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muel Smith, esq. Members residing in this representative, who signed the Requisition county, and to sir S. Romilly, gen. Fergu- and brought forward the Resolutions, as the son, adm. Markham, J. C. Curwen, esq. sieady friend of Reorm and enemy of Corlord visc. Althorpe, C. W. Wynne, T. W. ruption, and for his patriotic and disinCoke, esq. and the rest of the 125 Mem- terested conduct on all occasions in supbers who divided in favour of Mr. Varule's | port of the independence of this County, motion for an Address to his Viajesty. and the general rights and liberties of the

That the Thanks of this Meeunz be also people.
given to Nicholson Calvert, esq. Daniel
Giles, esq. and to the honourable Wiliam
Lamb, Vembers, residing in this county,

OFFICIAL PAPERS. and to all those other members of the SPANISHAREVOLUTION. —Decree of the SuHouse of Commons who compost i the nu- preme Junta, daied Feb. 7, 1909, (conc!lmerous respectable, and even ually suc- ded from p. 570.) cessful, Minorities.

-that acts of the most atrocious kind, and Resolved unanimously, That the increas which make human nature shudder, are ing influence of the Crown is an evii pro- daily heard of, such as the death of a nun, gressively underınıning the constitutional who threw herself into a well, to avoid the rights of the people, and that the date pro- brutality of a Frenchman; the cruel murdigious and rapid increase of our national der of a mother, whose breasts were cut debt, with that of our military and colo. oil'in the act of giving suck to her son, lvy nial establishment, have created an influ- those monsters, who afterwards sabred her ence, the force of unch, acting upon a infant; and a number of other cases equalgreat body of Electors, has driven the lily horrible; atrocitis painful to write, berties of this country from the firm basis dreadfuito read, and degrading to endure; of popular representation, to a dependance --- finally, his Majesty being convinced, upon the moderation and forbearance of that still to observe the laws of natural the Crown

equity with those who respect no law Resolved unanimously, That, although whatever, would not be moderation and it is the daty of the great Officers of the justice, but the most culpable indifference Crown to bring to light delinquency and and the basest meanness, has resolved to abuses in office, yet we have seen with ex- repress and punish those crines. Calling treme regret the Members of Administra- therefore all'Europe to witness the awful tion exerting their influence to screen de necessity which has compeiled him to relinquency, and prevent the discovery of sort to the means of retaliation, by returnmal-practices in several recent instances, ing on a sanguinary banditti violence for , and while we earnestly deprecate all un- violence, be hereby decrees : constitutional attempts at reformation out 1. That no quarter sliall be given to of the House of Commons, we think it ne- | any French soldier, Olcer or General, cessary to express our earnest hope that who may be made prisoner in any town or the independent and patriotic Members of district, in which acts contrary to the laws that honourable House will exert them- of war have been committed by the enemy, selves in obtaining that Roform, as also in but that such persons shall be immediately discovering and prosecuring all corrupt put to the sword, as an example to their abuses in every department of the State, companions and a satisfaction to outraged and in applying such constitutional checks humanity. as may secure ihe people against a recur- 2. That the present Decree shall be rence of the same.

printed, proclaimed, and distributed in the Resolved unanimously, That this Meet- Spanish armies, in order to its due exing has perceived with regret that the Ma-ecution. You are also required to make jorities of the House of Commons upon arrangements for the fulliiment of the this and some other recent occasions, have same.'The Marquis of ASTORGA, Vice differed essentially from the sense of the President.---Martin De Garay. Done in people, thereby attirding them a convin- the Royal Al-cazan of Seville, Feb. 7, cing proof that a Retorm in the Represen- 1809. tation of the People is indispensibly necessary to the expression of the public Turkey.- Treaty between Great Britain and sentiments.

the Sublime Porte. Resolved unanimously, That the Thanks of this Meeting be given to William P:u- 1. From the moment of the signature mer, esq. our late worthy and independent of the present Treaty all acts of hostility. shall cease, between England and Turkey, King of Great Britain shall fully enjoy the and the prisoners on both siles, in conses honours enjoyed by other nations at the quence of this happy peace, shall be at Sublime Porte; and reciprocally the Amliberty in thirty-one days after the signa- bassadors of the Sublime Porte to the ture of this 'Treaty, or sooner if possible. Court of London shall fully enjoy all the

2. If there should be any places be-honours which shall be granted to the longing to the Sublime Porie, in possession Ambassadors of Great Britain. of Great Britain, they are to be restored, 8. It shall be permitted to name Schaand given up to the Sublime Porte, with binders (Consuls) at Malta, and in the all their cannon, ammunition, and other States of his Britannic Majesty, wherever effects, in the same condition in which it may be necessary to inspect the affairs they were found when occupied by the and interests of the Turkish merchants, and English ; and this restitution must take the same treatment and privileges which place within thirty-one days after the sig- are allowed to English Consuls residing nature of the present Treaty.

in the Ottoman States, shall be rigidly 3. If there shali be effects or property observed towards the Schabinders of the appertaining to English merchants, or se. Sublime Porte. questrated under the jurisdiction of the 9. The English Consuls and AmbassaSublime Porte, that shall be all returned dors shall, according to custom, employ and restored to the proprietors--and in like such drogmans as they may have occamanner, if there shall be effects, property, sion for; but ,as it has been before deor vessels, appertaining to the merchants creed by common consent, the Sublime and subjects of the Sublime Porte, under Porte will not grant the berat of drogman sequestration at Malta, or in the other in favour of individuals who do not exerIsles and States of his Britannic Majesty, cise that function in the place of their des. they shall in like manner be entirely re- tination. It is agreed, conformably to this turned and restored to the proprietors. principle, that henceforward the berat

4. The articles of the Treaty stipulated shall not be granted to any person of the in the Turkish year 1086, in the moon rank of tradesman or banker, nor to any Djemaz ul Akber, as also the article rela- one who shall keep a shop or manufactory tive to the commerce of the Black Sea, and in the public market, or who shall be conthe other privileges (midjiazals) equally cerned in affairs of this kind ; and he shall established by the acts of subsequent pe- not be appointed by the English Consuls riods, shall be observed and maintained as from among the subjects of the Sublime heretofore, and as if they had not suffered Porte. any interruption.

•10. The English patent of protection 5. In consequence of the good treat- shall not be granted to any person from ment and favour granted by the Sublime among the dependents or merchants, subPorte to the English merchants with res- jects of the Sublime Porte, nor shall there pect to their merchandize and property, be delivered to them any passport from and every thing of which they may stand the Ambassadors or Consuls, without the in need--and, in like manner, with re- permission of the Sublime Porte. gard to all objects tending to facilitate 11. As it has been at all times forbid. the commerce, England shall reciprocally den for ships of war to enter the canals of grant entire favour and an amicable treat- Constantinople, viz. in the Strait of the ment to the flags, subjects, and mer- Dardanelles, or that of the Black Sea, and chants of the Sublime Porte-who shali as that antient rule of the Ottoman Emhereafter frequent the States of his Bri- pire must be benceforward observed in tannic Majesty.

time of peace by all Powers whatever, the 6. The tariff of the customs, which was British Court promise to conform to this latterly fixed at Constantinople, at the old principle. rate of three per cent. and especially the 12. The Ratification of this present article which respects internal commerrs, Treaty of Peace, between the High Conshall be constantly observed as they have tracting Powers, shall be exchanged at been regulated. To this England pro- Constantinople in the space of ninety-one mises to conform.

days from the late of the present Treaty, 7. The Ambassador of his Majesty the or sovner if possible.

LONDON :--Printed luy T. C. HANSARD, Peterborough - Court, Fleet - Street ; Published by R. BAGSHAW, Brydges-Street, Covent - Garden :-Sold also by J. BUDD, Pall-Mall.

VOL. XV. No. 21.)

LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 27, 1809.

[Price 1s.

TO THE

LETTER III.

A MODERATE and temperate Reform in the Abuses of the Constitution is due to the people, who “ being on their part just to the monarchical und aristocratical branches of the Constitution, who commit no * invasion of the rights, and seek no'abridgements of the powers of either, are entitled to have their own

share in the legislation of their country, freed from the unjust usurpations of others, and to possess un• invaded, and to exercise uncontrouled by the other branches of the govercment, those rights which

this happy Constitution, in the matchless excellence of its principles, has solely and exclusively allotted “ to the people. A Reform of such a character may lessen the means, and diminish the opportunities “ of corrupting legislation, both in its source and in its progress ; it may reduce the influence by which “ unconstitutional ministers preserve their power, but it will save the nation from their profusion, and

perpetuate that Constitution which all equally profess to venerate : Such a Reform I believe cannot, “ with perfect safety, be long delayed; the more readily and cheerfully those rights which belong only “ to the people are restored by those who at present, in too many instances, possess and exercise them, * the more firm and established will be the present happy form of our government, the more safe from "risque and danger will be the just prerogatives of the crown, and the peculiar ackuowledged hereditary. “ privileges of this House."- LORD LAUDERDALE's Protest, in the House of Lords, 31 May 1792. 801]

-[809

6 firm conviction of this Meeting, that a INDEPENDENT PEOPLE OF HAMPSHIRE. “ Reform in the representation of the people

“ in the Commons House of Parliament,

“ is the only effectual corrective of exPARLIAMENTARY Reform.

isting abuses; and that the only seWhether the present state of the Representation “curity against future corruptions, will

be consonant with the principles of that be the restoring to the people that share Constitution, which has so long been the ~ of the elective franchise which the pubboast of Englishmen?.

“ lic good requires, and to which they are GENTLEMEN;

“ entiiled by the principles of the Bri. 1. Before I proceed to the discussion ' tish Constitution.' -It is but just to of this question, suffer me, for one mo- the County of Cornwall, as well as to the ment, to advert to an assertion, which has cause of Reform, to state, which I do been made by more than one member of upon certain information, that Lord Eliot, the House of Commons; namely, that the Lord de Dunstanville, Mr. F. Gregor, country does not wish for a Reform of Par- Mr. F. G. Glanvillę. Mr. William Rashliament. Precisely what these gentle-leigh, Mr. Charles Rashleigh, and several men may mean, when they say “ the other of those, who are well known to country,neither you nor I can posi- have a deep interest in the numerous tívely tell; but, I think, it would be ex- boroughs in that County, were present at tremely difficult for any man to devise a the Meeting, and that, notwithstanding method, by which to draw from a country, their opposition, the Resolutions trere carcontaining so many people as this, any ried by a majority of fifty to on it is thing better intitled to the appellation of also worthy of notice, that the Resour's the general wish, than that expression of a were brought forward by Mr. Colman wish for Reform, which has now been ut- Rashleigh, a near relation of two of the tered in this Kingdom. It is notorious, above named gentlemen, who are well that there is scarcely any portion of the known to have the largest share in the people, who may be deemed at liberty to management of the Cornish boroughs. It express their opinions, who have not de- is further proper to state, that Lord de cidedly declared for Reform. Even in Dunstanville and Mr. Gregor, who took an Cornwall, where, if any where, the cause active part in the debate, said, that they of Reform might reasonably be expected had no objection to a vote of thanks to Mr. to meet with few friends, a County Meet- Wurdle; though it will be recollected, that ing, held at Bodmin on the 15th instant, the king's ministers, in the House of Comresolved, “ That the corruptions which mons, declared their resolution to oppose “ have been suffered to accumulate to so a vote of thanks to that gentleman, if it “grievous an extent in this country, are to were brought forward. A similar declara" be traced to the defective state of the tion was, you will recollect, made by all o representation; that it is, therefore, the our opponents at Winchester, which it in

very material to bear in mind, because it they be, or be not, in reality, represented shows, that even the supporters of the mi- in the Commons' House ; or, in other nisters have not, when they come to meet words, whether the members of that house the people face to face, the courage to be, or be not, chosen by the people. maintain the declarations of those minis- From Magna Charta down to the Act of ters. - The result of this Meeting in Settlement, there runs through the whole of Cornwall is a good specimen, but it is no our laws, this leading principle; namely, more than a specimen, of what has passed, that nothing shall be taken from the peoand is passing, in every part of the king- ple, in taxes, without their own consent; dom, where the people have the liberty and, indeed, Magna Charta itself was noto assemble for the purposes of political thing more than a declaration and condiscussion ; and yet, there are men, who firmation of what was the law of the land scruple not to assert, and that, too, with before. That every individual is to give out the smallest reservation, that “the bis consent to a tax, when the tax is de“ country” does not wish for a Parliament- | manded of him, neither is nor ever was ary Reform!

the notion; but, that no tax is to be levied 11. Now, Gentlemen, in coming to the upon any man, without the consent of the question before us, when we talk of the people, given by their representatives, in a Constitution, we surely mean, that there is general assembly, ways was the notion, something; something really in existence, to and the settled doctrine of the kingdom which that favourite word applies? We of England. Indeed, it is this, and this surely have not talked and written and alone, which distinguishes the government preached and even prayed so long about of England from that of any state subject a thing, which has no existence in the to the will of a despot; for, take away world, and which is merely a creature of this, and we are subject immediately to the iinagination? Well, then, what is this lose any part of our property that those Constitution? Fully to define it, in a short who have the sword of authority in their compass, would be impossible; because hands choose to take from us. Without the definition is to be drawn from nu- this, the people have no check upon the merous usages

and laws. But, a definition, Crown, or upon the Aristocracy; and, it quite suflicient for our present purpose, is will be easily seen, that, without this this : that the Constitution provides, that check, the sparing of even our persons no man shall suffer punishment, in any must, with any ministry, be merely a way, unless he be guilty of an offence question of policy. known to the laws; that no man shall be With respect to the mode of appointing hed in confinement, anless upon sufficient persons to represent the people, divers recause being legally shown; that the gulations have been made, in order to indwelling, or possessions, of no man shall sure the operation of probity and of good be entered into against his consent, unless sense in this important business. With for sufficient cause legally shown; that regard to the qualifications of the reprethe property of no man shall be taken sentatives, the description, at a more refrom him, unless for just cause legally mote period, was less definite; latterly a shown; that the property of no man shall landed qualification has been settled; but, be taken from himn, in the way of taxes, always, it was a principle, that members without his consent; and that, in order of parliament should be men of substantial that these rights and liberties may be pre- property, which was, of itself, a suficient served, the people shall be represented in check against any thing of toe democraa Commons House of Parliament, the tical a cast. On the part of the people, members of which shall be elected by the properiy was, as, in reason, it must be, the people themselves.

basis of the right, or duty, to choose memSuch is the substance of the Constitution bers of parliament; and, there could be, of England; thui constitution, for which in remote times, no distinction as to the we are called upon to fight and to make pe- different sorts of property, because those cuniary sacrifices enormous, and for which who were not froeholders had, in fact, 1:0 we are ready to fight and make any sacri- property at all, and were merely the Fassals fices that can be named.-It is easy to of ile Barons and other great men. But, perceive, however, that, as far as regards while time has completely worn

away

this the safety either of the persons or the pro

character of vassal, and while copyholders perty of the people, all must finally de- and other owners of real property, have, pend upon the state of the Representation as to all other purposes, become of full as in Parliament; upon the point, whether much consequence as the owners of free

one

hold land, the right, or duty, of voting from giving Manchester representatives has, with regard to the counties, been per- instead of Gatton or Old Sarum, is just as severingly confined to the freeholders : wise as it would be to apprehend the fall the name of freeholder has been kept up of a building froin the removing of a rotto the utter destruction of the constitu- ten pillar and putting a sound one in its tional principle of suffrage. And, as to stead. the boroughs, which were called upon to III. Let us now see what has been written send represeotatives, they were so ca.led upon this subject by that author, to whom upon, because they were, at the time, our adversaries, in all other cases, think places of the great st trude in the kingdoin, proper to appeal. I mean the famous when it is notorious, that, at this time, Conmentator on the Law of England, MR. many of them have dwindled into mere BLACKSTONE, who, in 1768, when his work villages or hamlets, some of them contain was first published, was a Professor of Law ing scarcely a single house. In those times in the University of Oxford, and who, in Old Sarum was a considerable place, and consequence of his writing that work, was Manchester a place of no consideration ar afterwards made a Judge. Let us who are all; and, in order to have a striking view accused of clumour and factiuness, and of of the unreasonableness of still leaving to wild notions and chimericel projects; let the former the choice of two members, us, to get rid at once of all this, apcal to while the latter chooses no member at all, the biok of Blackstone; and ihenhethe, we have only to suppose the case of call- who defend the corruptions ni pajiannt, ing upon Old Sarum to pay more in taxes and who abuse all those, who like toese than Manchester, because it formerly paid corruptions, direct their abuse tovarl-:his more in taxes. If such a demand were great legal a':thurity. “ The Commis,made, who would not exclaim against its says Blackstone, “consist of all sech men injustice? Should we not bear it said, of any properly, in the kingdom, as have that the scythe of time had disabled Old “ not seats in the house of lords; every Sarum from paying its ancient proportion of whom has a voice in parliement, of taxes? Well, then, shall the effect of eisker personally, or by his representatives. the attacks of time furnishi no argument “ In a free state, every man, who is supa in favour of a change in the representa- posed a free agent, ought to be, in some tion, when it is found to be unanswerable measure, his own governor; and there, in favour of a change in behalf of the “ fore a branch, at least, of the legislative places represented ? To leave the choosing power should reside in the whole body of members of parliament to old and de of the people. And this power, when cayed boroughs is as contrary to reason as " the territories of the state are small and it would be to expect from age and de- “its citizens easily known, should be excrepirude the functions of youth. When-"ercised by the people in their augregate ever any invasion of the rights of the “ or collective capacity, as was wisely orpeople has taken place, and has called “ dained in the petty republics of Greece, forth an appeal to our ancient laws, we " and the first rujiments of the Roman have been answered by the remark, that " state.”

“ In so large a one of the great excellencies of the consti- "state as ours it is very wisely contrived, tution is, that it is constantly capable of " that the people should do that by their amendment ; and is it not very strange, “ representatives, which it is impracticathen, that those who have thus answered “ble to perform in person : representa us, should, as to this point, wherein the “ tives, chosen by a number of minute and hand of time has been so manifestly de- separate districts, wherein all the voters structive, refuse, and represent as an at- “ are, or easily may be, distinguished. The tempt at innovation, any proposition to alter “ counties are, therefore, represented by or amend? The tru.h is, that to leave the “ knights, elected by the proprietors of lands; choosing of members to rotten boroughs “ the cities and boroughs are represented and to forty shilling freeholders is the in- by citizens and burges:es, chosen l’y the novation ; this is the innovation, and time mercantile part or supposed trading ina is the innovator. The constitution makes“ terest of the nation.” real property the basis of representation in After a description of the great powers of the counties, and trade in the towns and parliament; the unlimited and unchecked cities; therefore, where time has removed powers of that boly, he proceeds thus :this basis, there is an innovation intro- « So that it is a matter most essential to duced ; and to apprehend the destruction “ the liberties of this kingdom, that such of the ancient fabric of the constitution "members be delegated to this important

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