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Ut sensit mugire Forum, movet horrida sancto
Ora situ, meritáque caput venerabile quercu. Statius Syl.lib. 1,
The guardian of that lake, which boasts to claim
A sure memorial from the Curtian name;
Rous'd by th' artificers, whose mingled sound
From the loud Forum pierc'd the shades profound,
The hoary vision rose confess'd in view,
And shook the civic wreath that bound his brow.

The two horns that you see on the next medal are
emblems of plenty*.

Apparetque beata pleno
Copia cornu.

Hor, Carm. Sæc.
Your medalists tell us that two horns on a coin signify
an extraordinary plenty. But I see no foundation for
this conjecture. Why should they not as well have
stamped two thunderbolts, two Caduceuses, or two
ships, to represent an extraordinary force, a lasting
peace, or an unbounded happiness. I rather think
that the double cornu-copia relates to the double tra-
dition of its original. Some representing it as the horn
of Achelous broken off by 'Hercules, and others, as
the horn of the goat that gave suck to Jupiter.

Rigidum fera dextera cornu
Dum tenet, infregit; truncâque à fronte revellit.
Naiades hoc, pomis et odoro flore repletum,
Sacrárunt; diversque meo bona copia cornu est.
Direrat : at Nymphe ritrì succincta Diana
Una ministrarum, fusis utrinque capillis,
Incessit, totumque tulit prædivite cornu
Autumnum, et mensas felicia poma secundas.

De Acheloi Corn. Ov. Met. lib. 9.
Nor yet his fury coold; 'twixt rage and scorn,
From my maim'd front he bore the stubborn horn:
This, heap'd with flow'rs and fruits the Naiads bear,
Sacred to Plenty and the bounteous year.

He spoke; when lo a beauteous nymph appears,
Girt like Diana's train, with flowing hairs;
The horn she brings, in which all autumn's stored;
And ruddy apples for the second board, Mr. Gay,


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* Fig. 6.

Lac dabat illa deo: sed fregit in arbore cornu:

Truncaque dimidia parte decoris erat.
Sustulit hoc Nymphe; cinctumque recentibus herbis,

Et plenum pomis ad Jovis ora tulit.
Ille, ubi res cæli tenuit, solioque paterno

Sedit, et invicto nil Jove majus erat,
Sideru nutricem, nutricis fertile cornu
Fecit; quod dominæ nunc quoque nomen habet.

De Cornu Amalth. Ov. de Fast. lib.5.
The god she suckled of old Rhea born;
And in the pious office broke her horn,
As playful in a rifted oak she tost
Her heedless head, and half its honours last.
Fair Amalthæa took it off the ground,
With apples fill'd it, and with garlands bound,
Which to the smiling infant she convey'd.
He, when the sceptre of the gods he sway'd,
When bold he seized his father's vacant throne,
And reign'd the tyrant of the skies alone,
Bid his rough nurse the starry heav'ns adorn,

And grateful in the zodiac fix'd her horn, Betwixt the double cornu-copia you see Mercury's rod.

Cyllenes cælique decus, facunde minister,

Aureu cui torto virga dracone viret. Mart. lib. 7. epig. 74. Descend, Cyllene's tutelary god,

With serpents twining round thy golden rod. It stands on old coins as an emblem of Peace, by reason of its stupifying quality that has gained it the title of virga somnifera. It has wings, for another quality that Virgil mentions in his description of it.

Hac fretus ventos et nubila tranat.
Thus arm'd the god begins his airy race,
And drives the racking clouds along the liquid space.

Mr. DRYDEN. The two heads over the two cornu-copiæ are of the emperor's children, who are sometimes called among the poets the Pledges of Peace, as they took away the occasions of war, in cutting off all disputes to the succession.

VIRG. Sen. Octav, act. 5.

-Tu mihi primum
Tot notorum memoranda parens-
Utero toties enixa gravi

Pignora pacis.
Thee first kind author of my joys,
Thou source of many smiling boys,
Nobly contented to bestow
A pledge of peace in every throw.

This medal therefore compliments the emperor on his two children, whom it represents as public blessings that promise peace and plenty to the empire.

The two hands that join one another are emblems of Fidelity*. Inde Fides dextræque datæ

Ov. Met. lib. 14.
Sociemus animos, pignus hoc fidei cupe,
Continge dextrano

Sen. Herc. Fur. act. 2.

en dextra fidesque
Quem secum patrios aiunt porture penales! Virg. Æn. lib. 4.
See now the promis'd faith, the vaunted name,
The pious man, who, rushing through the flame,
Preserv'd his gods-

Mr. DRYDEN. By the inscription we may see that they represent, in this place, the fidelity or loyalty of the public towards their emperor. The Caduceus rising between the hands signifies the peace that arises from such a union with their prince, as the spike of corn, on each side, shadows out the plenty that is the fruit of such a peace.

Pax Cererem nutrit, pacis alumna Ceres. Fast. lib. 1.

The giving of a handt, in the reverse of Claudius, is a token of good will, For when, after the death of his nephew Caligula, Claudius was in no small apprehension for his own life, he was, contrary to his expectation, well received among the Prætorian guards, and afterwards declared their emperor. His reception

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is here recorded on a medal, in which one of the ensigns presents him in his hand, in the same sense as Anchises gives it in the following verses.

Ipse pater dextram-Anchises haud multa moratus
Dat juveni, atque animum præsenti munere firmat.

VIRG. Æn. lib. 3. The old weather-beaten soldier that carries in his hand the Roman eagle, is the same kind of officer that you meet with in Juvenal's fourteenth satire.

Dirue Maurorum attegias, castella Brigantum,
Ut locupletem aquilam tibi seragesimus annus

Juv. sat. 14. I remember in one of the poets the Signifer is described with a lion's skin over his head and shoulders, like this we see in the medal, bút at present I cannot recollect the passage. Virgil has given us a noble description of a warrior making his appearance under a lion's skin.

Tegmen torquens immane leonis
Terribili impe.rum setâ, cum dentibus albis
Indutus capiti, sic regia tecta subibat
Horridus, Herculeoque humeros indutus amictu.

VIRG. Æn. lib. 7.
Like Hercules himself his son appears,
In savage pomp: a lion's hide he wears;
About his shoulders hangs the shaggy skin,
The teeth and gaping jaws' severely grin.
Thus like the god his father, homely drest,
He strides into the hall, a horrid guest!

Mr.DRYDEN. Since you have mentioned the dress of bearer, says Cynthio, I cannot forbear remarking that of Claudius, which was the usual Roman habit. One may see in this medal, as well as in any antique statues, that the old Romans had their necks and arms bare, and as much exposed to view as our hands and faces are at present. Before I had made this remark, I have sometimes wondered to see the Roman poets, in their descriptions of a beautiful man, so often mentioning the turn of his neck and arms, that in our modern dresses lie out of sight, and are covered under part of the clothing. Not to trouble you with many quotations, Horace speaks of both these parts of the body in the beginning of an ode, that in my opinion may be reckoned among the finest of his book, for the naturalness of the thought, and the beauty of the expression.

your standard

Dum tu Lydia Telephi
Cervicem-roseam, et cerea Telephi

Luudas brachia, meum
Fervens difficili bile tumet jecur.
When Telephus bis youthful charms,

neck and winding arms,
With endless rapture you recite,
And in that pleasing name delight;
My heart, inflam'd by jealous heats,
With numberless resentments beats;
From my pale cheek the colour flies,

And all the man within me dies. It was probably this particular in the Roman habit that gave Virgil the thought in the following verse, where Romulus, among other reproaches that he makes the Trojans for their softness and effeminacy, upbraids them with the make of their Tunicas that had sleeves to them, and did not leave the arms naked and exposed to the weather like that of the Romans.

Et tunicæ manicas, et habent ridimicula mitræ. Virgil lets us know in another place, that the Italians preserved their old language and habits, notwithstanding the Trojans became their masters, and that the Trojans themselves quitted the dress of their own country for that of Italy. This he tells us was the effect of a prayer that Juno made to Jupiter.

Illud te nulla fati quod lege tenetur,
Pro Latio obtestor', pro majestate tuorum :
Cum jam connubiis pacem felicibus (esto;)
Component, cum jam leges et fædera jungent ;
Ne vetus indigenas nomen mutare Latinos,
Neu Trous fieri jubeas, Teucrosque vocari;
Aut vocem mutare viros, aut vertere vestes.
Sit Latium, sint Albani


reges: Sit Romana potens Italâ virtute propayo: Occidit, occideritque siras cum nomine Troja. Æn. lib. 12.

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