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in no case are the questions in the margin or at the end of the sections in the text-book, to be used, excepting for the purpose of an occasional review.
13. They are to keep a daily record of the merit of each pu. pil's recitation, his deportment, cleanliness, and the number of times absent or tardy; the quality of merit of each recitation or exercise being marked at the time of its performance, on a scale varying from 10 to 0; 10 denoting perfect; 8, good; 6, tolerable; 4, quite poor; and 0, an entire failure; to make a monthly abstract of the same, and transmit it to the parent or guardian, to be signed by him, and then returned by the pupil to the teacher.
14. They are not to rely too much upon simultaneous reci. tation, as it often takes away all individuality, making the pupil superficial, by causing him to rely on others, tempting him to indolence, by preventing his deficiencies from standing out by themselves, and consoling him with the reflection that he has been able to conceal his want of thoroughness. It may be resorted to, however, for the purpose of giving; occasionally, variety to the exercises, of arousing and exciting when dull and drowsy, or for the purpose of fixing in the mind important definitions, useful tables of weights and measures, the declension of nouns and pronouns, the conjugation, synopsis, and inflection of verbs, etc.; and also, in certain spelling, reading, elocutionary, or orthophonic exercises, where the object is to embolden the pupils, to induce them to let out their voices, that their muscles of articulation may be strengthened, and all the vocal organs become well developed, and the voice rendered full-toned, firm, and harmonious.
15. They must not attempt to teach too many things at once, nor allow their pupils to direct their own studies, nor attend to extraneous business in school hours, nor occupy too much time in conversing with visitors, nor make excuses to visitors for the defects of their classes, nor use low and degrading epithets, nor wound the sensibilities of a dull scholar by disparaging comparisons.
16. They are required to see that their pupils move to and from the recitation room in a particular order, and always occupy the same place on the recitation seat, that if any one be absent, it can be detected at once, and the cause,
necessary, be immediately inquired into, and the proper entry made in the class register, without calling the entire roll.
AMERICAN CHILDREN. Several works of British travellers on this country have lately appeared, which display a degree of candor and intelligence in credible contrast with the general tone of ignorant misrepresentation or vulgar abuse, which has been too characteristic of this class of productions. The travels of Lady Stuart Wortley, of Colonel Cunynghame, and of Professor Johnston, and the brief but highly suggestive and intelligent lecture of the Earl of Carlile, at Manchester, have an aspect of sincerity and good nature, which encourages the hope that the duty of international slander and hatred are at an end. The criticisms of such observers upon the manners and traits of this country are worthy of all attention. They are made in no captious spirit, and are free from exaggeration and malice, and undoubtedly fairly reflect the impressions which our characteristics make upon cultivated European minds. It is both our wisdom and our duty to notice them, and to apply the correctives in the same spirit of good-will with which they are pointed out. In such way, the observations of travellers become highly useful, and something more than amusement is to be gathered from their perusal. National faults are incomparably worse than the faults of individuals. They not only injure our reputation abroad, but impair the influence of the policy and religion with which we may stand identified in the world's opinion.
One criticism occurs in two of the works we have mentioned, to which we feel disposed to hold the mirror up, and ask if they be so. It relates to the manners and characters of our youth. Both speak in terms of astonishment and censure of the pert and irreverent conduct of our childten, as contrasted with ihe modesty and reserve which forms so conspicuous a part of what is deemed good breeding in the English family. Lady Wortley expresses herself thus:
“Litile America is, unhappily, generally only grown-up America seen through a telescope turned the wrong way. The only point, perhaps, in which I must concur with other writers on the United States, is there being no childlike children there. The little creatures, looking all the time everything that is infantile and unsophisticated, will read novels and newspapers by the hour together, and the little boys will give you their opinions dictatorially enough occasionally ; and the little girls “talk toilette," and gossip, and descant on the merits of the last French novel, or the eligibility of such a parti for a hus band for such a lady, or on the way Mrs. So-and-So misconducts her household affairs, and spends money at Newport or Saratoga Springs; and so far this is not pleasing to our English tastes."
Colonel Cunynghame's evidence on the same point is thus given :
“ Young England is frequently accused of being too precocious; but in this respect, what comparison will she bear with Young America ? At the public table at Lockport, a boy, about thirteen years of age, entered freely into conversation respecting the merits of the different candidates who were about to stand, (or run, as it is here termed,) at the next election. This embryo politician was condemning one party for coalescing with the whigs, and another for too highly favoring the democratic party. It would, moreover, astonish some of our respectable elderly men of business, to observe with what an air of freedom a young fellow, of fifteen or sixteen, will strut into a counting-house, carefully remove his gloves, and having placed his cane in the corner, open his pocket book, and transact business to the amount of many thousand dollars, then whistle an opera tune, and ask your opinion, not forgetting first to give his own, respecting the merits of Jenny Lind.”
HINTS TO SCHOOL-MASTERS. "Be not sarcastic. Some teachers have a natural tendency to say things which cut through a boy's heart like a knife. A scholar makes some mistake; instead of a simple reproof, comes a tone of ridicule. The boy feels wronged. One is stung into revengeful passion, another crushed with despair. I do not think a child should ever be mimicked, even for a drawling tone, without explaining beforehand that it is not for ridicule, but to show in what the fault consists; while that scorching sarcasm which some teachers use, should be wholly abolished. It tends to call up bad passions, and to engender bad feelings in the child's mind towards the teacher and all that he does.
“A teacher, in order that he may exert a moral and spiritual influence, should be familiar and gentle. There is, no doubt, a dignity that is essential in the school-room, but it need not partake of arrogance. True dignity must always be connected with simplicity. Children are keen observers, and they either shrink from artificial austerity, or smile at it as absurd. A teacher who would walk about his school, with a domineering manner, might talk about moral and spiritual truth until he was weary, and do little good. To produce much good, a teacher must win the love and confidence of the children; and to do this, he should, in his manners, be natural and gentle.
“So with the tone of the voice. If a teacher is sharp and crabbed in his speech, if he calls out with 'dogmatical authority, he shuts up the hearts of the scholars, and the spell is broken; they will not listen to the voice of the charmer, charm he ever so wisely.”— Advertiser.
THE DEAD. Some curious mind has been casting up the number of hu. man births and deaths since our Saviour, eighteen hundred years ago, began his mission of mercy, in the far off land of despised Judea.
The average number of births per second, up to this time, has been eight hundred and fifteen. This, after deducting the present population of the world, (960,000,000,) leaves thirty-one thousand and fifty millions that have gone down to the grave. Of this number
9,000,000,000 have died in war!
580,000,000 by intoxicating drinks !
We give, from the Journal of Commerce, the boundaries of several of the States and Territories, as settled by the recent acts of Congress. Teachers, having old maps of the United States, can, from the description, easily make the necessary alterations. .
CALIFORNIA.— North by 420 N. lat. E. by Utah and New Mexico. Beginning at intersection 42N. lat. and 120° W. long., then southerly along the latter, to 390 N. lat.; then S. E. in a straight line to Colorado River at the point of its intersection with 350 N. lat., then by channel to the Mexican boundary. South by Mexico.
UTAH.—North by Oregon, from which 42. N. lat. divides it; East by Rocky Mountains, which separate it from Indian Territory and New Mexico. South by New Mexico, from which 37° N. lat. separates it. West by California.
New Mexico.--Begin at point in River Colorado, at its mouth, where the Mexican boundary crosses it, then easterly with said boundary line to the Rio Grande ; then follow the main channel of the Rio Grande to 32N. lat.; then east by said parallel to 1030 W. long. (from Greenwich ;) then north by that to 38°N. lat.: then west by that to the summit of Sierra Madre; then south with the crest of the mountains, to 37° N. lat.; then west by that to the boundary of California.
TEXAS.-West by the main channel of the Rio Grande, from its mouth to 329 N. lat. ; then east by that parallel to 103° W. long. ;