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PROVIDENCE, JANUARY 1, 1852.
NOTICE. We propose to publish a monthly educational journal, under the above title. It will appear about the first of every month. Each number will contain sixteen octavo pages, and as much more as we can find time and money to print.
Few such journals, even in larger States, have ever been supported by paying subscribers. Wishing to make the publication as useful as possible, and to circulate it in parts of the State, where we should, probably, obtain but few subscribers, we have determined to send it without charge to the clerk of every school district, and to the chairman and clerk of every school committee, and to rely on the generosity of the public for the means of carrying it on.
It will contain the educational documents of the State, and such of the reports of city and town committees as we can conveniently publish. We shall, also, from time to time publish any articles on historical, agricultural or literary subjects which may be interesting to the people of Rhode Island.
Notice will also be given of any changes made in the laws regulating schools or the collection of taxes and of decisions upon any questions of law relating to them.
The copies sent to clerks of districts, and to chairmen and clerks of committees are intended for the use of the persons holding those offices, and to be delivered over to their successors, as belonging to the office. If
any such copies are not taken from the Post Office or are misdirected, it is hoped that the Postmaster or some friend of education in the neighborhood will give information of it.
Note.-We intended to have printed in this number Dr. Wayland's Address before the American Institute, and a considerable portion of it was in type, when we discovered that the term of copyright had not expired. The copyright belongs to the American Institute, and without a meeting of their Board, we could not obtain permission. We have therefore collected the materials for this number rather hastily.
We commence paging this number with 125, in order that the School law may be tound up with the volume.
From the Upper Canada Journal of Education. METHODS OF GIVING LESSONS ON OBJECTS. HEADS OF A LESSON ON A VEGETABLE SUBSTANCE.- CORK, THE CORK
TREE. 1. Particulars regarding external appearances, qualities, &c. 2. Where it is found. 3. How the substance is obtained or prepared. 4. Uses to which it is applied. 5. History.
SPECIMENS OF NOTES ILLUSTRATIVE OF THESE HEADS.
1. (a) The Tree. Two varieties of the cork-tree—the narrow leaved and the broad leaved ; attains the height of thirty feet; is an ever-green; has leaves of a bright color; oval shape, and indented edge; tree much like common oak in form, but more beautiful; called quercus suber ; quercus means an oak tree; suber, cork, or cork-tree.
(b) Piece of Cork. 1st. The Parts :-has two ends, two surfaces, edges, &c. 2nd. The qualities--light, porous, opaque, elastic, compressible, smooth, &c.
2. Found in S. parts of France; in Spain, but most abundant in Catalonia and Valencia; in Portugal; in Italy; and Barbary, in Africa.
3. Cork is the outer bark of the tree; can be removed without injuring the tree; the best taken from old trees; that of young ones being too porous; taking off bark called peeling, done every ten years; if inner bark removed, the tree would be destroyed; removed from tree by curved knife with two handles ; slits are made from top to bottom, others across, then removed in large or small pieces; this depends on the number of incisions across. When taken off, soaked, and afterwards placed over a fire to char it; this blackens the surface and closes the pores; thinner layers not thus operated on, because charred cork apt to give bad flavor to liquors stopped with it.
4. Used for stopping bottles and casks, because compressible and elastic; bungs and large corks more porous than small corks; pores of the latter lie across; floats of fishing-nets often made of cork; life-preservers; insuring buoyancy of life-boats; pieces fastened together form buoys; put between soles of shoes to keep out moisture, is impervious to water; on account of its lightness is made into false legs; when burnt, 'obtain Spanish black; great quantities made from the cork parings.
5. Use of cork for stopping bottles introduced about the 15th century; ancient Egyptians made coffins of it; principal exports from Valencia and Catalonia ; duty on cork in a rough state in England, 8s. per cwt.; price per cwt. from £20 to £70.
FORM OF QUESTIONS, 1. How many varieties are there of the cork-tree? State the difference between them. To what height does it attain ?Describe the leaves. Explain what you mean by indented. What is the root of this word? What tree does the cork-tree resemble? The proper name of cork-tree.
What does quercus mean? What do you mean by porous ?-elastic ?-compressible? Mention other objects having these qualities.
2. Where is the cork-tree found? Show me France on the map. How does Spain lie from France ? What are Catalonia and Valencia ? Show Italy, Barbary, &c.
3. What is cork? What is the best obtained from? Why are old trees better than young ones? How often is the bark stripped off? What word means taking off ? How is the bark obtained from the tree ? Describe the whole operation. Why is the bark charred ? What is an incision ?
Why is cork used for stopping bottles? Why are small corks less porous than large ones? Mention other uses to which it is applied. Explain the words buoyancy and impervious. To what other uses are cork parings applied ?
5. Where does cork principally come from? What word means to bring in? What do you understand by duty ? What is the duty on cork not manufactured? The value of cork per cwt. ?
The upper classes should be required to write an abstract of the lesson. In order to assist them in this exercise, the teacher should write on the black board the Heads of the Lesson, numbering them as in the example given above. The children are not, however, to number their answers; þut each answer is to be a consecutive account of the object that has been described. They should also, be accustomed to give distinct answers to separate questions; when this is done, both the question and the answer should be numbered. The following are examples of such questions:-
1. Write the particulars concerning the external appearance of the cork-tree.
2. Mention all the qualities of cork, and clearly explain the meaning of each term.
3. Explain the mode of obtaining and preparing cork. 4. Enumerate the uses to which cork is applied.
From the Ohio School Journal. DIRECTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHERS OF CIN
CINNATI CENTRAL SCHOOL.
BY H. H. BARNEY, THE PRINCIPAL. 1. They shall endeavor to understand thoroughly whatever they attempt to teach, so as not to be constantly chained down to the text-book : to this end, they shall make such a special preparation for each lesson, that they could recite it themselves, as readily and accurately as they would desire their pupils to do it.
2. They are to teach the subject, and not the book; to point out the practical bearing and uses of the thing taught, and make it so familiar by repetition, as to fix it deeply and permanently in the mind; for what is worth learning at all, is · worth learning thoroughly and completely.
3. They are to assign no larger portion for each recitation than the class, with due diligence, can easily master, and then insist upon its being learned so perfectly that it can be repeated without the least hesitation; until this is done, no new portion is to be given out.
4. They are to explain each new lesson assigned, if necessary, by familiar remarks and illustrations, that every pupił may know, before he is sent to his seat, what he is expected to do at the next recitation, and how it is to be done, to the end that he may study understandingly, and, therefore, with spirit and pleasure, and make rapid progress. 15. They are to require all rules and definitions, together with the more important parts of each subject of study, to be accurately committed to memory, and the whole wrought into the understanding as well as the memory of the pupil
, by questions and familiar illustrations adapted to his capacity, unpi til he has completely mastered it.
6. They are not to use during recitation the text-book themselves, excepting for an occasional reference, nor permit it to be taken to the recitation seat to be referred to by the pupils, excepting in the case of a parsing exercise, the translation of a language, or the solution of mathematical problems; and even in the latter case, they are required to assign many problems of their own preparing, or those selected froin kindred textbooks, involving an application of what the pupils have learn. ed to the business of life ; for the reason that they will be likely to possess more animation themselves, and enkindle a corresponding increased vivacity of spirit in the mind of their pu. pils, than if obliged to follow the very letter of the book.
7. They are to understand many more subjects than they are required to teach, that they may be able at all times to give much oral, collateral, and indirect instruction, and be furnished on every subject with copious illustration and instructive anecdote ; 'to this end, they are expected to pursue, daily, a regular course of professional reading and study.
3. They are not to do for their pupils what they, with pro per explanation, can do for themselves, or what some member of their class can do for them; they are not to carry heir explanation so far as to supersede the very effort on the part of their pupils, which it should be the design of such explanations to encourage; but they may diminish or shorten difficulties, divide and subdivide a difficult process, until the steps become so short that the pupil can take them without diffi-* culty.
9. They must endeavor to arouse and fix the attention of the whole class, and to occupy and to bring into action as many of the faculties of their pupils as possible. They are never to proceed with the recitation without the attention of the whole class, nor go round the class, with the recitation, always in the same order, or in regular rotation ; but to change the order frequently, selecting here and there a pupil, who may chance to be listless at the moment, so that all may be compelled, as it were, to be attentive, and ready to recite at any moment.
10. They are to exhibit proper animation themselves, manifesting a lively interest in the subject taught, avoiding all heavy, plodding movements, all formal routine in teaching, lest the pupil be dull and drowsy, and imbibe the notion that he studies only to recite, using his text-book as mere words, and having but little idea of any purpose of acquirement beyond mere recitation,
11. They must require of their pupils, at all times, prompt and accurate recitations, under penalty of detention after the close of the regular school hours, to make up the deficit. They are to endeavor to use language fluently and correctly, and to acquire a facility at explanation, a tact at discerning and solv-, ing difficulties; they must endeavor so to unfold, direct, and strengthen the mind as to bring out all its powers into full and harmonious action, and so to superintend the growth of the moral, mental, and physical faculties, as to develope them symmetrically, and fashion the whole into beauty and loveliness as they grow.
12. With respect to most subjects of study, they are required to have their pupils recite by analysis—that is, to give, in their own language, a general outline, a consecutive synopsis of the subject matter of the lesson; to be followed by general, appropriate, original questions, pointing out and illustrating its practical bearing, exciting curiosity, and awakening thought; but