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ed, and the balance of trade very heav- ence to which we have solicited atten. ily against us. The rivalry then was tion, it will be found that Norfolk, Virbetween this nation and our foreign ginia, is the point selected as the great markets, principally English. With a entrepot of southern commerce. The contracted trade and limited capital, and advantages of this selection have been that capital, limited as it was, principally too clearly and powerfully portrayed by foreign, our position among the commer. the writers to require further illustracial nations of the earth was, indeed, pit- tion. If the South will, with one heart iable. To remedy this deplorable state of and one hand, unite upon this point, things, to lessen the ruinous balances of Norfolk will in a very few years prove a trade against us, was a subject well-cal. successful rival of New-York in comculated to attract the attention and ex- mercial enterprise. cite the energies of every patriot citi- Timid men will talk of the disproporzen. New-York took the start in this tion of northern and southern capital laudable and patriotic enterprise. Her the abundance in the North, the sparcity success has vastly exceeded our most in the South, and quote upon us the sanguine expectations, and has totally old mercantile dogma, (not less erroneous changed our position among the com- than old,) that capital would attract and mercial nations of the earth. We are command commerce. The converse of not now in a pitiable condition; our this old mercantile dogma is literally sails whiten every sea, our commerce true - commerce attracts, and compenetrates every port. With boundless mands capital. Surplus production is capital, and daily increasing commer- necessary to commercial relations; and cial resources, the day cannot be distant wherever that surplus product can be when we shall stand first on the list brought to a practicable mart, capital of commercial nations. This radical will most certainly seek and find it. It change in our position as a commercial is unnecessary to go into an elaborate nation, has given rise to a perfectly new argument to prove the correctness of this rivalry, not foreign, but purely domestic; position. We have it too clearly deit exists at present between the North- monstrated in the unexampled growth of ern and Southern sections of our fede- new towns on our lakes and western ration.

waters. Regarding this position as Up to the present time the northern conclusively settled, our attention is section has enjoyed almost the whole next directed to the character and quanprofits accruing from our foreign trade, tity of surplus southern production. The giving to that section an amount of ca- production of cotton and sugar we know pital equal to a successful prosecution of is confined to the southern section of our the whole trade. Under this state of Union. Our surplus in cotton is in quanthings the South has, and will continue tity, equal to every demand, and can be to languish, until by a united, vigorous extended to an almost unlimited amount. and successful effort, she regains her At present we have no surplus producshare of the profits arising from foreign tion of sugar; not enough, indeed, for commerce. The effort should not only our domestic wants. This article though be combined and vigorous, but to insure has to find an Atlantic port for its distri. success it must be concentered, Abution. Tobacco is also an exclusive point the most eligible on our southern southern product, and an article entering Atlantic coast should be selected. Petty largely in our foreign trade. The South, ocal prepossessions or prejudices, in by concentrating her surplus products at avor of this point or that, should be sa- any eligible point, can make that point crificed on the altar erected to south- the great emporium of foreign comern interests, and an equal partici- merce. Whether the capital is at the pation on the part of the South in point selected or not, it will, as certainly all the advantages of foreign com- as the night follows the day, find its merce. It is with regret that we way there. The first step, then, to be express the opinion which, on reflection, taken in connection with the plan pro. will, we fear, be found true, that petty posed by the correspondence, is to es. local jealousies have had much to do in tablish a direct trade between Norfolk retarding our onward march to wealth and our ports on the Gulf of Mexico. and power.

The Sonth has of late acquired new By reference to the able correspond- territory for her enterprises, extending

Recent Territorial Acquirements of the South.

127

from the western bank of the river and Brownsville. In a few years the Sabine on the East, to the middle of the exports from these ports alone would Rio Grande on the West, fronting the make any Atlantic seaport on which Gulf of Mexico, between three and four they centered an important commercial hundred miles; with a climate noto- point. Norfolk is the natural point for riously salubrious, and well adapted to concentration. Sail vessels can make a the cultivation of cotton, sugar, tobacco voyage between any port of the Gulf of and indigo; with a soil unsurpassed in Mexico and Norfolk in one-fourth less fertility ; with a flood of population over time than to any northern Atlantic seaspreading it, and with already seven port; and it will be conceded on all ports of entry within its limits (to wit): hands, that there is not a more eligible the ports of Sabine, Galveston, Mata- point for European trade on the whole gorda, Arranzas, Brazos Santiago, &c., Atlantic coast than Norfolk.

ART. IV.-PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES-CENSUS

OF EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY. (We have presented the statistics of the United States' census to our readers, as fast as they were published, and a large volume of them will be found in the “Industrial Resources," where they have been condensed, in comparison with previous returns, from the beginning of the government. We continue the subject, and will endeavor to finish it in the present volume of the Review, which will constitute the fourth of the Industrial Resources, and make that work, in every respect, complete. Mr. Kennedy, the able Superintendent of the Census Department, deserves the approval of every good citizen for the zeal and ability with which his labors have been discharged.]

During the sixty years which preceded which we can base statements, with the census of 1850, the annual increase reference to the progress of Ireland from of population, as has been shown by the time to time, must be made with refersuperintendent, and appears in our vol. ence to the termination of each ten umes, has been 31 per cent.

years, ending in 1831, 1841, and 1851. By the census of 1851, it appears that The first census of Great Britain was the population of England, Ireland, Scoto taken in 1801, at which date the populaland, Wales, and the islands, including tion amounted to 10,567,893. persons in the army, navy, and the mer. By the census of 1841, the population chant service, amounted to 27,619,866, of Great Britain, and the islands of Jerof whom 13,536,052 were males, and sey, Guernsey, and Man, amounted to 14,082,814 were females.

18,658,372. During each ten years, from This population is distributed as fol. 1801 to 1851, the actual increase was as lows, viz:

follows, viz:- 1,479,562- 2,132,896 — Houses. Males Females. 2,184,542 — 2,260,749—2,227,438, being England and Wales. 3,280,961..8,762,588.. 9,160,180 at the rate of 14,18,15,14, and í 2 per.cent. Scotland...........: 386,650..1,363,622.. 1,507,162 roonentively. This Ireland .............1,047,735..3,176,727..3,339,067

respectively. The actual increase of Islands in the British

'the population in fifty years, has been 21,826.. 65,511.. 76,405 10,317,917; the rate per cent. in fifty Part of the Army and Navy out of the

years, 98; the annual rate per cent. be. Kingdom .................. 167,604.......... ing 137. 4,717,172 13,536,052 14,082,814

With respect to Ireland and the re

"* turns of 1821, the number of inhabitants There exists no official record of the at that period was 6,801,827. In 1831, population of England previous to the 7,767,401 — increase, 965,574 ; rate per commencement of the present century. cent., 14, 19. In 1841, 8,175,124 --inThe first enumeration of the population crease, 407,723; rate per cent., 5, 25. In of Ireland was made in 1813, but so im- 1851, 6,515,794 — decrease, 1,659,330; perfectly was the work accomplished rate per cent. 20. By this statement we that English statists place no reliance perceive that the population of Ireland on the correctness of the returns, and increased from 1821 to 1841, at the avermake no use of them as the basis of cal. age rate of about one per cent per anculation; so that the only tables upon num; while a decrease of 1,659,330 from

seas.............

1841 to 1851, indicates a most appalling ing between the last two censuses, indiminution of population, amounting to creased from seventeen and a fraction two per cent. per annum, or 20 per cent. millions to over twenty-three millions,

for the entire ten years—a reduction or 36 per cent. During the same period, · amounting to the total emigration from leaving Ireland out of view,) the poputhe whole United Kingdom from 1839 lation of Great Britain increased at the to 1850.

rate of 12 per cent. during ten years, or The contemplation of such a state of 1 2-10 per cent. per annum. affairs is the more melancholy, when we Houses.-By the last census, it apconsider that the great diminution of pears that in the United States the numpopulation, in place of being equalized ber of houses occupied by free persons, through the period of ten years, must amounted to 3,363,427. It would seem have occurred mainly within one or two from the British reports, that the popuyears; a reduction of population sink- lation of that country is supplied with ing the number of people to a lower houses almost in the precise proportion point than it was in 1821, when the first as in our own country. The proportion census of Ireland was taken, and it being so very near alike in the two would appear in still stronger light if we countries, it would be, perhaps, satisfacwere to calculate the natural progress tory to institute -some inquiry concernthe population would have made up to ing the character of what are termed 1846, the year of famine, and estimate “houses," by the British census, that we what should be the present population, may be enabled to judge of the proif no unnatural cause had operated to priety of estimating the degree of comreduce it.

fort enjoyed by the people, by their The decrease extended to no less house accommodations. than 31 counties and cities, and varied While our country cannot boast of the from 9 to 31 per cent., while the only princely residences of European counincrease which occurred was confined tries—the occupancy of which is limitto 9 towns and cities, to which many ed to comparatively few persons-we probably fled to find relief. The great think there is a general sufficiency and est decrease occurred in the county comfort in the house-accommodations of of Cork, the population of which was re. the American people, and that in the duced 222,246, viz. :- from 773,398 in- most remote regions of our country, they habitants in 1841, to 551,152 in 1851– exhibit a very satisfactory degree of equivalent to a reduction of 28 per cent. comfort and cleanliness where their ac

The decrease in the several provinces commodations are most limited. The was as follows, viz. :-Leinster, 305,960; fact is notorious that, where wretched. Munster ,564,344; Ulster, 382,084; Con- ness is at all general, there will be found naught, 406,942.

a population which' formed habits and These startling and appalling facts imbibed tastes in a foreign land. proclaim the reality of the sufferings ex- In comparing the population of Great perienced from the famine in Ireland; Britain and Ireland with the inhabited and it is some consolation to feel that houses, it appears that the whole numour distance did not preclude those ef- ber of houses in Great Britain amounts forts in her behalf by our own citizens to 3,669,437, being nearly one house to and government, without which the des- each six persons. In Ireland, the numolation would have been even more ber of inhabited houses amounts to strongly marked.

1,047,735, being the proportion of two During ten years, the population of houses to each thirteen persons. The the entire kingdom of Great Britain and fact is somewhat extraordinary, that alIreland increased from 26,833,496 to most precisely in proportion to the dimi27,452,262, or at the rate of a little more nution of the Irish population since 1841, than half a million in ten years. In the has been the reduction in the number last fifty years, England and Wales in- of houses. By this is not meant the creased 102 per cent., (males, 105; fe- “Inhabited Houses," but the whole males, 97.50 ;) Scotland, 78 per cent., number, including inhabited and unin(males, 84; females, 73.) The popula- habited, built and building, the number tion of the United States during the past of which, in 1841, was 1,384,360 to fifty years has increased at the rate of 1,115,007 in 1851; being a reduction of 337 per cent., and in ten years interven- 269,353. The fact is unquestioned, that

Population of Belgium, Prussia and France.

129

in a very great number of instances in of Ditricé, Director of the Statistical Ireland the term "house" should be un. Bureau. The subjects embraced, and derstood merely as applying to some- the divisions included, are public buildthing containing human beings, and ings enumerated as churches and houses not as indicating such a structure as the for prayer, school-houses, orphan and term usually signifies.

poor asylums, buildings for the adminisBELGIUM-POPULATION AND Houses. Tration of public affairs, justice, customs, -The population of Belgium, on the 31st &c.; buildings for ecclesiastical and December, 1845, amounted to 4,298,560; communal magistracies, military and on the 15th October, 1846, to 4,337,196.hospital buildings, private dwelling

In the cities of Belgium, the houses houses, factories, mills, &c., stables and inhabited amount to 170,455, and those barns; population, male and female, at uninhabited to 9,302. In the rural com- the ages of 5, 7, 14, 16, 19, 24, 32, 39, 45 munes, the inhabited houses number and 60th year, and those over 60. They 629,393; the uninhabited 20,411. Total are enumerated also according to relinumber of inhabited houses 799,848; gion, as far as respects Evangelical uninhabited, 29,713. Of these houses Christians, Roman Catholics, Greek 78.20 per cent. had but one (basement) Christians, Menonites and Jews. The story; 18.32 per cent. were of iwo stories, deaf and dumb are returned as to age including the basement; and 3.48 per and sex, enumerating them at the ages cent. were of three or more stories, in- of 5, 15, 30, and over, respectively; and cluding the basement. Of the entire the blind are returned by age and sex at number of houses, 160,500 were insured the ages of 15, 30, and over 30, respecagainst fire for the average amount of tively. They enumerate their horses, 6,811 francs. One-fourth of the Belgian asses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep, and population is found inclosed in cities, goats, dividing the sheep into three and the other three-fourths spread over classes. By their census (1839), the the rural communes. Of the number of population of Prussia amounts to dwelling-houses in cities, 72,407 had but one room for a family; 65,461 had two

8,162,805

........ Females....

8,168,382 rooms; and 100,402 had three or more rooms for a family. In the rural com Total....

16,331,187 munes, 82,047 houses had but one room Number of families

.3,180,707

Number of dwelling-houses.............1,945,174 for a family ; 217,324 had two rooms, and 352,925 had three or more rooms Number of churches, 16.897; schoolfor a family.

houses, 23,384; asylums for orphans and PRussia.–For the first time the Prus

S- destitute persons, 5,710; civil, ecclesision government has made provision for astical, military, and hospital buildings, the publication of their statistics in an 35-353' extended form. Their census was taken

The Evangelical Christians number.....10,020,161 portion of the results have been publish

Roman Catholics

..... 6,076,252 Deaf and Dumb

11,973 ed in one large quarto volume, to be fol. Blind lowed by two others, under the direction

Males.....

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POPULATION OF FRANCE.

Increase
Year.
Men.
Women.

Total

population For the pa'd. Annual 1601. 13,311,889... 14,037,114........ 27,349,003... 1806.... .14,312,850........14,794,575... ... 29,107,425........1,758,422........6.43........1.28 1821 .14,796,775. 15,665,100.. ...30.461,875. ..1,354,450........4.65

0.31 1831. 15,930,095 .. .16.619,128... .32.569.223. ...2,107,348...

..6.12.

.0.69 1836....... 16,460,701 ........17,080,209........33,540,910........ 971,687........3.00........0.60 1841........16,908,674........17,321,504........ 34,240,178........ 699,268........2.05........0.41 1846 ........17,544,083 ........17,858,003 ....35,400,486........1,160,308... 1851.....

35,781,628........ 381,142........1.06.......0.21

....3.42

.......0.68

From the foregoing statement it will than one-third her population, in the be seen that France, with a population same period. of more than thirty-five millions, has in. MORTALITY.--In a former report, the creased in the number of her people but aggregate number of deaths in each little more than the two States of New state of the Union, during the twelve York and Pennsylvania, with not more months prior to June 30th, 1850, was

given, together with the ratio of deaths either continent. As has been truly to the number living; and some con- observed, "a race of men, launched upon siderations were adduced, showing the the tide of existence, have by virtue of most feasible mode of arriving at the all the conditions, a determined course

law of mortality. The work of condens- to run, which will make its own way, •ing this order of statistics has been con. and fulfil its own destiny in accordance

tinued with such discrimination as the with a system of laws as unalterable nature and value of the returns seemed and supreme as those which control the to require. A great diversity of opin. physical universe.” Without enumeraions, it is well known, exists with re- ting the conditions and circumstances spect to the salubrity of the Northern of vital development, the practical conand the Southern, the maritime and the clusion arises, that the values of life for inland localities of our country; and on different branches of the Teutonic famino point, perhaps, could reliable infor- ly of nations, in temperate climates, will mation be more reasonably desired. It not greatly differ. And if the ratios of is not here proposed to discuss the nu. annual mortality, and the expectations merous inquiries which this important of life in America, should substantially branch of statistics suggests, how far agree with the like values in European it shall confirm existing opinions, or tables, the general correspondence would awaken an interest and prepare the way afford so many credentials of statistical for more full researches. The returns authority. With respect to the Northern being the first of their kind in the na- United States, the returns of Massachutional census, may seem to require some setts have been selected for comparison mode of verification; and in this view, with those of the national census of Engthe following investigations have been land. In applying the same mode of prepared.

verification to the Middle States, the The great mass of the white popula. statistics of Maryland have been taken, tion of this country is chiefly of Teutonic the table described in last year's report origin, with a large admixture of Celtic. being revised, and male and female Located in temperate latitudes, with a lines distinguished. The computations climate not greatly differing from that have been executed by Mr. L. W. of Europe, the presumption naturally Meech, whose familiarity with the subarises that the same laws of life would ject, and scientific qualifications, afford prevail, and to nearly an equal degree, a sufficient guarantee of their accuracy, on both sides of the Atlantic. In the In contrast with these results, are set absence of any assignable and special the expectations of life in France. The source of change, the universal law of proportion of deaths and the expectaself-preservation and protection might tions of life at its several periods, may be assumed to produce like results upon then be compared as follows:

1.-ANNUAL DEATHS PER CENT, 1850.
Massachusetts.
- Maryland.

England-1841,
Ages.
Males. Females.

Males
Females,

Males. Females. 0 to 5.

7.105...... 6.052... . 5.466...... 4.875.... 6.838...... 5.860 5 10.... .. 1.168... 983.... 1.041

855....

955.. 922
10 15....
452... 573....

477
606....

509.

545 15 20.... 872... 831.... 605....... 757

718.

801 998.. 1.170.

896.
938....

949...... 942 1.253...... 1.346....

991..... 1.146.. . 1.080...... 1.121 1.513 ... 1.325 1.884. 1.249.

1.410. . 1.308 .. 2.067.. ... 1.654..... 2.433. 1.712.

2.230. 1.938 60 70 3.482... 2.960. 3.405. 3.285.

4.232 .. 3.761 70 80. ... 6.767...... 5.762.... 8.977. 7.221

... 9.150...... 8.378 80 90.. . 15.000...... 13.470... ..15.157......12.260..... ...19.085.... 18.085 90 100..........35.240......27.540..........31.132......23.430.... 37.039......34.057

2.-EXPECTATION OF LIFE.
Massachusetts. Maryland.

England. - France.
Completed

Males, Females, Males, Females. Males, Females, Males, Females.
Age.

Years. Years. Years. Years. Years. Years. Years. Years.
.38.3......40.5......41.8......44.9......40.2......42.2.

...38.3.
.48.0 47.2. 47.3 49.5......47.1......47.8......47.0......47.4
......40.1......40.2......397... ...42.1......39.9......40.8..... 40.0......40.1
.34.0.
35.4

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32.9 35.7......33.1......34.3...... 34.0......33.4 ....27.9......29.8 ... 25.8...... 29.5.... .26.6...... 27.7... ... 27.0...... 26.6 .....21.6......23.5...... 20.2......22.7... ... 20.0......21.1...... 19.9......19.6 ..... 15.6......17.0......14.4......16.0...... 13.6......14.4......13.3......13.2 .... 10.2...... 11.3...... 9.1...

10.5,

8.5. 9.0...... 8.1...... 8.1 5.9...... 6.4 ..... 6.2.. .. 7.0...... . 4.9... 5.2...... 4.8...... 4.8 2.8...... 3.0...... 3.9... ... 4.3...... 2.7...... 2.8...... 3.2......

..30,3......40.8

3.9

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