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Artificial Ventilation-Preservation of Health.

211

air.

are of ten to those who use them. Many the temperature could receive any modi. millions worth of real estate, both in fication desired. A spiral tube passing town and country, would be doubled in through the water at the bottom of a value, could they be made secure against well, with ice added, if necessary, would the annual and occasional visitations of lower it, or through fire or other warm epidemics engendered by bad air. One medium, raise it sufficiently for all purtenth of the sums paid by those living poses of comfort or health. The same in such infected districts, for their annual fire might warm as well as expel the air migrations in search of salubrious air, from an apartment. This kind of venwould bring it to their permanent homes. tilation would be most used in warm la

For want of a few mouthfuls of pure titudes where insects are so annoying air, large tracts of the most fertile portions and sometimes dangerous to existence. of the globe now lie waste under the The air-tight sleeping apartments necesviewless poison that broods over their sary to exclude impure air would cut off teeming surfaces.

these troublesome intruders. Artificial ventilation would protect, Science would also come in for its not only against periodical contamina- share of benefits. It would test the tions of the air, but those epidemics power of various fluids to disinfect the which run to and fro the earth on the air in its passage through them. By extrackless air, with woe and desolation in perience we could soon know to what their train, might often be defied. Sur- height the air is usually contaminated rounded by the pure air brought from with impurities, what pestilence walketh above, on the distant hills, the prudent in darkness, and the destruction that citizen could, like Noah in his ark, be wasteth at noonday, and many other in security, while consternation reigned secrets of the viewless and mysterious without

Besides the general preservation of There can be no doubt but that more health, the use of air in the way above than half the ills which flesh is heir to indicated, might be made for other pur- are born of adulterations of the inoderous poses hardly less valuable.

air. There is a plan by which this great It might be made a most efficient source of human calamity may be agent in the restoration, as well as pre- greatly mitigated if not entirely exterservation of health. In the way directly minated; and though new, it does not noticed, a patient could have his room, rest on speculation. That air can be, in summer as well as winter, of any de- and is moved from one place to another, sired temperature, could have a dry or is as certain as that water can be made moist atmosphere, and for the cure of to change its position; that it can be many diseases, foreign particles might moved without being contaminated by be added, carrying healing on its wings the surrounding impure air is equally to diseased humanity. Dr. Cartwright, certain ; and, I apprehend, no one will in the last December number of this Re- doubt that, whether breathed in a bedview, tells us how important the vapor room, on the hills, or two or three hunof sugar boilers is in some fatal diseases. dred feet from the earth, it is equally inInstead of sending invalids thousands of offensive to our lungs, and healthy to miles from their comfortable homes to our systems. inhale the saccharine vapor amidst theW e form large companies with heavy discomforts of a sugar-house, a few canes, capitals to supply our cities with gas, to sent even to the coldest latitudes, with a send to the hills for pure water and disvery simple contrivance, added to the tribute them through pipe to our houses. ventilating pipes before mentioned, might With much less expense the more nebe made to infuse their healing particles, cessary air might be brought to our in graduated quantities, through the rooms to be used like water by the turn most luxurious apartments.

of a faucet. We bore the solid earth It is manifest, this forced ventilation many hundred feet for water of a quamight be made to minister greatly to lity to suit our fancy, and by tubes conthe comfort, nay, the luxury of our race. duct it uncontaminated through interThe ventilating pipes should be laid so vening currents to our dwellings. With deep in the earth as to obtain an equable half the expense, and to half the numtemperature winter and summer. By ber of feet, we might tube the empty air passing them through proper mediums to those regions which would furnish a

fluid whose purity is of as much, if not those who went to deride remained to more importance, to our healthy exist. admire the facility with which the Clerence, than unadulterated meat and drink. mont started on the first steam voyage But the tell-tale impurities of food and up the Hudson river; how rail-roads, even drink usually give warning to the senses, after many miles, in the United States, the taint of corruption or adulteration is had been put in operation, were promade manifest in their use, while the nounced failures by the croaking public, subtle poison may lurk concealed in the and how the theories of almost all proinvisible and inodorous air, as the uncon- jectors have, in the end, fallen short of scious subject regularly, as the pulsations practical results, no plausible improveof his heart, inhales disease and death. ment should be abandoned without a We no doubt appreciate meat and drink fair trial. the more because their use gives a sen- I believe it was Theodore Hook who, sible enjoyment or pain, while the taste- when asked, on entering a university, if less air gives no indication of its quality. he was prepared to subscribe the thirty

Knowing how most discoveries and nine articles, replied, “Forty, if you improvements have surpassed the expec- please." So it seems we would be nearer tations of the most sanguine; how the right to expect more from the improve. propulsion of water-craft by steam powerments of the day than what is required of was considered a humbug from the time us. For there is much yet to be known of Watt to the 7th of August, 1807, when of which our philosophy has not dreamed.

ART. III.-THE OITY OF LOUIS VILLE, KENTUOKY. As incidents in the history of indivi- produced commercial wants-commer. dual life form the basis of observational cial wants, a city. philosophy, so the histories of particular T he city of Louisville, in the State of cities become the groundwork of the Kentucky, is situated on the Ohio River, most accurate general system of mercan- opposite the falls of the river, on a plain tile investigation, or, as Saunderson ex- well suited to the purpose, about seventy presses it, of “Merchandry."

feet above the level of the river, lon. * The cities of America are distinguish- 850 30' west; lat. 38° 3' north. "The ed in a remarkable particular, in con- soil is sandy, extremely fertile, and restnection with the light they throw upon ing upon a substratum of rich clay. It the philosophy of trade and commerce, is laid out with considerable regularity, from the cities of Europe, growing out of the principal streets running parallel with the fact that they are, almost without the river, and being intersected by others exception, the children of commercial at right angles. It has a present popula. necessity. Cities in Europe have fre- tion of 51,726 :quently grown up from other causes.

In the year 1800 the population was... 600 T'he residence of kings, the salubrity of

1820...................... 4,000 certain localities, and other romantic

1840....

21,000

1850, over ..., considerations, enter into the elements, and of course form a part of the history These are striking results. of European towns. But the history of The first owners of the lands at the an American city is a legible line in the falls were John Campbell and John Conhistory of trade. An American city, as ally. They were patented to them proa general rule, receives its birth, its con- bably as bounty lands. But the first tinual growth and advancing prosperity settlement having anything like a perfrom the one and common parent of manent character was made in 1778, by commerce. To this general observation Col. G. R. Clark, a name of some disthe city of Louisville is no exception. It tinction in the early history of Kentucky. became a town because of the falls. Clark's instructions came from the ceThe falls in the Ohio river arrested the lebrated Patrick Henry, the Gov. of course of navigation, and made a stop- Virginia, and are dated Virginia-Sct. page there necessary. This stoppage In council, Williamsburg, Jan. 22, 1778.

.

......... 50,000

Early Character of Kentucky-Virginia Enactment.

213

A few families were located by him upon acre each, with convenient streets, and Corn Island, opposite Louisville. Soine public lots, which shall be, and the same conception of the nature of the danger and is hereby established a town by the name singular hardihood of the early settlers of of Louisville.” Thus, we perceive, the this state may be derived from the fact, city of Louisville in the county of Kenthat these few families were removed into tucky became a town by authority of the heart of an Indian territory, several the General Assembly of the State of Virhundred miles from the nearest point of ginia. The statute proceeds further to protection from their countrymen, and enact “that after the said lands shall be when the intervening country was filled laid off into lots and streets, the said truswith a savage foe.

tees, or any four of them, shall proceed to There is probably no country in the sell the said lots, or so many of them as world where the lovers of local or indivi. they shall judge expedient, at public aucdual adventure-the contests of man tion, for the best price that can be had, with his savage brother in the fierce ex- the time and place of sale being advercitement of the individual death struggle, tised two months at the court-house of with all its thrilling but minute particu- adjacent counties; the purchasers respeclars, can be gratified to the same extent, tively to hold their said lots subject to the both in the number and excitement of condition of building on each a dwellingthe incidents, as in the State of Kentucky. house, sixteen feet by twenty at least, The early settlement of the country was with a brick or stone chimney, to be characterized by conflicts between indi- finished within two years from the day of vidual members of the two distinct sale." The statute proceeded to grant races, or by small parties of each, rather the amount of sale of lots over thirty dolthan by any one general decisive en- lars per acre to purposes of public imgagement by which wars are usually provement in the town, and to vest in the terminated. But the Kentucky war was trustees the judicial power" to settle and a war of extermination, more properly determine all disputes concerning the carried on by the individual members of bounds of the said lots; to settle such the two races, than by any decisive set- rules and orders for the regular building tlement of subsisting disagreements in a thereon as to them shall seem best and general fight. It was a war ever begin- most convenient." ning, and never ending. In no countryA n important feature of the early in the world probably have human geography of Louisville, was the many beings shot down human beings with a ponds of standing water, that so matemore evident gusto and more complete rially contributed to give the place the absence of remorseful visitings of con- cognomen of the grave-yard. The first science.

and most conspicuous, commencing at The following passages from an enact. the present corner of Market-street, ran ment of the General Assembly of Virginia, to Sixteenth-street. The next in size was passed in May, 1780, for “establishing known as Grayson's Pond, beginning on the town of Louisville at the falls of Centre-street, and running towards Ohio, may not be without interest. Seventh-street. The fish within this

"Whereas sundry inhabitants of the pond, its clear water, its edges covered county of Kentucky have, at a great ex- with firm grassy turf, the many relipense and hazard, settled themselves gious services of baptism performed upon certain lands at the falls of Ohio, in it, and the many promenades around said to be the property (thus reads the act) it, evening and morning, by the élite of of John Conally, and have laid off a con- the city, made it quite a favorite; but it siderable part thereof into half-acre lots has given way in the progress of the for a town, and having settled thereon, city's wealth, and is now obliterated. have preferred petitions to this general Besides these, there were others of less assembly to establish the said town. Be magnitude scattered over the face of the it therefore enacted, that one thousand country, that would well entitle the city, acres of land, being the forfeited property in the language of Mr. Cassedy, to be of said John Conally, adjoining to the called an "archipelago, a sea full of litlands of John Campbell and Richard tle islands." These "have all been Taylor, be and the same is hereby vested carefully drained, or filled up, and now in (sundry trustees) to be by them, or any the city will stand a favorable comparifour of them, laid off into lots of half an son in this regard, so closely connected

VOL. XIV.

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with health, with any city in the istic account of this Bois de Boulogne of world.

Louisville : In proof of which, the following table, “This important place," says he, with carefully made, will be full evidence. that directness of detail so peculiar to

the worthy Doctor, “is situated two In Louisville the deaths are

miles below Louisville, immediately at " Philadelphia, " New-York

the foot of the rapids, and is built upon # Boston

the beautiful plain or bottom which com« Cincinnati " Naples

" 29 mences at the mouth of Beargrass Creek, « Paris

« 33

through which, under the brow of the " London

39 " Glasgow

second bank, the contemplated canal

will in all probability be cut. The town In May, 1780, the General Assembly originally consisted of forty-five acres, of Virginia divided the county of Ken- but it has since received considerable adtucky into three counties respectively, ditions. The lots are 75 by 144 feet, the the counties of Fayette, Lincoln, and average price of which (1819) is from Jefferson. In the latter county Louisville forty to fifty dollars per foot, according to was situated. In the month of July, the advantages of its situation. The 1790, the convention of Kentucky met, streets are all laid out at right angles ; and determined to accede to the offers of those that run parallel to the river, or Virginia, with respect to the emancipa- nearly so, are eight in number, and vary tion of the counties of Kentucky and their from 30 to 90 feet in width. These are elevation to the position of an indepen- all intersected by 12-feet alleys running dent state. On the 14th of February, parallel to them, and by fifteen cross1791, the act of Independence was passed streets at right angles, each sixty feet by Congress. The new constitution for wide. The population of Shippingport the new state was prepared in 1792. may be estimated at 600 souls, including About this time terminated the hostilities strangers." It has greatly faded from its of the Indians. The assessment of the original promise, and is now little more town in 1809 was about $991.

than the faubourg of the city of LouisIn 1799, Louisville was declared by ville. The canal spoken of by Dr. act of Congress to be a port of entry. McMurtrie has been since completed. This put an end to much smuggling, the The Louisville and Portland canal is city of New Orleans then being in a for- about two miles in extent. The fall to eign country.

be overcome is computed to be about Under the protection of the legislature twenty-four feet, produced by masses of of Kentucky, the town of Louisville was lime-rock, through which the entire bed placed upon much more efficient police of the canal is excavated, a part of it to regulations than formerly, and many the depth of 12 feet overlaid with earth. wise and salutary enactments were pass. The following description of this work, ed for the improvement of the town, the begun in 1826, and prepared for navigabuilding public edifices, and a new sur- tion in 1830, and costing $750,000, is takvey and plot of the town were made out en from the Encyclopædia Americanaby legislative authority.

article, Louisville. It corresponds also The town of Shippingport at one time precisely with a description given by threatened to rival Louisville in point of Mr. Ben Casseday :commercial importance. But its geo. “There is one guard and three lift locks graphical position and the start which combined, all of which have their founLouisville had already taken, were of dation on the rock. There are two bridthemselves sufficient to defeat the very ges, one of stone, 240 feet long, with an strenuous efforts that were made by pri- elevation of 68 feet to the top of the parvate individuals, at great sacrifices, to apet wall, and three arches, the centre build up this town. It is one of the many one of which is semi-elliptical, with a proofs that there is an under current reg- transverse diameter of 66, and a semiulating the business of city-making, that conjugate diameter of 22 feet; the two private wealth and enterprise cannot al- side arches are segments of 40 feet span, ways govern or control.

the other is a pivot bridge, built over the The very interesting sketches of Louis. head of the guard lock, and is of wood, ville, published by Dr. McMurtrie, in 100 feet long, with a span of 52 feet, in1819, gives us the following character- tended to open in time of high water as

McMurtrie's and Casseday's Sketches-Louisville Canal.

215

boats are passing through the canal. The Recurring again to the canal, it may guard lock is 190 feet long in the clear, be interesting to the curious to know that with semi-circular heads of 26 feet in in excavating it there were found bodies diameter, is 50 feet wide, and 42 feet of trees in a state of partial decay, many high. The solid contents of this lock human skeletons in an astonishing conare equal to those of 15 common locks, dition of preservation, many implements such as are built on the Ohio and New- of stone, and indeed some of wood, some York canals. The lift locks are of the of iron, are indicative of some advancesame width with the guard lock, 20 feet ment in the mechanic arts—some trees high and 183 feet long in the clear. The of cedar, not found anywhere in that entire length of the walls, from the head region, together with fire-places and of the guard lock, to the end of the outlet charred wood, or carbon. In a particular lock, is 921 feet. There are three cul- locality there were found many hundreds verts to drain off the water from the ad- of flint arrow-heads, constructed by the jacent lands, the mason-work of which, Indians for purposes of hunting or dewhen added to the locks and bridge, fence. gives the whole amount of mason-work Mr. Mann Butler informs us that many 41,989 perches, equal to about 30 com- mineral springs, some of them possessing mon canal locks. The cross section of the invaluable ingredient of iron 90 the canal is 200 feet at the top of the much prized in cases of debility of the banks, 50 feet at the bottom, and 42 feet digestive apparatus, presented themhigh, having a capacity equal to that of selves in more places than one, during 25 common canals.

the excavation.-13,776 steamboats and “The Louisville and Portland canal 4,700 flats and keels had passed through was completed and put in partial opera- the canal in 1843, the tolls of which tion on the 1st of January, 1831, from amounted to $1,227,625 50. which time up to June 1st of the same Louisville became a city by an act of year, 505 boats of different descriptions the Kentucky Legislature, passed 13th passed its locks. A bank of mud at its Feb., 1828. mouth, which could not be removed last Mr. Casseday informs us that “a .winter, from the too sudden rise of the writer in the Focus for January 20, water, will be removed at the ensuing 1829, gives an idea of the commerce of • period of low water, when the canal can Louisville in regard to certain leading

be navigated at all times by all such articles at this period.” He says, that vessels as navigate the Ohio. The Ohio, “from the 1st January, 1828, to 1st Jawhen the water is lowest, is not more nuary, 1829, there were received and sold than two feet deep in many places above in this place 4,144 hogsheads of sugar and below the falls, and rises 36 feet and 8,607 bags and barrels of coffee, perpendicular above the falls, opposite to amounting in value to $584,681. He also the city, and 60 feet perpendicular rises fixes the inspections of tobacco in Louishave been known at the foot of the falls. ville at 2,050 hhds. for 1826, 4,354 hhds. An appropriation of $150,000 by the for 1827, and 4,075 hds, for 1828. The aveUnited States was made last winter rage price of these was—for 1826, $2 67, (1830), by which the low places in the for 1827, $2 59, and for 1828, $1 9814. river are to be improved so as to give The whole value of these for the three four feet of water, in low water, from its years was $468,672 88. 1,140 of these mouth to Pittsburgh.

were shipped to Pittsburgh, 3,048 to New"Louisville has been allowed by tray- Orleans, 320 manufactured here, and elers and strangers," this same account 458 were stemmed. continues, "to be one of the greatest A writer in the Kentucky Reporter thoroughfares in the Union. At least also adds to this information the follow50,000 passengers arrive here annually ing statement : “ The store-rooins of the from below, and it is reasonable to con- principal wholesale merchants are clude half that number pass through it larger and better adapted to business descending. Great bodies of emigrants purposes than any to be found in the from the east and north pass through it, commercial cities of the East. Not a and it is not uncommon in the autumn to few of them are from 100 to 130 feet in see the streets filled for days together with depth by 30 wide, and from three to four continued processions of movers, as they stories high, and furnished with fireare called, going to the Great West.” proof vaults for the preservation of books

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