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represented to have been "adult and public support. It appears, from a reable-bodied paupers," amounted to more port of Mr. Duchatel, Minister of Cointhan 477,000; and it is, on British author- merce, that 695,932' persons received ity, asserted that in 1848 more than public alms at their own houses. 2,000,000 persons in England and Wales The Netherlands, in 1827, with a popwere kept from starvation by relief from ulation of 6,167,000, contained 11 400 public and private sources. The total charitable institutions, which contributed public expenditure for the poor in Eng. to the support of 1,214,055 persons, about land and Ireland in 1848, amounted to one fifth of the entire population. $42,750,000. Within the past seventeen

Whole No. of pagyears, the poor-law fund expended in

pers who receiv.

ed support with Whole No. of Annual England and Wales amounted to $426,

in the year end - paupers on coat of 600,000. This enormous. expenditure,

ing Jupe list, lot of June, support accompanied as it is by immense private

States.

N'tve, Forin, Nitve. For's, in Maine.

4,553 950 3,269 326 $151.664 contributions, falls far short of relieving

N. Hampshire. 2,853 747 1,998 186 167,351

Vermont...... 2,043 1.641 1,565 314 120,462 While her population embraces a large

Massachusetts 6.530 9.247 4,050 1,490 392.765
Rhode Island. 1.115 1,446 492

45,837 number of persons of princely estates, Cor

Connecticut... 1.872 465 1,463 281 95.624

New-York....19.275 40.580 5,755 7.078 817,336 als of every variety of income, combin

New Jersey . . 1.816 576 1,339 239 93,110

Pennsylvania.. 5,898 5,653 2,654 1,157 232,138 ing with it ease, comfort, and elegance, Delaware..

Delaware..... 669 128 240

17,730 the statistics of the nation prove that the Maryland...... 2,591 1,903 1,681 320 71,668

Dis, of Col.... substratum of pauperism or want is of a Virginia.

185 4.356 102 151,722 magnitude alarming to the English mor- N. Carolina... 1,913 18 1,567

60,085

S. Carolina... 1,313 329 1,113 160 alist and thinker, as well as the states

48,337 Georgia.......: 978

8 825 29 27,820 man, and of an extent and nature har. Florida ..

58

937 rowing to all. The expenses of the or- Alabama...... 352

306

17,569 Mississippi....

245 ganized benevolent institutions of France Louisiana...

18,132

133 amounted, in 1847, to 52,000,000 francs. Texas .......

438 The number of distressed persons reliev.

Arkansas...... 97

6,888 Tennessee..

1577

30,981 ed amounted to about 450,000 annually. Kentucky... 971 155 690

57,543 We have no means of arriving approx. Ohio.......... 1,904

1,904 609 1.254 419 95,250 Michigan...... 649 541 218

27,556 imately at the number of paupers in indi

Indiana ...

860322 446 137 57,560 France, as the institutions above refer- Illinois ..... 376 411 279 155 45,213 red to are confined to the cities and ?

Missouri... 1,248 1,729

254 53,243 lowa......

35

5,356 large towns, while among the rural com . Wisconsin..

497

166 14,743 munes, which contain several millions California.....

Territories.... of landed proprietors, there are large numbers of persons in the receipt of Aggregato..66,434 68,538 36,916 13,437 2.954,806

a. ..... 4,933

13

218

12

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181

ART. V.-SHALL THE VALLEYS OF THE AMAZON AND THE

MISSISSIPPI RECIPROOATE TRADE?

The subject of South American trade, this great Amazonian water-shed are to and especially that of the great empire be developed, and the measures and of the Amazon, has been pressed by us steps which the policy of commerce in the Review, through the able pen of suggests for securing to the world the Lieut. Maury and others, with zeal and free navigation of the Amazon. earnestness for many months past, and The triumphs of commerce are peacenow that Congress is in session, we can- ful; its achievements are seen in the not allow the matter to flag. The fol- spreading of civilization, in the march lowing contribution presents many ad- of civil and religious freedom, and in ditional views which are new and the dispensation of thrift, prosperity, and striking, and deserving of serious con- wealth among nations, as well as to insideration :

dividuals. We now come to consider the means From the statements which I have al. and modes by which the resources of ready made, all must admit that the Free Navigation of La Plata-Fertility of Upper Amazon.

137

valley of the Amazon is not only a great Amazon and La Plata, be considered country, but it is a glorious wilderness rapid traveling. Here, therefore, is the and waste which, under the improve- commencement of a new era in the ment and progress of the age, would business and the commerce of those two soon be made to "blossom as the rose." river-basins; and the first merchantWe have, therefore, but to let loose upon steamer, as she plows up those majesit the engines of commerce-the steam- tic streams with her rich cargo of for. er, the emigrant, the printing-press, the eign merchandise, will be the signal for are and the plow-and it will teem with a revolution in the trade and traffic life.

which has been carried on there. There is a line of steamers from Eng. Three millions of dollars worth of land to Rio. The French are getting up produce now comes down the Amazon a line, and the stock has been taken in to Para it. from Marseilles to Rio. Brazil has a “The Peruvian portion of the Upper line from the mouth of the Rio de la A

la Amazon" where this line of steamers is Plata, via Rio, to the mouth of the Amazon. The mouth of the Amazon is half the

" to go; “is," said Castelnau, who was way between Norfolk and Rio. I peti

then on his way home, after traveling tioned Congress, at its last session, for

through the fairest parts of South Ameri

ca, “the most beautiful country in the the establishment of a line of mail

world ; its fertility is proverbial." steamers from some one of our southern

There ports to connect with the Brazilian line

is found the famous silk tree, which pro

dyces a staple like cotton to the eye, at Para, and thus put our merchants in

but silk to the touch. direct steamship communication with

There the labor

of one man is worth but two and a half Rio, Buenos Ayres and Montevideo, and so draw us closer to the Amazon.

yards of our coarse cotton stuff the

month--so abundant are the fruits of the The committee to whom the subject was referred reported in favor of it, and

earth, so scarce the fabrics of the shop brought in a bill for its accomplish

and loom, and so far has that country

been removed from the influences of ment. It was, however, not acted

commerce. It is now just about to be upon. But since that, events have occurred

brought within them. which make this line from the southBut what are the opportunities which still more important and necessary. Americans will have for getting a fair The tyrant Rosas has been expelled share of this new business to which the from the continent: the navigation of free navigation of the La Plata and the the Rio de la Plata and some of its no. introduction of steam upon the Amazon blest tributaries have been opened and wi

ad and will give rise? I reply, very small, unmade free to the world. This govern- less this southern line of steamers to the ment. with a most praiseworthy zeal, is Amazon be established; otherwise all fitting out a naval expedition to explore the intelligence from Brazil and the La those streams, and to make known their Plata, all the advices concerning the navigability and the commercial re- markets, will go direct to England and sources of the countries drained by them, to France by their steamers; and then, that our merchants may know how to after the merchants there shall have had send, what to sell, and what to buy some ten days or two weeks the start of there.

their American competitors in taking Brazil has contracted for two lines of advantage of that intelligence, it will steamers on the Amazon, from its mouth arrive here in the United States by the almost up to its sources. These Amazo. Cunard or Collins line of steamers from nian lines are to run-one monthly between Para and Barra, at the mouth of Now and then an American clipper, the Rio Negro, a distance of nine hun- happening at the mouth of the river, or dred miles; the other, connecting with in the offing at Rio, at the night time, this at Barra, is to ply between that city may chance to bring intelligence to the and Nauta, in Peru, a distance of near United States sooner than it can go to three thousand miles from the sea. Europe and then come over by steamer. "Poling up the Mississippi” would, in But that is uncertain. comparison to the means at present em- The free navigation of the Rio de la ployed for navigating the waters of the Plata is an achievement, and commerce is chiefly indebted to Brazil for it. As a proof that Brazil was not actuaHonor to Brazil, therefore. It is a gem ted by any of those really enlarged and in the crown of the emperor, which, if it liberal views which it is the policy of be tarnished not, will make his reign il- commerce to carry out, I point to the lustrious.

Amazon. There Don Pedro is the Rosas held the mouth of the river La Rosas. He holds the mouth of the Plata ; Brazil, Banda-Oriental, Paraguay, Amazon ; he shuts it up. Five soverand Bolivia, (all independent sovereign- eign and independent nations own its ties) owned navigable water-courses headwaters, and all of them have prov. which emptied into it; but Rosas would inces and people upon the banks of its not allow any of these powers to follow navigable tributaries; but not one of those waters through his part of the them is allowed to follow the course of river to the sea. Brazil made war with these navigable streams through Brazil. him, drove him out of the country, and ian waters to the sea. the first-fruits of the victory the com- Justice, the policy of commerce, the mercial world is about to receive, is the sentiment of the age, all the principles free navigation of those noble streams of national law and the rights of people,

With a quarrel more just than that are in favor of the free use of that river wicked one about opium, Brazil, in her by those five Spanish republics: and it triumph, followed the generous example cannot be said that Brazil acted from of England in opening the ports of Chi- principle in the case of the La Plata unna, without any claim to exclusive til she makes, of her own accord, the privileges.

• navigation of the Amazon free. * Brazil has not opened the ports of so Formerly there was a Rosas who populous a country as China, but she threatened to stand at the mouth of our has opened the water-courses of one with Mississippi, and we, who then owned which commerce will in a few years be the headwaters only, claimed, and were more valuable than it is with China. ready to assert with the sword, our right

These arrangements about the La to follow them, and to use them for comPlata navigation are not completed. merce and navigation, until they minThey are thought to be in a fair way of gled with and were lost in the sea. adjustment; and, therefore, in giving It has now not been quite four years honor to whom honor is due, I give it to ago since this subject of the free navi. the Emperor of Brazil, upon the suppo- gation of the La Plata and the Amazon sition that no untoward thing will occur was brought to the attention of this govto thwart the measure.

ernment. But the commercial world has been The proposition was, that we should sparing of its commendations of Brazil offer to Brazil our friendly mediation for her seeming liberality with regard to with Rosas, and use our kind offices to the free navigation of the La Plata. induce him to make free the navigation They say-and have, alas! but too of the La Plata, and so end the war. much reason for saying-that there was It was proposed, also, that we should no generosity, no liberality, no sign of treat with Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, New any fairness whatever, in the course of Grenada, and Venezuela, for ports of Brazil with regard to the navigation of entry to foreign vessels and commerce the La Plata. Bolivia, Paraguay, and up their navigable tributaries of the Banda-Oriental, they say, had each as Amazon, and thus turn upon Brazil with much right as Brazil to claim the free the same arguments for the free navigause of the La Plata for getting to sea tion of the Amazon that Brazil stood with their merchandise; and if, upon ready to urge in favor of her right to the fall of Rosas, Brazil had then at- navigate the La Plata. tempted to extort from Buenos Ayres Brazil got wind of this. She found any exclusive privilege in the use of out that such a thing as the free navigathose waters, she knew that not only tion of the Amazon began to form the would these republics-her next-door subject of conversation in commercial neighbors-all have turned against her, and political circles here, and she imbut that the three great commercial na: mediately took the most active steps to tions of the north would have stepped in render of no avail any attempt on our to prevent any such exclusive and sel- part having for its object the free navi. fish appropriation of Nature's highway. gation of the Amazon.

Navigation of the Amazon-Treaty between Peru and Brazil. 139

She redoubled her energies in the to Venezuela, New Grenada, and Ecuawar against Rosas, and she dispatched dor, are clearly set forth." in hot haste Ministers Extraordinary They were to frustrate any attempts and Plenipotentiary to Peru, to Bolivia, at treaty the commercial nations might to Ecuador, and New Grenada, and be disposed to make with these repubVenezuela, to treat with each of those lics touching river navigation, and to five Spanish-American Republics for seal up tighter than ever the great arthe erclusive right to navigate their teries of those countries, and thus perAmazonian tributaries.

petuate the stagnation and death that For the Portuguese, who had owned have for three hundred years reigned in the Amazon for ages, who had not had the great Amazonian water-shed. the power to make an impression upon Brazil seemed already to have forgotits forests, nor to launch a steamer upon ten that what was right on the south its bosom, to go and talk to the Bolivians side of the Tropic of Capricorn must be and others about sending steamers away right also under the Equator; for the up the main trunk of the Amazon, to same arguments that apply to the free paddle up and down the republican navigation of the La Plata apply also to spring-branches of the Spanish Ameri- the free navigation of the Amazon. cans, was truly a diplomatic phenome- Peru fell into the trap, and made the non! “You have an Athens, embellish required treaty; but the more sagacious that,” should have been their reply to statesmen of Bolivia got wind of the deBrazil.

sign, and not only refused to treat with I quote from the Rio correspondent of Brazil upon the subject, but the enlightthe “Observator”-a Brazilian news- ened President of that republic proposes paper-of May last. This correspondent to establish upon the Amazonian tribuappears to be in the secrets of the gov- taries of Bolivia free ports to all the ernment, and no doubt spoke the senti- world. ments of that jealous cabinet :

"Como los Brazileros," says a gentle“The navigation of the Amazon goes

man of Bolivia, writing as to this preon swimmingly: the government of

tension of Brazil to steamboat navigaPeru, by the convention of the 23d of

tion upon the rivers of Bolivia, “prelast October, made with our new minister, Duarte da Ponte Ribeiro, obliges

tenden el privilejio, y el Presidente Belzu,

ses bastante capas para conocer lo que le itself to assist the first enterprise estab

conviene a Bolivia, el se ha negado a dar lished upon the Amazon with a sum

dicha concesion, y espera qui los Estados never less than $20,000. "The government has named in quali

Unidos sevan los primeros en descubrier ty of resident minister, and for an ex

aquellos rejiones."*

Moreover, as the good genius of Amatraordinary mission near the govern- ,

zonia and free navigation would have it, ments of the republics of Venezuela,

ela, neither the Brazilian nor the Peruvian Ecuador, and New Grenada, our minister to Bolivia, Miguel Maria Lisboa.

- Plenipotentiary appeared to have a suffi

: cient knowledge of the subject of which The object of this mission is a treaty

by the two were treating. They evidently with those republics for the navigation of the Amazon, because, as I think, it is

knew very little of the navigability of

those waters, the monopoly of which feared that the United States will hasten

they aimed to secure. to arrange one for the navigation of

This treaty was secretly negotiated some of the tributaries of the Amazon, in

con, in Lima, last October twelve months, and thus judge themselves authorized to

to and was ratified in Rio two or three enter the Amazon from without, as the

the months ago only. I have a manuscript journals of New York and New-Orleans

ins copy of it before me. Its title is, “A already propose. We have been care

re- treaty of fluvial commerce and navigaless in this matter, and must now hurry tion and of boundary between the reabout it.

publics of Peru and the Empire of Bra* This nation of pirates, like those of their race, wish to displace all the people of America who are not Anglo

* « As the Brazilians claim the privilege, and as Saxons."

President Belzu understands the interests of Bolivia, in the matter, he has re used to make any

such concessions, and hopes the United States will sion to Peru and Bolivia, and of Lisboa's be the first to explore those regions."

The question of boundary was settled “ARTICLE FIRST.--The shareholders in two words: “ Uti possidetis."

of the steam navigation mentioned in I quote with regard to the river steam- the second article of the convention boat navigation :

concluded on this date, shall be bound “ ARTICLE FIRST.-The republic of to the following conditions: Peru and his Majesty the Emperor of “ 1st. That steamboats shall make Brazil, desiring to encourage, respec- three voyages the first year, four in the tively, the navigation of the river Ama- second, and at least six voyages in the zon and its confluents by steamboats, third, fourth and fifth. which, by ensuring the exportation of “When, owing to circumstances ari. the immense products of those vast re- sing from the great distance, obstrucgions, may contribute to increase the tion of the river, making experiments number of the inhabitants and civilize connected with its navigation, want of the savage tribes, agree that the mer. combustibles, or other weighty reasons, chandise, produce, and craft passing it may be impossible to make that numfrom Peru to Brazil, or from Brazil to ber of voyages, the shareholders shall Peru, across the frontier of both states, receive only five thousand dollars for shall be exempt from all duty, imposts, every voyage that the boats make during or sale duty (alcabala) whatsoever, tó the two first years, and three thousand which the same products are not sub- dollars for every one made during the ject in the territory where produced; to third, fourth and fifth. which they shall be wholly assimilated. "2d. They shall convey, free of

“ARTICLE SECOND.--The high con- charge, the mail-bags of the governtracting parties being aware of the ment and of the post-office, and deliver great expense attending the establish them at the places on the banks as they ment of steam navigation, and that it pass along, until the end of the voyage. will not yield a profit during the first “ 3d. They shall also convey every years to the shareholders of the company voyage, passage free, four civil, military, destined to navigate the Amazon from or ecclesiastical officers in the service its source to the banks (litoral) in Peru of each government; the luggage of - which should belong exclusively to these persons in quantity equal to that the respective states-agree to give to of other passengers, and the packages the first company which shall be formed that each government may in particular a sum of money during five years in aid wish to send, provided they do not exof its operations; which sum shall not ceed two tons. be less than twenty thousand dollars (4th. They shall be obliged to take annually for each of the high contract. on board or in tow the troops, ammuniing parties, either of whom may in- tion and effects, that the two governcrease the said amount, if it suits its ments may wish to send, receiving particular interests, without the other therefor an equitable remuneration—the party being thereby obliged to contri. amount of which shall be fixed as soon bute in the same ratio.

as it shall be ascertained what is the “The conditions to which the share- necessary cost of performing said serholders are to be subject, in considera- vice. tion of the advantages conceded to “ 5th. The company shall arrange them, shall be declared in separate ar- with both governments touching the ticles.

respective points on the river Amazon “ The other conterminous states, or Maranon to which the steamboats which, adopting the same principles, shall navigate, and concerning the ports may desire to take part in the enter at which they are to touch ; and it shall prise upon the same conditions, shall be subject to the fiscal and police regulikewise contribute a certain pecuniary lations, notwithstanding their being li

berated from imposts of every kind.

"ARTICLE SECOND.—Each government "SEPARATE ARTICLES.

shall grant to the company the pro“For the better understanding of Ar- priety of one-fourth part of a league ticle second of the convention signed this square, at the places in which it may be day, the high contracting parties have necessary to establish a depot for comfurther agreed to the following arti- bustibles, at any point not belonging to cles:

private persons; but the title to the same

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