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very truly, that these abuses arise from the Bill of Rights stated that standing the imperfect state of our Parliamentary armies were on no account to be kept up representation. I am fully convinced, without the consent of Parliament, it had that there is not, at the present moment, not anticipated the time that Parliaments any subject worthy of engaging the seri- could be brought to consent to any thing ous attention of the English nation, except that the King's Ministers should require. the necessity of a Reform in Parliament. At the time in which the Bill of Rights This sentiment has been always entertained was passed, a standing army was conceive and always avowed by me, and I do flattered so unconstitutional, and so dangerous myself that it was this sentiment which to civil liberty, that it was not supposed first recommended me to your notice. that Parliament could grant it, except on We have heard of late of a great many some case of great emergency. It was a Commissions and Boards of Inquiry, to distinct charge against James II. that he consider about the growing abuses of Ad- kept up a standing army contrary to law; ministration; but how does it happen, but if he had known ihe modern art of that, with all their inquiries and all their managing a Parliament, that and much discoveries, none of the public peculators more could have easily been done accordhave been brought to punishment? (Loud | ing to law. What, however, is the most applause.) They may bring forward Com-cruel and afficting consideration is, that mission after Commission, and Act of Par- that very body to which the people should liament after Act of Parliament, and yet naturally look up as its protector from peculation goes on, and the authors of it those abuses, has become the principal are not punished. Instead of the guilty cause of them. So far from the House of being punished, all manner of imputations Commons representing the sense of the are always thrown upon those who detect people of England, I have ever found, their guilt. The Chancellor of the Exche- since I have been a Member of the House quer has lately brought in one of those of Commons, that the most popular sentiBills. If my health had allowed me to ment which can be expressed in that place, have been in the House at the time, I is a sentiment of contempt for the people should have certainly opposed the intro- of England, whose Representatives they duction of it. I should have objected to still profess to be. I do believe that the that or any other sham and ridiculous plan, House of Commons is the only spot in all which professed what it was evidently the world, where the people of England impossible that it could accomplish. Of are spoken of with contempt. There they Bills of this sort we have abundance. are calumniated, there the character of Lord Melville himself brought in a Bill to Englishmen is spoken lightly of, and their prevent corruption in his office, and it opinion and feelings set at nought. If this was afterwards found that this Bill was so circumstance does not shew you the neingeniously worded, that it did not apply cessity of Parliamentary Reform, there is to his particular case. You have had nothing that I can say (were I speaking persons of all ranks and degrees in life till night) which could convince you. brought to the Bar of the House of Com- Among those Bills, of which I have been mons, from the high rank of the person speaking, there is one which is called who was the subject of the late inquiry, Magna Charta. This has now grown aldown to the governor of the prison at most obsolete, and was certainly never Cold-bath-fields; and yet, was there an mentioned in the Courts of Law. By this instance of any one of them having been law no man was to be imprisoned, except punished ? You have already Bills enough by the course of law. There was no exto prevent those abuses; but the Bills are aception in favour of Attorney-Generals mere dead letter, and the abuses still con- granting their informations ex officio, and tinue, and are perpetually increasing. You having the King's subjects imprisoned have now upon your Státute-book the Bill contrary to the due course of law. We of Rights, which was expressly calculated had an Habeas Corpus Act too, but our for the prevention of such abuses; and yet ancestors had not calculated on its being this Bill is no longer a protection to the suspended, whenever Ministers should ask country, for the abuses continue. If the Parliament so to do. If those laws are family of the Stuarts had but possessed that now permitted to remain on our Statute knowledge which every body possesses Book, they only stand to shew us in what now, the knowledge of managing a Par- a degrading situation we are now placed, liament, they never would have been ex- and from what an eminence we have fallen. pelled the throne of this country. When 'It is now high time that the country should
call for such a reform as will give us a , ful beauty and contrivance of the ConstiHouse of Commons really looking to the tution. Now, if we are to judge from the interests of the people, and not to the practice, we must suppose that it is a thing emoluments which are to be derived from too beautiful to be made use of. The the favour of the Crown. (Loud applauses.) country is over-run with numerous tax
“ There is another sentiment which I gatherers (armed with excessive powers), feel it necessary for me to express, and in besides supervisors, and a number of other which I differ from many persons. I have revenue-officers, whose titles I do not reheard that spirit much applauded which collect, but who swarm over the face of induces the nobility and gentry of this the land like insects on the banks of the country to turn farmers, and give their Nile, and, like them, raised and fattened principal attention to the cultivation of by corruption. The Bill of the Chancellor their estates. Now it appears to me that of the Exchequer will, like other Bills, be it forebodes no good to the country, in its soon a dead letter. Need I mention to present critical situation, to see those who you the conduct of Judges, who, for of ought to be considered as its natural de- fences committed and tried in this city, fenders, desert its cause at such a time as send men for years to Dorchester Jail, and this, indifferent about those abuses which to solitary imprisonment? Need I describe may lead to its utter destruction, and to you the horrible cruelty of the punishanxious about fattening sheep and oxen. ment of solitary imprisonment? The day These cares are in themselves very pro- that introduced that system into England per; but they should be only of secondary should stand importance to those whose rank and consideration should rather call them to res
* For aye accursed in the calendar.' cue their country from oppression, than to Do you think, however, that such things spend their lives, and devote their whole are to be remedied by any Bills to be minds to the consideration of the best man- brought in to prevent Judges from acting ner of fattening cattle.
in this manner? No : they would be ef“ I would really wish that those Noble- fectually prevented by an honest House of men and Gentlemen would learn how dan-Commons, who would call to account gerous it is to them and to the security of Judges, or any other public officers that their property, to be neglectful of the situ- should abuse the trust reposed in them. ation of the country in general. If the Without a House of Commons which really country is lost, what will become of their represents the people of England, the properties ? I do really believe that if beta country is like a ship without a rudder, ter measures of defence for the country whicin, however it inay appear upon the are not provided, the country will be lost. water, is in perpetual danger of shipwreck. If, then, some General Junot or Duke of We may remember an instance some Abrantes becomes the master of it, per- years ago, of a youth, about 16 or 17 years haps indeed these Noblemen or Gentlemen of age (Mr. Le Maitre), being sent to somay be still allowed to follow their agri- litary imprisonment, where he was left cultural experiments (only accounting to for near sevent years, without being brought him for the profits), and he may be obliged to trial. He had been charged with into them for their diligence, and pleased tending to kill the King, by blowing somes with the discoveries they may make thing out of a reed. It was generally (Laughter and applauses.) I see but two called the Pop-gun Plot; and yet when it measures for the salvation of the country. was recollected that upon a charge which The first is, to get rid of that intolerable was probably void of all foundation as well grinding corruption which devours the as probability, a man was kept in solitary country, which has placed it in the state imprisonment seven years without a trial, of the fabled Prometheus, who was chain- I must ask what is the use of Magna ed to a rock, on whose liver a vulture was Charta, or the Habeas Corpus Bill, or any constantly preying, but which perpetually other Bill which a corrupt House of Comgrew again. It was in this manner, that mons will permit the Minister to suspend notwithstanding the sums which were la- at his pleasure? The abuses of which we vished by corruption, the unexampled in- complain proceed directly from the cordustry of the people of this country re- ruption which has taken root in the whole produced the means to supply the constant system of our Government. Where the waste of this infernal corruption. (Loud source is corrupt, the streams cannot be upplause.)
Where corruption has fastened in “ We bear perpetually of the wonder. I the root, it will be discovered in the fruits
of the tree. Those abuses have arrived to other conspiracy existing, except a conspi80 flagrant a pitch, that even the friends racy against every honest man that shall of that system thought it necessary to have the boldness to point out guilt, and have cominissions and inquiries instituted to endeavour to remedy abuses. Some perfor the purpose of pruning and dressing sons talk a great deal of the danger of poputhe tree which now produces such bitter lar influence: I would be glad, however; fruit. This, however, is not our business; that they would lay their hand on the map we must lay the axe to the root of the tree. of Europe, and point out any one country (Loud applauses). Unless we destroy this that has ever been destroyed by the prehydra of corruption, it will destroy the valence of popular influence. It is easy country. The monster now stands, with to point out those which have been desharpy claws seizing on all our substance, troyed from their Governments being inatto supply the means of its boundless pro- tentive to the wishes and wants of the Peodigality. If this monster is not now sub-ple. I indeed will readily admit, that a dued and destroyed, England must, like House of Commons, sitting in its judicial many other nations,
capacity, should not be governed by “ Lie at the proud feet of a conqueror."
popular influence upon any other consi.
deration but justice. I should be as much “ This is then the task of the people of ashamed to have my vote as a judge bias. England, and what we have now to do. sed by any consideration, or whether I was I hope this use will be made of the patrio- to gain or lose popularity, as I would be to tic spirit which has been excited by Colo- accept a bribe or any other corrupt consinel Wardle. If it does not produce this deration. The character of the people of effect, it will avail but little. If the people this country is not for severity of punishof England can be contented at the present ment, not for running down any man by moment to assemble merely for the pur- clamour, but they look for patient invespose of saying how glad they are of the tigation, and above all for impartial jusresignation of the Duke of York, then the tice, and for laws equally applied to all country cannot be saved. I have, however, ranks and degrees. a better opinion of the people of this coun- « Our constitution seems to be sometry, than to suppose that their hopes and thing like a partnership concern. There expectations can be so limited. I am free are three partners; the King, the Lords, "to confess that it is my opinion, that a and the Commons. Now what would be Parliamentary Reform is now absolutely said of any common partnership, where necessary. If it can be obtained by quiet one or two of the partners would take the means, it will be a most fortunate circum- profits to themselves, but leave the full prostance, not only for the country but for portion of burden and risk to the other? the Government, for they are the most What share now has the people of England foolish and wicked advisers of the Crown, in this firm? It is my hope and wish that who advise the Sovereign to treat with they shall at length be restored to their scorn' the wishes and opinions of the peo- share. (Loud applause.) I think nothing ple. When Colonel Wardle brought for- can be more improper or pernicious in its ward his motion, he was immediately consequences, than the endeavour to coucharged with being connected with a ple the rest of the Royal Family with the conspiracy. This is the common course transactions in which the Duke of York is of every scoundrel who is charged with concerned. The Duke of York should be any crime; he immediately turns about, tried for his own offences; but it is unfair and charges his accuser. It was, however, as well as injurious to the country to in. somewhat extraordinary, that these Gen- volve others in that odium which only tlemen, who, with such a mass of evidence should belong to the guilty. If his Ma. before them as was sufficient to convince jesty has been obliged to accept the resig. every other person, could not yet be con- nation of the Duke of York, the affliction vinced of any impropriety in the Duke of should not go farther. It puts me in mind York, should immediately, and without of the advice given by Hamlet, when his any evidence at all, find out that Colonel mother complained: Wardle was a conspirator as soon as he
“ O Hamlet, you have cleft my heart in twain ! had brought forward his accusation. Be-fore he brought forward this accusation, he The answer was, had a fair and unimpeached character,
“Then throw away the worser part, but now they tell you he is almost as bad as
" And live the purer with the other half.” us Jacobins. (Loud laughter.) I can see no \ I hope that the nation has ceased to lookt for any advantage from any change of ad-vived and confirmed by king Gustavus III. ministrations (cries of no, no, they are all the on the 9th of November, 1778, but that sume.) We must look no inore to parties, the other States, which, as usual, send Deand be assured that we never can expect puties, may observe the following order : any measures really useful, until the peo- From the Clergy are expected to appear ple of England have their proper share in the Archbishop, every Bishop from his the constitution of their country-Cloud ap- Diocese, the first Pastor in Stockholm, toplauses.) As for me, I like this adminis-gether with so many from each Diocese tration just as well as any of the other ad- as usual, and of the other States, as many ministrations which have existed in this as usual, all provided with necessary leireign. I do not see that one of them has ters of deputation, in order that we may done more good than the other. I want be able to begin the Diet, and after its none of their places either for myself, or being fortunately finished, give you perfor my friends. I would be well content mission to return every one to his prothat they would keep their places, if they vince. Which every one must respectwould only do the country justice. But fully observe, and we are, &c. &c. my mind is fully impressed with the idea, that this justice will never be done until Address of his Royal Highness the Duke of the people of England shall be fairly re- Sudermania, to the People of Sweden, dated presented (as by the theory of the Consti- Stockholm, March 15, 1809. tution they ought to be) in the Commons His Royal Highness the Duke of SuderHouse of Parliament."
mania deens it right, and conformable to
the duties of his high station, publicly to OFFICIAL PAPERS.
lay before the Swedish people, the motives REVOLUTION IN SWEDEN.
and causes which produced the important Letters Patent and Proclamation of his Royal change, which has lately taken place in
Highness the Duke of Sudermania, Regent the Government of this country. The of the Swedish Kingdom, to all the Estates archives of the state contain a great varieof the Realm, concerning a General Diet ty of documents, which will prove the neto be held on the 1st of May, in the present cessity of that measure, both to the preyear: Given at the King's Palace, at Stock- sent age and posterity.-For this long time holm, March 14th 1809.
past the public opinion condemned a sysWe Charles, by the grace of God, as- tem of warfare, which so little suits a counsure you, Estates of the Realm, Counts, try, the commercial concerns of which Barons, Archbishops, Bishops, Nobles, claim that neutrality, which her fortunate Clergy, Burghers of Cities, and Commo- geographical situation, that seems to senalty, of our particular favour, gracious cure Sweden, demands, and which was intentions, and kind affection, under the sacrificed by the Government. As early protection of Almighty God.--Since we, as 1805, Sweden, joined by other Fowers, according to our gracious Proclamation of entered into a war with France, which the 13th instant, have found ourselves from local circumstances, was then, howcalled upon to take the reins of Govern- ever, confined to the loss of her trade ment as Regent, in order to save our be- with nearly all the States of Europe ; a loved native country from unavoidable de- loss which, although not to be compared struction, we have considered it of the with that she has since sustained, was yet highest importance to deliberate with of great moment.--Soon after differences the States of the Realm, upon the means with Prussia arose, which, however, were which may procure and confirm the future not attended with consequences equally happiness of the Swedish nation. We important. In 1807, the share which wish, therefore, and command that all the Sweden took in the coalition against States of the Realm may assemble in the France becaine momentous, and its influCapital of the Kingdom before the 1st ofence on the de rest interests of the counMay next, and that not only the Nobility try more deirimental. Swedish Pomemay regulate their conduct by the Jaws rania was occupied by foreign troops, and for the House of Nobles given on the 6th Stralsund besieged ; yet one prospect of of June, 1626, by the king Gustavus Adoi- more fortunate times yet remained included. phus, of glorious memory, &c. and re
(To be continued.)
LONDON :--Printed by T. C. HANSARD, Peterborough - Court, Fleet - Street ; Published by R. BAGSHAW, Brydges - Street, Covent - Garden :--Sold also by J. BUDD, Pall-Mall.
VOL. XV. No. 15.) LONDON, SATURDAY, APRIL 15, 1809.
" Your Lordship knows, that had I followed my own opinion, as a military man, I should have retired " with the army from Salamanca. The Spanish armies were then beaten; there was no Spanish force to “which we could unite, and I was satisfied that no efforts would be made to aid us, or to favour the "cause in which they were engaged. I was sensible, however, that the apathy and indiference of the “ Spaniards would never have been believed; that had the British been withdrawn, the loss of the cause “would have been imputed to their retreat, and it was necessary to risk this army to convince the people “ of England, as well as the rest of Europe, that the Spaniards had neither the power nor the inclination to « make any efforts for themselves. It was for this reason that I made the march to Sabagan. As a diver“sion, it succeeded : I brought the whole disposable force of the French against this army, and it has “ been allowed to follow me, without a single movement being made to favour my retreat. The people " of the Gallicias, though armed, made no attempt to stop the passage of the French through the moun“ tains. They abandoned their dwellings at our approach, drove away their carts, oxen, and every thing * that could be of the smallest aid to the army. The consequence has been, that our sick have been left “ behind ; and when our horses or mules failed, which on such marches, and through such a country, “ was the case to a great extent, baggage, ammunition, stores, &c. and even money, were necessarily de"" stroyed or abandoned.”--Sir John Moore's Letter to Lord Castlereagh, dated Corinna, 13 Jan. 1809. 545]
[546 HAMPSHIRE MEETING.
Southampton. On Saturday, the 8th instant, the fol- Edward Toomer
Ruinsey. lowing Requisition was carried to Mr.
Thomas Bernard :
Mitchesmarsh. BLACKBURN, the High Sheriff, by Mr. Thomas Nichols
Southampton. COBBest of Botley, and Mr. Houghton William Green...
Timsbury.. of Durley. On Wednesday the 12th, the Peter Jewell..
Bursledon. Sheriff transmitted to them "his Notice for Rev. John Webster
Rumsey. the Meeting, as it will be seen at the
Braishfield. bottom of the signatures.
Hambledon. other Landholders of the County of South William Biles
Durley. ampton, request that you will be pleased Edward Houghton
Eling. to call a Meeting of the Inhabitants of this William Metchard
Tichborne. County, to be holden at Winchester, on
.Jobn Saunders ...
Eling. such day as shall, at no great distance, be William Twynam
Soberton. convenient to you, in order to afford us, Francis Hoad
Soberton. and the Inhabitants of this County in ge
Droxford. neral, an opportunity of publicly and Henry Parrott
William Powlett Powlett..... formally giving our thanks to Gwyllym L.
Soberton. Wardle, Esq. M. P. for his upright and John Cotman
Tichborne. public-spirited conduct, during the re- Francis Godrich
Ovington. cent Inquiry before the House of Com- William Agate.
Winchester mons; and also of expressing our senti
Kilmiston. ments upon the subjects of that Inquiry.
Rev. Thomas May
Fordingbridge. Thomas King