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the course of medical studies to two book-keeping, arithmetic, stenography, courses of lectures, of four months each! and the English and French languages.

The consequences of this are notorious, Of the actual condition of any of the and the medical profession is disgraced. above-named institutions we have no A medical diploma, from an American positive knowledge. medical school, is now a piece of worth- A museum of natural history was less lumber. The only way that this established at Havana, in 1838, of which disgrace can be blotted out, is to return the learned naturalist, Don Felipe S. to those requisites of a learned profes- Poye, was appointed Director; without sion-a thorough classical education, the walls of the city a botanical garden and a medical course embracing a term was also laid out, which, in 1844, was of years.

under the care of Professor Auber. Éducation in Cuba is in a lower state It is agreed by all recent writers on than in almost any other civilized coun- Cuba, that there exists a lamentable try. Some idea can be formed of this dearth of schools in Cuba. Of the white dearth of education from the number of Creoles no liberally educated persons pupils in the schools of its principal are found exa

are found except among the more towns and cities. At Guines, a town of wealthy portio

wealthy portion, who send their sons to 16,000 inhabitants, of whom 2,612 are Europe and the United States for their whites, there are only 235 scholars in all education. The middle class has but the schools. Matanzas, with a popula- an elementary education; and the lowtion of 16,986, of whom 10,000 are est class, which is by far the most nu. whites, has only 815 pupils, and 16

merous, is without any education at all schools. In very popular sections of the

-sunk into the grossest ignorance. island, the dearth of schools is very remarkable. Nueva Filipina, with a popu

The suppression of infant schools by lation of more than 30,000, had, in 1844,

Gen. O'Donnell, a former Captain-Gene. but one school of forty boys. Guana

ral of Cuba, is well known. An order bacoa, one of the oldest towns in Cuba,

has recently been made, by the Cuban with a population of 10,000, had only

authorities, which in effect prohibits

parents from sending their children to one free school of thirty boys in 1844. Besides the Royal University at Ha

The United States for purposes of educavana, there are several other institutions

tion; and such parents, deprived of of learning. Among these are the Royal

means of liberal education at home, are Seminary of San Carlos y San Ambrosio,

driven to the expedient of proving ill founded in 1773; a girl's seminary,

health, or feigning it, in their children, founded in 1691 ; a free school of sculp.

in order to obtain passports for them.* ture and painting, founded by the Socie

Such is the state of education in Cuba dad Economica, in 1818; a mercantile

at the present time, according to the school, also free, and many private in

best authorities. Though the people stitutions for instruction in the elemen

are taxed beyond any other known comtary branches of education.

munity in the world, the white populaAmong the private institutions of

tion paying annually to the government learning at Havana, at the present time,

more than $12,000,000, (so say the govare the Real Colegio de Humanidades

ernment returns, but in reality it is

nearly double that sum,) they are almost de Jesus y Jose, in the calle de Acosta ; the Colegio de Ninas de Nuestra Senora

entirely destitute of schools.f It was de las Mercedes, directed by Dona Ca

announced in the Diario de la Marina, ridad Santi, in which institution is.

ion of January 1, 1852, that the government taught the catechism, reading, writing,

were about to establish nineteen primary Spanish grammar, geography, French,

free schools, distributed between HaEnglish, Italian, drawing, music, danc

vana, Matanzas, and Puerto Principe ; ing, politeness, (urbanidad,) needlework,

also two normal schools at Havana; but etc. * It has six professors. There is al

we are not aware that the schools have so the High School of Professor Macsimo

as yet been established. Dominguez de Gironella, an institution

AGRICULTURE.-The chief agricultusimilar to our best high schools in New.

ral products of Cuba are sugar, coffee, Orleans. From the Havana papers it and tobacco. The cultivation of these appears that there are also several mer

* “ Cuba and the Cubans," p. 184. cantile academies, in which are taught

+ Notes on Cuba, p. 251.

109

Exports of Sugar, Molasses, Brandy, Coffee and Wax. products has advanced with extraordi- annual increase, during the 65 years, nary rapidity, especially since 1809, was 25 per cent. when the ports of the island were more It is not known precisely at what time freely opened to foreigners. The most the cultivation of the sugar-cane (arundo complete account of the agricultural saccharifera) was commenced in Cuba. products of Cuba that has ever been It was not until after the cultivation of published, appeared in a semi-official sugar was commenced in St. Domingo, paper, entitled " Isla de Cuba en 1851,” where it was introduced by Piedro de which occupied the entire columns of Atienza, about the year 1520. They the Diario de la Marina for January 1, used at that time, in the manufacture of 1852. The tables are of official origin, sugar, cylindrical presses, moved by and we shall give them entire.

hydraulic wheels.* The isle of Cuba

was far behind St. Domingo, at first, in General Statement of the Arrobas* of Sugar agriculture. As late as 1553 Spanish

exported from the Island from the Year historians make no mention of sugar in 1786 10 1850 :

Cuba, and only speak of sugar exported

Arrobas. from Mexico to Spain and Peru.f Ist 5 years, 1786–1790..............5,452,192 The next products most immediately Average per year...

. 1,090,438 2d 5 years, 1790-1795....

.7,572,600 connected with sugar are brandy and Average.....

.1,514,520 molasses. Of these we have not the sta3d 5 years, 1795-1800...

11,466,776 Average.....

tistics as complete as those of sugar.

.2,293,355 4th 5 years, 1800-1805

14,823,270 We can only give the amount of those Average.....

2,964,654 5th 5 years, 1805–1810..

articles exported from the entire island

15,101,200 Average...

....3,020,240 since the year 1826, as follows: 6th 5 years, 1810-1815. 14,493.756

Brandy.

Molasses, Average.... 2.898,751

pipes.

hhde. 7th 5 years, 1815-1820

.18,058,206
1826...

2,597.... 68,880 Average.....

..3,611,641
1827....

74,083

.. 2,457.. 8th 5 years, 1820-1825

.24,526,581
1828.

2,864.

86.891 Average.....

.4,905,316 9th 5 years, 1825-1830....

4,518.
1829..
.32,540,689

63,537 1830..

5,594..

66,218 Average.....

..6,508,137
1831.

3,838..

83,001 10th 5 years, 1830-1835. .39,467,878

3,423. 1832.

.100,178 Average....... ..7,893,575

3,227 11th 5 years, 1835-1840......

1833.

95,768 50,742,777 1834....

3,648.

104,213 Average....

10,148,555 12th 5 years, 1840—1845.

1835....

5,815. .64,338,492

.109,233

3,888. Average....

1836.

.109,349 12,867,698 1837....

3,450.. .93,452,300 13th 5 years,

..114,975 Average......

5,408.
.18,690,460
1838.

.134,802

8,219.. 1851 ....boxes...........

1839.

.136,447 .. 1,437,056 1840....

10,209. .146,464 1841..

11,302.. ,131,390 RECAPITULATION.

10,227.. ...119,138 1843.

13,810. ..191,093 Arrobne, Increase per cent. 1844.

..... 6.326.........172,431 5 years... .. 1,090,438

1845.

4,120. 121,322 1,514,520

1846.....

9,032.

203,597 .2, 293,355

1847....

19,432. .252,840 .2,964,654

.16,339....

.228,726 3,020,240

...11,640.... ....246,570 Oth .2,898,751

1850.

.. 11.825.... ..269,044 7th .3,611,641.

...10,168.........400,000 Eth

.4,905,316. 9th .6,508,137.

From the above table it will be seen 10th 7,893,575

that the annual increase in the producIlth

10,148,555 12th

tion of brandy in the 26 years, is about 11 12,867,698. 13th .18,690,460.

per cent.; and that of molasses about 9

per cent. $ From this it will be seen that the in

* Oviedo, Hist. Nat. des Ind. lib. 4, cap. 8. crea

+ Humboldt : Essai sur l'Isle de Cuba, p. 162. the 1st period, was 1614 per cent. The See also De Bow's Industrial Resources for other

particulars-Articles West Indies, Cuba, Sugar,

etc. or the weights and measures used in Cuba, Vast quantities of molasses have, in some years, the arroba is equal to 25 7-16 pounds English dry in many parts of Cuba, been thrown away, the artimeasure ; the arroba, liquid measure, is 41.10 Eng. cle not being worth the transportation. The planlish gallons. The Spanish quintal is 101 3-4 Eng. tations near Cardenas suffered the molasses to run lish pounds. The fanega is 200 pounds Spanish, off into the ditches by the road-side, and gave it or about 3 English bushels. Or superficial mea- away to all who would receive it. In some places sure, 108 Spanish varas are equal to 100 English pits were dug for it to run into, as it was found yards.

destructive to vegetation wherever it flowed. VOL. XIV.

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1842...

1848...
1849...

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1851....

Coffee.

Wax.

1827.

20.10

.

Let us now look at the exportation of with lemons, pomegranates, cape-jessacoffee and war, from the whole island, mines, tuberoses, lilies, and various during the last 26 years. It is as fol- other gaudy and fragrant flowers; while lows:

a double strip of Guinea-grass, or of lus

cious pines, skirt the sides, presenting a Years.

Arrobas,

Arrobas. 1826..... ....1,773,798

pretty contrast to the smooth, red soil in ..22,918

.2,001,584. .23,403 the centre, scrupulously kept free from 1828.... .1,284,088. ..21,404

all verdure. Then the beauty of the 1829.

1,736,258. ..23,482 1830....

1,798,598. .38,740 whole while in flower-that of the coffee 1831

2,130,582 .24,850 white, and so abundant that the fields 1832.

2,048,890. .30,203

2.566,359. 1833.

seem covered with flakes of snow; the

.41,536 1834.

.....1,817,315........35,258 fringe-like blossoms of the rose-apple; 1835..... .1,416,015.. .31,044

the red of the pomegranate and Mexi1836.

..1,610,441........28,259 1837.

.2,133,568..

..39,264

can rose; the large scarlet flowers of the 1838

.1,550,341.. .28,296 piñon, which, when in bloom, covering 1839....

1,950,309:. .39,315

2,143,574. 1840.

.26,132

the whole tree with a flaming coat, is 1841

1,235,006. .32,024 the richest production of Flora's realms; 1842. .1,998,846. .33,384

the quaint lirio's trumpet-shaped flowers, 1843....

1,631,782. .48,101 1844.... .1,240,032 .34.276

painted yellow and red, and bursting 1845

559,322. .39,251 into bunches from the blunt extremities 1846

817,662. .41,716 1847. 932.154. .54,995

of each leafless branch; the young pine1848.

694,137........50.110 apples, with blue flowrets projecting from 1849..... 877,137........35,691

the centres of their squares; the white · 1850....

520.134........58,194 1851..... 117,032 quintals.

tuberoses, and double cape-jessamines; No returns for wax. the gaudy yellow flag, and a score of

other flowers, known to us only as the From this table it will be seen that in sickly tenants of the hot-house. And the last 26 years, the production of cof- when some of the flowers have given fee in Cuba has been declining at the place to the ripened fruit; and the rate of about 2 per cent. annually, while golden orange, the yellow mango, the that of wax has increased about 3 per lime, the lemon, the luscious caimito, cent. annually.

and the sugared zapote; the mellow alliThe coffee plant was first introduced gator pear, the custard-apple, and the into the New World from the east, by rose-apple, giving to the palate the flavor the way of Europe. Van Horn, the go- of otto of roses ;-when all these hang vernor of Batavia, in 1690, sent some of on the trees in oppressive abundance, the seeds to Amsterdam, some of which and the ground is also covered with the found their way to America. In 1718, over-ripe fruit, the owner of a coffee coffee plantations were first made in estate might safely challenge the world Surinam, and in 1728, plantations were for a fairer garden. Nor must this be opened in Martinique and Jamaica. thought the appearance it presents for When the French were driven from St. only a short period. The coffee has Domingo to Cuba, between the years successive crops of blossoms five or six 1796 and 1798, they carried with them times in the winter and spring; and on the coffee plant;, and from that time the orange, the ripe fruit and the bloscoffee plantations multiplied rapidly in som, and the young green fruit, are ofthe island. (See De Bow's Industrial ten seen at the same time; while seveResources, art. “Coffee.")

ral of the shrubs and plants bloom A coffee plantation is one of the most nearly all the year."* "Nor is the rich beautiful objects in nature. It is a per- fragrance," says Mr. Turnbull, "of the fect garden, surpassing any thing that orange grove to be compared for a mothe ablest horticulturist can produce ment with the aromatic odors of a coffee out of the tropics. "Imagine more than plantation, when its hundred thousand 300 acres of land," says the author of trees have just thrown out their unrivalNotes on Cuba, "planted in regular ed display of jessamine-like flowers, resquares, with evenly pruned shrubs, minding you of what you may have read each containing about eight acres, inter in eastern fable of the perfumes of Arasected by broad alleys of palms, oranges, by the Blest.”+ mangoes, and other beautiful trees; the

* Notes on Cuba, 1844, p. 139. interstices between which are planted

+ Turnbull's Cuba, p. 298.

Coffee Plantations—Tobacco and other

price

Pud.

The coffee tree, if left to setere con trees are met het te to the height of from 12 to 18 feet is born a t u esimeses 2 ing off horizontal brasebes bottes at once. The res 1 T S every joint, which like the trunk az et ancia a intra ts covered with a gray bark The Wes Between die mus manet manns soms look like the white jas ise and curr. ZE Terus form thick circular clusters are the To E a ouie Jantaran tin branches. They appear from December se e seunes a var. m to June, and last only two or three days. T i esas 1 : Eutiese DE The berries at first are green bo te- am & L e es vous ac i come white as they enlarge and wer ste Estates 22 CE then yellow, and finally bright cei 342.001 ani 13 e De Zona closely resembling the cherry in size s e u ite in je and appearance. The trees are acties. 20 de les im

ZTE ten loaded with them in closely-wedged seduces 2

ou le 21 circles around each joint of the branches 33301 11 Su le : Je bent On a single branch two feet loog these che a Ivestiet The T E are often seen as many as ninety of the Sites se C:2 ve Geiste vas berries, each containing to gain a CTS01 :1

. D

a ar coffee, with their flat sides together, e a fire garai 35LIE bedded in a soft mucilaginoos peatrees - vien: 21:

1 5 a ne 120e The berries ripen from August to Do é $:: 0 ze te meer as cember, and are gathered by the hand : Desses : Bor De CLETE SISSE S and as three or four different crops are site et de J a u often ripening at the same time on each The accee see ens ve u IE tree, as many separate pickings are re- 50071 Tez aus quired. The berries, when pertocely Terracta Dora dried, are passed through a mill consist. ing of a large circular wooden troeg two feet deep, and in width tapering from two feet at the top to one at the

a The

Case vas : bottom.

sess A heary solid wooden wheel about six feet in diameter, and eight inches thick at the circumference, plays

so contrato s e 2 12 in the trough. crushing the berries Shich pass between it and the bottom of the trough. The husks are then separated by means of a fanning mill, which also separates the larger grains from the The sert

a z SZDS

29 enotte smaller. The broken grains are gicked we sei mes

se bere the complete S out by the negroes for plantation ese

e

de sise A while the whole ones are packed for 1826. 28

11 22 market. The whole crop is generally in Marisa box Jaa 1 1952 market by the first of February.

follows: The coffee tree, like the cotton plant, has a deadly enemy in the shape of a small worm, which often destroys it by girdling it beneath the bark Another species of worm bores into the trunk traversing it in every direction, causing it to fall by the first high wind. There are also two species of moths which prey on the leaves ; but the most de. structive of all is a small fly which deposits its eggs on the leaf, from which

204SS spring caterpillars that speedily consume

JUSI. the entire leaves of the tree. The coffee trees on a plantation are

21,713...often several hundred thousand in num.

• didis: Laun, ber. As many as 350,000 and 400,000

+ Xons on Clee, 13.

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W

Coffee.

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1842

Let us now look at the exportation of with lemons, pomegranates, cape-jessacoffee and wax, from the whole island, mines, tuberoses, lilies, and various during the last 26 years. It is as fol- other gaudy and fragrant flowers; while lows:

a double strip of Guinea-grass, or of lus

Wax. cious pines, skirt the sides, presenting a Years.

Arrobas.

Arrobas. 1826.. ....1,773,798......

..22,918

pretty contrast to the smooth, red soil in 1827

.2,001,384. .23,403 the centre, scrupulously kept free from 1828. .1,284,088. .21,404

all verdure. Then the beauty of the 1829.

1,736,258. .23,482 1830.

1,798,598. .38,740 whole while in flower—that of the coffee 1831.

..2,130,582 .24,850 white, and so abundant that the fields 1832..

.2.048,890. .30,203 1833. .2.566,359. .41,536

seem covered with flakes of snow; the 1834.

.1,817,315. .35,258 fringe-like blossoms of the rose-apple; 1835.

.1,416,015. .31,044 1836.

the red of the pomegranate and Mexi.1,610,441. .28,259 1837

2,133,568. 39,264 can rose; the large scarlet flowers of the 1838..... 1,550,341.

piñon, which, when in bloom, covering 1839..

1,950,309 39,315 1840.....

the whole tree with a flaming coat, is
.2,143,574. .26,132
1841...

1,235,006. .32,024 the richest production of Flora's realms;
1,998,846. 33,384

.1,631,782. 1843.

.48,101

the quaint lirio's trumpet-shaped flowers, 1844.

.1,240,032. .34 276 painted yellow and red, and bursting 1845.

559,322.

.39,251 into bunches from the blunt extremities 1846. 817,662........41,716

of each leafless branch; the young pine1847..

932,154........34,995 1848...

694,137........50.110 apples, with blue flowrets projecting from 1849.... 877,137........35,691

the centres of their squares; the white 1850..

520.134........58,194 1851.... 117,032 quintals.

tuberoses, and double cape-jessamines ; No returns for wax. the gaudy yellow flag, and a score of

other flowers, known to us only as the From this table it will be seen that in sickly tenants of the hot-house. And the last 26 years, the production of cof- when some of the flowers have given fee in Cuba has been declining at the place to the ripened fruit; and the rate of about 2 per cent. annually, while golden orange, the yellow mango, the that of wax has increased about 3 per lime, the lemon, the luscious caimito, cent. annually.

and the sugared zapote; the mellow alliThe coffee plant was first introduced gator pear, the custard-apple, and the into the New World from the east, by rose-apple, giving to the palate the flavor the way of Europe. Van Horn, the go- of otto of roses ;-when all these hang vernor of Batavia, in 1690, sent some of on the trees in oppressive abundance, the seeds to Amsterdam, some of which and the ground is also covered with the found their way to America. In 1718, over-ripe fruit, the owner of a coffee coffee plantations were first made in estate might safely challenge the world Surinam, and in 1728, plantations were for a fairer garden. Nor must this be opened in Martinique and Jamaica. thought the appearance it presents for When the French were driven from St. only a short period. The coffee has Domingo to Cuba, between the years successive crops of blossoms five or six 1796 and 1798, they carried with them times in the winter and spring; and on the coffee plant;, and from that time the orange, the ripe fruit and the bloscoffee plantations multiplied rapidly in som, and the young green fruit, are of. the island. (See De Bow's Industrial ten seen at the same time; while seveResources, art. “Coffee.”)

ral of the shrubs and plants bloom A coffee plantation is one of the most nearly all the year.'* “Nor is the rich beautiful objects in nature. It is a per- fragrance,” says Mr. Turnbull, "of the fect garden, surpassing any thing that orange grove to be compared for a mothe ablest horticulturist can produce ment with the aromatic odors of a coffee out of the tropics. “Imagine more than plantation, when its hundred thousand 300 acres of land," says the author of trees have just thrown out their unrival. Notes on Cuba, "planted in regular ed display of jessamine-like flowers, resquares, with evenly pruned shrubs, minding you of what you may have read each containing about eight acres, inter- in eastern fable of the perfumes of Arasected by broad alleys of palms, oranges, by the Blest." + mangoes, and other beautiful trees; the

* Notes on Cuba, 1844, p. 139. interstices between which are planted + Turnbull's Cuba, p. 298.

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