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custom to place a slave with his arms bound at the foot of the trophy, as in the figure before us. Stentque super vinctos trunca trophæu viros.

Ov. Ep. ex Ponto lib. 4. You see on his head the cap which the Parthians, and indeed most of the eastern nations, wear on medals. They had not probably the ceremony of veiling the bonnet in their salutations, for in medals they still have it on their heads, whether they are before emperors or generals

, kneeling, sitting, or standing. Martial has distinguished them by this' cap as their chief characteristic.

Frustra blanditiæ venitis ad me
Attritis miserabiles labellis,
Dicturus dominum, deümque non sum:
Jam non est locus hâc in urbe vobis.
Ad Parthos procul ite pileatos,
Et turpes, humilesque supplicesquie

Pictorum sola basiate regum.' si} MART. Epig. 72. lib. io.
In vain, mean flatteries, ye’try,

the lip, and fall the eye;
No man a god or lord I name:
From Romans far be such a shame!
Go teach the supple Parthian how
To veil the bonnet on his brow:
Or on the ground all prostrate fling
Some Pict, before his barbarous king.

I cannot hear, says Cynthio, without a kind of indignation, the satirical reflection that Martial has made on the memory of Domitian. It is certain so ill an emperor deserved all the reproaches that could be heaped upon him, but he could not deserve them of Martial. I must confess I am less scandalised at the flatteries the epigrammatist paid him living, than the ingratitude he showed him dead. A man may be betrayed into the one by an overstrained complaisance, or by a temper extremely sensible of favours and obligations: whereas the other can arise from nothing but a natural baseness and villany of soul. It does not always happen, says Philander, that the poet and the honest man'meet together in the same person. I think we need enlarge no farther on this medal, unless you have a mind to compare the trophy on it with that of Mezentius in Virgil.

Ingenten quercum decisis undique ramis
Constituit tumulo, fulgentiaque induit arma,
Mezenti ducis exuvias; tibi, magne, tropæum,
Bellipotens: aptat rorantes sanguine cristas,
Telaque trunca viri, et bis sex thoraca petitum
Perfossumque locis; clypeumque ex ære sinistra
Subligat, atque ensem collo suspendit eburnum.

VIRG. Æn. lib. 11.
He bar'd an ancient oak of all her boughs:
Then on a rising ground the trunk he plac'd ;
Which with the spoils of his dead foe he grac'd.
The coat of arms by proud Mezentius worn,
Now on a naked snag in triumph borne,
Was hung on high; and glitter'd from afar:
A trophy sacred to the god of war.
Above his arms, fix'd on the leatless wood,
Appear'd his plumy crest, besmear'd with blood;
His brazen buckler on the left was seen ;
Truncheons of shiver'd lances hung between:
And on the right was plac'd his corslet, bord,

And to the neck was ty'd his unavailing sword. Mr. Dryden, On the next medal* you see the peace that Vespasian procured the empire, after having happily finished all its.wars both at home and abroad. The woman with the olive branch in her hand is the figure of Peace.

-Pignore Pacis
Prætendens dextrâ ramum cancntis olivæ.

Sil. It. lib. 3.

With the other hand she thrusts a lighted torch under a heap of armor that lies by an altar. This alludes to a custom among the ancient Romans, of gathering up the armor that lay scattered on the field of battle, and burning it as an offering to one of their deities. It is to this custom that Virgil refers, and Silius Italicus has described at large.

* Fig. 18.

Qualis eram cùm primam aciem Præneste sub ipsa
Stravi, scutorumque incendi victor acervos. VIRG. Æn. lib. 8.
Such as I was beneath Præneste’s walls;
Then when I made the foremost foes retire,
And set whole heaps of conquer'd shields on fire.

Ast tibi, Bellipotens, Sacrum, constructus acervo
Ingenti mons armorum consurgit ad astra:
Ipse manu celsam pinum, flammâque comantem
Attollens, ductor Gradivum in vota ciebat:
Primitias pugnæ, et læti libamina belli,
Hannibal Ausonio cremat hæc de nomine victor,
Et tibi, Mars genitor, votorum haud surde meorum,
Arma electa dicat spirantum turba virorum.
Tum face conjectá, populatur fervidus ignis
Flagrantem molem; et ruptâ caligine, in aurus
Actus aper claro perfundit lumine campos. SIL. It. lib, 10.
To thee the Warrior-God, aloft in air
A mountain pile of Roman arms they rear:
The gen'ral grasping in his victor hand
A pine of stately growth, he wav'd the brand,
And cry'd, O Mars! to thee devote I yield
These choice first fruits of honour's purple field.
Join'd with the partners of my toil and praise,
Thy Hannibal this vow'd oblation pays;
Grateful to thee for Latian laurels won :
Accept this homage, and absolve thy son.-
Then, to the pile the flaming torch he toss'd;
In smould'ring smoke the light of heav'n is lost:
But when the fire increase of fury gains,

The blaze of glory gilds the distant plains. As for the heap of arms, and mountain of arms, that the poet mentions, you may see them on two coins of Marcus Aurelius *. De Sarmatis and De Germanis allude perhaps to the form of words that might be used at the setting fire to them.Ausonio de nomine. Those who will not allow of the interpretation I have put on these two last medals, may think it an objection that there is no torch or fire near them to signify any such allusion. But they may consider that on several imperial coins we meet with the figure of a funeral pile, without any thing to denote the

• Fig. 19, 20.

burning of it, though indeed there is on some of them a Aambeau sticking out on each side, to let us know it was to be consumed to ashes.

You have been so intent on the burning of the arms, says Cynthio, that you have forgotten the pillar on your 18th medal. You may find the history of it, says Philander, in Ovid de Fastis. It was from this pillar that the spear was tossed at the opening of a war, for which reason the little figure on the top of it holds a spear in its hand, and Peace turns her back upon it.

Prospicit à templo summum brevis area circum:

Est ibi non parvæ parva columnu notæ :
Hinc solet hasta manu, belli prænuncia, mitti ;

In regem et gentes cum placet arma cupi. Ov. de Fast. lib. 6.
Where the high fane the ample cirque commands,
A little, but a noted pillar stands,
From hence, when Rome the distant kings defies,

In form, the war-denouncing javelin flies. The different interpretations that have been made on the next medal* seem to be forced and unnatural. I will therefore give you my own opinion of it. The vessel is here represented as stranded. The figure before it seems to come in to its assistance, and to lift it off the shallows: for we see the water scarce reaches up to the knees; and though it is the figure of a man standing on firm ground, his attendants, and the good office he is employed upon, resemble those the poets often attribute to Neptune. Homer tells us, that the whales leaped up at their god's approach, as we see in the medal. The two small figures that stand naked among the waves, are sea deities of an inferior rank, who are supposed to assist their sovereign in the succour he gives the distressed vessel.

Cymotkoë, simul et Triton adnixus acuto
Detrudunt naves scopulo; levat ipse tridenti,
Et vastas aperit syrtes, et temperat æqúor. VIRG. Æn. lib. 1.

* Fig. 21.

Cymothoë, Triton, and the sea-green train
Of beauteous nymphs, the daughters of the main,
Clear from the rocks the vessels with their hands;
The god himself with ready trident stands,
And opes the deep, and spreads the moving sands.

Jam placidis ratis extat aquis, quam gurgite ab imo

Et Thetis, et magnis Nereus socer erigit ulnis. Val. Flac. lib. 1. The interpreters of this medal have mistaken these two figures for the representation of two persons that are drowning. But as they are both naked, and drawn in a posture rather of triumphing over the waves than of sinking under them, so we see abundance of water deities on other medals represented after the same manner.

Ilæ Dec rirides, liquidosque advertite cultus,
Et vitreum teneris crinem redimite corymbis,
l'este nihil tectæ : quales emergitis altis
Fontibus, et visu Sutyros torquetis anuantes.

STATIUS de Balneo Etrusci. lib. 1.
Haste, haste, ye Naiads! with attractive art
New charms to ev'ry native grace impart:
With op’ning flow'rets bind your sea-green hair,
Unveil'd; and naked let limbs

So from the springs the Satyrs see you rise,

And drink eternal passion at their eyes. After having thus far cleared our way to the medal, I take the thought of the reverse to be this. The stranded vessel is the commonwealth of Rome, that, by the tyranny of Domitian, and the insolence of the Prætorian guards, under Nerva, was quite run aground and in danger of perishing. Some of those embarked in it endeavour at her recovery, but it is Trajan that, by the adoption of Nerva, stems the tide to her relief, and like another Neptune shoves her off the quicksands. Your device, says Eugenius, hangs very well together; but is not it liable to the same exceptions that you made us last night to such explications as have nothing but the writers imagination to support them? To show you, says Philander, that the construction I put on this medal is conformable to the fancies of the old Ro


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