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Postmaster-General's Report-Paid and Unpaid Letters.
The whole number of paid and un- The whole amount of postages, inland, paid letters which have passed through sea and foreign, on letters and other the post-offices of the United States, mailable matter, received and sent by during the last fiscal year, was 95,790,- the several lines of United States mail 524.
steamers, during the last fiscal year, was Of those passing through and from as follows, viz : places in the United States, exclusive of By Collins line, New-York and Liver. California and Oregon, there were :
................. $228,867 61
ing at Southampton, England ... 77,219 87 Unpaid ......
..............32,672,765 By New-York and Hayre line, touching Paid by money..........................18,448,510 at Cowes......
80,804 08 Paid by stamps,..
...........31,897,750 By Charleston and Havana line........ 11,958 99 Free...........
.......... 3,146,000 These were conveyed by
The postal arrangements with Canada European steamers...
............ 4,421,547 Havana steamers .............
99,372 and New-Brunswick have been in sucCalifornia steamers........ Number of dead letters unpaid.......... 2,635,909
5,493,537 cessful operation during the year, and Number of dead letters paid.
*444.091 have been found convenient and useful. Number of newspapers and other pack
The amount of postage on letters sent ages of printed matter chargeable with
from the United States to Canada was : Number of exchange newspapers........ 7,073,548 Unpaid.. Newspapers circulated free within the
Unpaid ......................$31,034 66
.24,707 31 counties where published, estimated... 20,000,000
— $55,741 97 Number of letters conveyed byCunard line of European steamers....... 2,758,096 On letters received: Collins line do do.....
963,692 Bremen line
...$25,377 08 Havre line
.............. 22,144 60
- $47,521 08 Amount of postages collected from Col
ins and Cunard lines...... ........ $794,440 58 or which was collected in the United
The amount of postage collected on States............................... 463,615 98 letters sent from the United States to or which was collected in Great Britain 325,824 60 New Number of dead letters returned to
4400 New-Brunswick was : Great Britain.......
..$2,356 38 or which 21,589 were paid, and 12,959
2,778 71 unpaid.
$5,135 09 Amount due to the United States there
$13,541 32 On letters received: Number of dead letters received froin Great Britain...
38,505 Unpaid ...................... $1,784 07 or which 9,800 were paid, and 28,645
............. 1,893 40 unpaid. Amount due Great Britain thereon..... Number of dead letters returned to
The Havre line are complaining that Bremen ....
3,801 their receipts are but $12,500 per trip, Namber of dead letters received from
whilst that of Collins receives $33,000 Bremen.......
per trip. They show that, in addition MAIL SERVICE.
to their having performed their mail
service as efficiently as could be exTransportation, States.
Cost pected with the limited means allow. Maine.....
177,528... $15,397 ed them, the exports from Germany to New Hampshire.....
16,498 this country have increased since they Vermont ............ 270,660..... 31,508 Massachusetts ...
1,276,912... 101,320 commenced running from $3,000,000 Rhode Island .....
86,112.... 8,612 to $10,000,000, that the number of emi. Connecticut
30 grants is increasing, and the gross sum
262,830 New Jersey....
307,320... 49.122 which they at present bring to this counPennsylvania ..
71,165 try amounts to $15,000,000 annually. Maryland ....
671,632. 100.674 A postal convention has been closed Virginia
366,946. 73,393 with Prussia, providing for a closed mail, North Carolina
53.571 South Carolina
16 in each direction between the two counGeorgia ........
820.071. 116,989 tries, twice a week, via London and Michigan ......
601,120.. 83,958 Ostend. New-York and Boston are the Indiana.....
22,511 Illinois .....
9,164 offices of exchange on the part of the Kentucky...
8,840 United States, and Aix la Chapelle is Tennessee..
o the corresponding office of exchange on
43,316.. 5,950 the part of Prussia. Louisiana.....
By this convention a uniform postage Total..................11,082,768 $1,275,520 rate of 30 cents, prepayment of which is
optional in either country, is established rangement between the United States for all letters not exceeding half an and the West Indies generally, and ounce in weight between the two coun- points on the coast of Mexico and northtries. Six cents is the rate established ern coast of South America, at which for each newspaper, to be prepaid. This the British mail-packets touch. To the convention also provides for the trans. British West Indies, the United States mission of mails, not only through Ger- single rate of letter postage, which must many, but also through the United States be prepaid on letters sent from and colto countries beyond, and has induced lected on letters received in the United the department to discontinue the closed States, will be ten cents where the dismail to Bremen. It is estimated that tance from the mailing office is under the countries, including the German two thousand five hundred miles, and Austrian Postal Union, which are thus twenty cents when the distance exbrought into postal communication with ceeds two thousand five hundred miles. the United States, embrace a population To the West Indies, (not British,) Mex. of seventy millions.
ico, and South America, by this chanAs a necessary consequence of our nel, the British postage of twenty-four convention with Prussia, the larger part cents the single rate, also required to be of the continental correspondence, which prepaid, must be added to the ten or formerly went by the way of Bremen, is twenty cents United States rate, accord. now sent via London, Ostend, and Aix ing to distance as above. This arrangela Chapelle-the latter being the more ment, it is expected, will go into effect expeditious route. The mails for Bre- without delay. men, however, and such as may be ad- In accordance with the wishes of the dressed via Bremen to other German Hawaiian government, arrangements states and countries beyond, will con- have been made by which letters for tinue to be dispatched monthly by the the Sandwich Islands are dispatched in New-York and Bremen line.
sealed packets by each mail-steamer A project of a postal convention be- from New York, and conveyed through tween the United States and Belgium to Honolulu without being opened. has been prepared and submitted by the On all letters and newspapers for these department for approval to the Belgian islands, however, as well as to China, by government, and it is confidently expect. this route, it is required that the United ed that in the course of a few months, at States postage to San Francisco be prefarthest, an arrangement, which shall paid. be mutually advantageous, will be duly On the subject of the Navy Departsanctioned and put in operation. ment we make use of the language of
Our postal convention with Great the President, which condenses the leadBritain has not yet been so modified as ing particulars of the report : to admit of the exchange of a closed "The report from the Navy Department mail with France via England; the will inform you of the prosperous condiBritish government, with reference to tion of the branch of public service comeach mail, still insisting on a transit mitted to its charge. It presents to your postage of twenty-four cents an ounce. consideration many topics and sugges
France has manifested a disposition tions of which I ask your approval. It for improved mail facilities with this exhibits an unusual degree of activity in country, and has made proposals for a the operations of the department during postal treaty with the United States, to the past year. Preparations for the Japan operate independently of our treaty with expedition, to which I have already alGreat Britain. It is hoped that they luded; the arrangements made for the may be conducted to a favorable issue exploration and survey of the China seas, at an early day. Connected with this the northern Pacific and Behring's project, France proposes, in conjunction Straits; the incipient measures taken towith the United States, to establish a wards a reconnoissance on the continent union line of mail steam-ships direct be- of Africa, eastward of Liberia; the pretween New-York and Havre.
paration for an early examination of the Under our postal treaty with Great tributaries of the river La Platte, which Britain additional articles have been a recent decree of the provisional Chief agreed upon, and are ready for signa- of the Argentine Confederation has ture, providing for a regular mail ar- opened to navigation,—all these enter
Organization of Seamen-Department of the Interior. 163 prises, and the means by which they are whose fidelity to their duties may be reproposed to be accomplished, have com- lied upon in such an emergency. The manded my full approbation, and I have exposure to this increased and arduous no doubt will be productive of most use- labor, since the passage of the act of ful results.
1850, has already had, to a most observ"Two officers of the navy were here. able and injurious extent, the effect of tofore instructed to explore the whole ex. preventing the enlistment of the best tent of the Amazon River, from the con- seamen in the navy. The plan now fines of Peru to its mouth. The return suggested is designed to promote a conof one of them has placed in the posses. dition of service in which this objection sion of the government an interesting will no longer exist. The details of this and valuable account of the character plan may be established in great part, if and resources of a country abounding in not altogether, by the Executive, under materials of commerce, and which, if the authority of existing laws; but I have opened to the industry of the world, will thought it proper, in accordance with the prove an inexhaustible fund of wealth. suggestions of the Secretary of the Navy, The report of this exploration will be to submit it to your approval... communicated to you as soon as it is “The establishmentof a corps of apprencompleted.
tices for the navy, or boys to be enlisted "Among other subjects offered to your until they become of age, and to be em. notice by the Secretary of the Navy, I ployed under such regulations as the select for special commendation, in view Navy Department may devise, as proof its connection with the interests of the posed in the report, I cordially approve navy, the plan submitted by him for the and commend to your consideration. I establishment of a permanent corps of also concur in the suggestion that this seamen, and the suggestions he has pre. system for the early training of seamen sented for the re-organization of the Na- may be most usefully engrafted upon the val Academy. .
service of our merchant marine. "In reference to the first of these, I take "The other proportion of the report to occasion to say, I think it will greatly which I have referred, a re-organization improve the efficiency of the service, and of the Naval Academy, I recommend to that I regard it as still more entitled to your attention as a project worthy of your favor for the salutary influence it must encouragement and support. The valuexert upon the naval discipline, now able services already rendered by this greatly disturbed by the increasing spirit institution entitles it to the continuance of insubordination, resulting from our of your fostering care." present system.
The expenditures of the Secretary of “The plan proposed for the organiza- the Interior were, for 1853, $5,695,328 tion of the seamen, furnishes a judicious 04, and for 1854, $4,921,025 71. substitute for the law of September, 1850, He states the quantity of land disposed abolishing corporeal punishment, and of during the past year as follows : sold, satisfactorily sustains the policy of that 1,553,071 ; located under bounty waract, under conditions well adapted to rants, 3,201,314; aggregate disposed of maintain the authority of command, and for all purposes, 13,115,175 acres. the order and security of our ships. It is The whole number of pensioners is believed that any change which proposés now 18,868, exclusive of navy pensionpermanently to dispense with this mode ers, 726 in number. Number on the of punishment, should be preceded by a rolls of Mexican war pensioners, 1,123. system of enlistment which shall supply We have extracted in another place the navy with seamen of the most meri- from the census report, and shall comtorious class, whose good deportment and plete the subject in consecutive numbers. pride of character may preclude all oc- By reference to the Treasury Departcasion to resort to penalties of a harsh or ment, the cost of the publication of the degrading nature. The safety of a shipand sixth census was as follows: crew is often dependent upon immediate
To amount paid Blair & Rives for obedience to a command, and the author publishing 10,000 copies of staity to enforce it must be equally ready. tistical returns...............$137,316 64
To amount paid Blair & Rives and "The arrest of a refractory seaman in
Allen & Co. for 30,000 copies of such moments not only deprives the ship compendium..
Cost of binding.......... of indispensable aid, but imposes the ne
........ 16,712 97 cessity for double service on others,
Aggregage cost of publication..$178,803 47
Lippincott & Co. now propose to pub- ceeded in partially restoring quiet and lish 10,000 copies of the statistics of the peace. So long, however, as the species seventh census, in two folio volumes of of border warfare, which has lately been 1,000 pages each, on fine type and paper, carried on in that region, between the well bound with Russia backs, for the inhabitants of the two countries, conaggregate sum of $49,500 dollars, being tinues, it will be difficult, if not impossible, less than one-third of the amount paid with any number of troops, and with the for the publication of the sixth census. strictest vigilance on the part of their
The general principles of our patent officers, to prevent, on so extensive a system seem to have met with universal frontier, a repetition of these disorders. approbation, and to have been attended In New Mexico the depredations of the with beneficent results in practice. Since Indians have been entirely arrested. the organization of the office, in 1836, it The Navajos and the Apaches, the two has advanced with rapid strides. At most formidable tribes in all that region, that date, one “examining clerk” was have been completely overawed, and enabled to make all the preliminary in- manifest every desire to be at peace vestigations which were required to as- with the whites. In consequence of certain whether the applicant was en- frequent collisions between the Indians titled to a patent; but such has been the and the white inhabitants of California increase of the business, that six prin- and Oregon, it was deemed advisable to cipal examiners and as many assistants send the 4th regiment of infantry to the are not now able to keep pace with it. Pacific, to replace the mounted riflemen The number of models in the office on that had been ordered thence to Texas. the 1st day of January, 1836, was 1,069. Intelligence has been recently received In the beginning of the year 1851 they that the Yuma Indians, a bold and hoshad increased to 17,257, and at the close tile tribe, occupying a portion of country of the present year they will fall but lit- on the Gila and Colorado rivers, whose tle short of 23,000. If they should con- inroads and depredations have been the tinue to increase in this proportion, mak- source of frequent annoyance and alarm ing no allowance for the augmentation to the inhabitants both of our own terriconsequent on the increase of population, tory and of the Mexican State of Sonora, by the close of the present century they have agreed to a peace. will amount to 150,000, and the whole of The 'troops stationed on the frontier the present patent-office edifice will not may justly be considered as in active be sufficient for their convenient display. service-á service, too, in which they
The Secretary of War states that 8,000 are exposed to all the hardships and out of 11,000 officers and men on the dangers of war, without its excitement rolls of the army, are employed in the to stimulate or its hopes of honorable defences of Oregon, California, New distinction to sustain them. Mexico and Texas, and of emigrants to What policy, however, it may be the two former. Texas, with the excep- deemed proper to adopt in reference to tion of a portion of the Rio Grande, has the Indian tribes in Texas, California been exempted from Indian depreda- and Oregon, is a question only of humantions. The outrages on the Rio Grande ity or temporary policy, as the period are attributed to the lawless expeditions cannot be very remote when they will of Caravajal, whose men, after his de- be swept before the resistless tide of feat, dispersed through the country, and emigration which continually flows resorted to plunder for subsistence. On towards those countries. the other hand, many of the inhabitants The case is different with regard to of Mexico either sought to avenge them. New Mexico. Her population, exclusive selves for the wrongs inflicted on them of wild Indians by the last census, was by that adventurer and his followers, or 61,000, and her real estate valued at found in his lawless proceedings a justi-' $2,700,000. To protect this small popufication for their own, and retaliated on lation, we are compelled to maintain a the peaceable inhabitants. The Indians large military force at an annual exin that vicinity availed themselves of pense nearly equal to half the value of the confusion and alarm consequent upon the whole real estate of the Territory. this state of things to renew their de- Would it not be better to induce the inpredations. Thefts, robberies, and even habitants to abandon a country which assassinations were the consequence. seems hardly fit for the habitation of Our troops, however, have finally suc- civilized man, by remunerating them
River and Harbor Improvements
for their property in money or in lands the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico have situated in more favored regions ? been assigned to the corps of engineers,
Attention is next called to the state of and those on the northern and western our defences on the sea-coast, no appro- rivers to the corps of topographical priation having been made for fortifica- engineers. It is believed that this artions by Congress in 1850. It is suggested rangement will eminently conduce to that Congress adopt some mode of the speedy and economical execution of revising the plan for fortifications adopt- the works. ed by the Board of Engineers in 1816, The Secretary repeats his suggestions which is now believed is on too extensive of last year : a scale.
First. That the Department be authorIn the mean time, however, there are ized to abolish such arsenals as are no a number of works which have been longer needed, and are a source of use. commenced, and are in various stages of less expense. advancement, but the prosecution of Second. That an additional number of which is suspended for the want of commissaries be authorized. necessary appropriations. Most of these Third. That a retired list of the army works are highly important, being in- be established, as a measure of justice, tended for the protection of our principal both to the officers that are disabled and sea ports and naval stations, viz. : Boston, to those that are not. New-York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Nor Fourth. That the distribution of arms folk, Charleston, Savannah, Pensacola, among the militia of the States and Mobile and New-Orleans, or other points Territories under the act of 1808, be of scarcely less importance. These made hereafter on the basis of the free points, at whatever expense, should be white male inhabitants of age to bear rendered impregnable to any force arms, as shown by the latest census, inbrought against them. Appropriations stead of the official returns of the militia, to complete most of them, if not all, are which are frequently not furnished, and strongly urged.
when furnished, are often inaccurate. The works to protect New-Bedford The following statistics of the late and San Francisco, now both entirely presidential election are worthy of predefenceless, should be constructed ; and servation, and should be studied as a the Board have suggested that a fortifi- part of the civil and statistical history cation at Sandy Hook, to protect the the country: outer harbor of New York is necessary. ELECTORAL VOTE.-For Scott: Ver
One of the most important and re- mont, 5; Massachusetts, 13; Kentucky, sponsible duties which have devolved 12; Tennessee, 12; total, 42. For on the Department during the present Pierce : Maine, 8; New-Hampshire, 5; year is the execution of the works known Rhode Island, 4; Connecticut, 6; Newas the river and harbor improvements. York, 35; New-Jersey, 7; Pennsylvania,
The number of works for which appro- 27; Delaware, 3 ; Maryland, 8; Virginia, priations were made by the act recently 15; Alabama, 9; Louisiana, 6; Missispassed is about one hundred, and the sippi, 7; South Carolina, (legislature sum appropriated about two millions and elects,) 8; Wisconsin, 5; Indiana, 13; a quarter. The appropriations, however, Illinois, ií; Ohio, 23; Michigan, 6; will only in a few instances be sufficient North Carolina, 10; Georgia, 10; Texas, to complete the works for which they 4; California, 4; Florida, 3; Arkansas, were made. By far the greater number 4; Missouri, 9; Iowa, 4; total, 212. will require additional, and some of them Jackson's (Dem.) majority in 1828, very large additional, appropriations to 95; in 1832, 152; Van Buren's, 1836, complete them. It is to be presumed 46; Harrison's (Whig) in 1846, 174; that, even if Congress should not see fit Polk's (Dem.) in 1844, 65; Taylor's to continue the system and to provide for (Whig) in 1848, 36; Pierce's' (Dem.) in other works of a similar character, not 1852, 212, included in the present act, they will at Total popular vote in 1852, 2,923,394 ; least finish the works that have been to which, if the votes of counties not yet begun. The superintendence of the received, be added, there will be an agwork has been confided to the two corps gregate vote of 3,000,000. of engineers and topographical en- The abolition vote, from 292,828, has gineers, both of which are eminently fallen down to (about 150,000; and in qualified for this duty. The works on 1844, was 62,692.