1, 2,930 horses, a cold, rigorous climate. They succeed 1,418 mules, 7,861 cattle, 14,639 sheep, well in Massachusetts, New-Hampshire, and 7,901 swine ; in 1850–1, 1,364 horses, and Vermont, and are highly prized for 2,946 mules, 1,350 cattle, 4,357 sheep, their tameness, docile tempers, and rich and 1,030 swine. milk. The Devons, from their hardi- According to the census returns of hood, comparatively small size, and pe- 1840, there were in the United States culiar structure, appear to be adapted to 4,336,669 horses and mules ; 14,971,586 almost every climate and to all kinds of neat cattle, 19,311,374 sheep, and 26,pasturage. From their stoutness, good 301,293 swine; of 1850, 4,335,358 horses, tempers, honesty, and quickness of ac- 559,229 asses and mules, 28,360,141 tion, they make the best teams, and in horned cattle, (including 6,392,044 milch this respect their chief excellence con- cows and 1,699,241 working oxen,) 21,sists. The cows make fair milkers, and 721,814 sheep, and 30,316,608 swine. their flesh very good beef. They also Horses.- In the tables of 1840, horses, possess great aptitude to take on fat. mules and asses were returned to

The kinds of sheep most sought for are gether; in those of the last census, the the pure-blooded Merinos, the Saxons, number of horses is given in one cothe Cotswolds, the Leicestershires, the lumn and asses and mules in another. Oxfordshires, and the South Downs. The The increase in the aggregate number Merinos, including the Rambouillets, the of these three classes of animals, duCotswolds, the Liecestershires, the Ox- ring the ten years, was 559,053. It is fordshires and the Saxons, are the most presumed the greatest increase has ochighly prized for their wool. The South curred in the number of mules. Many Downs are particularly esteemed for the suppose that the great extension of railexcellence of their flesh, and their wool roads has, a tendency to dispense with is valuable for many purposes, on ac- the use of large numbers of horses; but count of the facility with which it can one very good reason for the small apbe wrought.

parent increase in the number of horses The prevailing breeds of swine in the exists in the fact, that the enumeration middle, northern, and western states are of 1850 omits all in cities, and includes the Berkshire, the Leicestershire, the all or mainly such as are employed in Suffolk, the Essex, the Neapolitan and agriculture or owned by farmers. In the Chinese. From these and other va. New-York, where there are less than rieties, various crosses have been pro- a thousand mules, there appears to be a duced, the more important of which are decline in the number of horses and the Byfield, the Woburn, the Bedford, the mules together of 26,566; in PennsylGrass and the Mackay. The Neapoli. vania of about 13,000; in New-England tans are particularly well adapted for a of 17,000, or more than twenty-five per Southern climate.

cent., while in all these states rail-road In 1627, the plantations on James conveyance has almost superseded the river contained about 2,000 head of use of horses for traveling purposes. On horned cattle, goats in great abundance, main routes we would more readily atand wild hogs in the forest without num: tribute the apparent diminution to the ber. In 1639, there were in Virginia omission to enumerate the horses in 30,000 cattle, 200 horses, and 70 asses; cities and towns than to any superseding and in 1648, there were 20,000 cows, of horse-power, which the opening of bulls and calves, 200 horses and mares, rail-roads would often bring into requisi. 50 asses, 3,000 sheep, 5,000 goats, swine, tion in various other operations. In Ohio, both tame and wild hens, turkeys, ducks and the new states of the Northwest, and geese innumerable. There were the increase of horses has kept pace exported from Savannah, in 1755, 48 with that of the population. The four horses and 16 steers and cows; in 1770, and a quarter millions of these noble 345 horses, 30 mules and 25 steers and animals in the United States constitute cows; and in 1772, 136 steers and cows. a proportion of one to five of the inhaIn 1820-1, there were exported from the bitants. New-York has one horse to United States 853 horses, 94 mules, 5,018 seven persons; Pennsylvania, one to six horned cattle, 11,117 sheep, and 7,885 and six-tenths; Ohio, one to four; Ken

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