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from erery possibility of relief, and could sion, or at least all the principal articles of only have held out some days, when a capi. it, were not objected to by the five distin. tulation was granted to it, September the guished lieutenant.generals of that army ; 2d, as favourable as the Convention of and other general officers who were on that Cintra to the army of Junot (of 24,000 service, whom we have had an opportunity French, and 6000 Russians), and perseculy to exatnine, have also concurred in the great similar in all the chief articles of men, advantages that were immediately gained, baggage, artillery, conveyance, &c. ; also, to the country of Portugal, to the army and that the same terms had been previously navy, and to the general service, by the granted to the garrison of Cairo, under conclusion of the Convention at that time. much the same circumstances. By these
On a consideration of all circumstances, two conventions, or capitulations, about as set forth in this Report, we most bumbly 20,000 French evacuated Egypt, and the subrait our opinion, that no further mis British army was left disposable for other litary proceeding is pecessary on the subpurposes. -- On the whole it appears, that ject. Because, howsoever some of us the operatious of the army under sir Arthur may differ ia our sentiments respecting the Wellesley, from his landing in Mondego fitness of the convention in the relative Bay the 1st of August, until the conclusion situation of the two armies, it is our un. of the action at Vimiera, the 21st of Au. animous declaration, that unquestionable gust, were highly honourable and suc- zeal and firmness appear throughout to have cessful, and such as might be expected been exhibited by lieut.-general sir Hew from a distinguished general, at the head of Dalrymple, sir Harry Burrard, and sir a British army of 13,000 men, augmented Arthur Wellesley, as well as that the are on the 20th and 21st to 17,000, deriving | dout and gallantry of the rest of the officers only some small aid from a Portuguese and soldiers, on every occasion during this corps (1600 men), and against whom an expedition, have done honour to the troops, enemy, not exceeding 14,000 men in the and reflected lustre on your majesty's arms. field, was opposed; and this before the ar- -All which is most dutifully submiited. rival of a very considerable reinforcement (Signed) David DUNDAS, general.-MOIRA, from England, under lieut-general sir John general.-PETER CRAIG, general.-HEATH. Moore, which, however, did arrive and FIELD, general.-PEMBROKE, lieut. gen.join the army, from the 25th to the 30th of G. NUGENT, licut.-gen.-OL. NICOLLS,
August. It appears a point on which no evidence adduced can enable the board to Judge Advocate General's Office, Dec. 27, pronounce, with confidence, whether or 1808.-In consequence of the following not a pursuit after the battle of the 21st, letter from his royal highness the com• could have been efficacious ; nor can the mander-in-chief to genral sir David Dundas, Board feel confident to determine on the
as president, viz. expedience forward movement to Tor
Horse Guards, Dec. 25, 1808. res Vedras, when sir Harry Burrard has Sir, The judge advocate general having destated weighty considerations against such a livered to me to be laid before his majesty,
Further, it is to be observed, the several papers and documents, containthat so many collateral circumstances could ing all the examinations and proceedings not be known in the moment of the ene- taken before the Board of Inquiry, of which my's repulse, as afterwards became clear you are the president, together with your reto the army, and have been represented to port and opinion upon the whole of the late the board. And considering the extraor- operations of his majesty's forces in Portugal, dipary circumstances under which two new as connected with the armistice and subsecommanding generals arrived from the quent convention of Cintra, I think it ipocean, and joined the army (the one du. cumbent on me to state to you, that although sing, and the other immediately after, a the Report is fully detailed, and perfectly battle, and those successively superseding explanatory of all the transactions as they each otber, and both the original com- appeared in evidence before you ; yet upon * mander within the space of 24 hours), it is a due consideration of the whole matter, it * not surprising that the army was not carried certainly appears that your opinion upon the
forward, until the second day after the conditions of the armistice and convention, action, from the necessity of the generals which the words of his majesty's warrant exbeing acquainted with the actual state of pressly enjoin should be strictly examined, things, and of their army, and proceeding inquired into, and reported upon, has been accordingly. It appears that the Conven- altogether omitted.--I feel it my duty, theretion of Cintra in all its progress and conclu- | fore, to call your attention to these two
principal features of this important case, the the battle of the 21st, and take ap a strong armistice and convention, and to desire that defensive position.-OL. NICOLLS, L. G. you may be pleased to take the same again I think, considering the great increase of into your most serious consideration, and our force, from the årst suspension of hossubjoin to the opinion which you have al. tility to the definitive signing of the convenready given upon the other points submitted tion, added to the defeat the enemy had to your examination and inquiry, whether, suffered, sir Hew Dalrymple was fully entiunder all the circumstances which appear in tled to have insisted upon more favourable evidence before you, on the relative situation terms.-OL. NICOLLS, L. G. of the two armies, on-the 22d of August, I approve of the armistice after a doe con1808, it is your opinion that an armistice sideration of the relative situations of the was advisable, and if so, wheiher the terms two armies on the evening of the 22d of of that armistice were such as ought to have August, but I cannot fully approve of the been agreed upon; and whether, upon a like whole of the convention, after a due conconsideration of the relative situation of the sideration of the relative situation of the two armies subsequent to the armistice, and two armies at that time; because it does not when all tlie British forces were landed, it appear to me that, in the progress of the is your opinion that a Convention was ad- negociation, sufficient stress was laid upon visable, and if so, whether the terms of the great advantages which bad resulted, or that convention were such as ought to have were likely to result
, from the former sucbeen agreed upon. I am the more desirous cessfal operations of the British army in the that you should resume the consideration of field, from the considerable reinforcernents these two points, the armistice and conven- which had joined it, subsequent to the comtion, as it appears upon the face of your Re- mencement of the negociation, from the port, that a difference of opinion exists cause in which the British army was engaged among the members of the board, which being the cause of Portagal, which gave may probably produce a dissent from the ma- good reason to reckon upon the goodwill, jority upon these very questions. You will if not upon the active assistance, of the mabe pleased, therefore, to desire such of the jority of the inhabitants; and, also, from members as may be of a different opinion the unusual readiness which, as it appears to from the majority upon these two questions, me, was manifested by general Junot to ento record apon the face of the proceedings ter into negociation, and by the French netheir reasons for such dissent.--I am, sir, gociator to accede to terms as they were proyours, (Sigoed) FREDERICK. commander. posed, and to such construction as lieutenantin-chief.-Gen. Sir D. Dundos, K. B. general sir Hew Dalrymple put upon them
The board met this day at the judge-advo. in some instances, where they might have cate general's office, when the said letter borne a difference of interpretation. having been read, they agreed that the fol- therefore think it probable, for the above lowing questions should be put to each of reasons, that if less favourable terms to the the members of the board.
French army had been insisted upon, they Do you, or do you not,
would have been acceded to.-PBMBIOKE, armistice as concluded on the 22d of August, lieut.-gen. 1808, in the relative situation of the two I feel less awkwardness in obeying the orarmies
der to detail my sentiments on the nature Approve. -Lt.-gen. Nicolls; It.-gen, sir of the convention, because that I have alG. Nagent; earl of Pembroke; lord Heath ready joined in the tribute of applause due field; general Craig; gen. sir D. Dundas. in other respects to the officers concerned. Disapprove.-Earl of Moira.
My opinion, therefore, is only opposed to Do you, or do you not, approve of the theirs on a question of judgment, wbere convention as concluded upon the 31st of their talents are likely to have so much more August, 1808, in the relative situation of weight, as to render the profession of my the two armies ?
difference, even on that point, somewhat Approve.--Lt-gen. sir G. Nugent; gen. painful. The duty is, however, imperious lord Heathfield; general Craig; gen. sir D. on me not to disguise or qualify the deduo. Dundas.
tions which I have made during this investiDisapprove.-Lt-gen. Nicolls; earl of gation. An armistice simply might not Pembroke, earl of Moira.
have been objectionable, because sir Hew (Signed) David DUNDAS, President. Dalrymple, expecting hourly the arrival of My reason for considering the armistice as sir John Moore's division, might see more advisable on the 22d of August was, be advantage for himself in a short suspension cause the enemy had been able to retire after of hostilities, than what the French could
prove of the
draw from it. But as the armistice invol. à considerable proportion were of very ved, and in fact established the whole prin- doubful quality. Those troops on whose ciple of the convention, I cannot separate it fidelity lie could contide, had been dismay
from the datter.- Sir A. Wellesley has sta ed by a signal defeat, and they were sensible ted, that he considered his force, at the com. that they had no succour to look to from mencement of the march from the Mondego abroad. To the British generals it was River, as sufficient to drive the French from known, when the artistice was granted, their positians on the Tagas. That force is that 10,000 men under Sir J. Moore, as subsequently joined by above 4000 British well as the 3d and 42d regiments of foot, troops; onder generals Anstruther and Ack- with the 18th dragoons, might be immedidard. The French make an attack with ately reckoned upon ; and although much their whole disposable strength, and are re- advantage had not been drawn from the Pors pulsed with heavy loss, though but a part of tuguese troops, their support and the genethe British army is brought into action. It ral violence of the country against the is diffonlt to conceive that the prospects French, cannot be laid out of this calculawhich Sir A. Wellesley entertained could be tion. The disparity of force and of circuitä unfavourably altered by these events, even stances was, then, such as could leave do had not the certainty of speedy reinforce- doubt that the issue must be favourable to us. ments to the British army existed.--It is I do not omit advertence to the difficulties orged, that had the French been pushed to urged as possible to occur in furnishing the extremity, they would bave crossed the British army with bread.
But, putting Tagus, and have protracted the campaign in aside the obvious solution, that such a temsuch a manner as to have frustrated the porary privation is not ruinous to an army more important view of the British generals where cattle can be procured in the conntry, - namely, sending succours into Spain. this difficulty cannot be well pleaded, if admisa
This measure must have been equally fea- sion is to be given to the speculation, that sible for the French, if no victory had been the heavy cannon necessary for battering obtained over theni ; but I confess that the forts St. Julieu and Cascaes were to be got chance of such an attempt seems to me assu. ashore in the bays of the Rock of Lisbon. med against probability. Sir Hew Dalrym- The question then come to this, whether ple notices what he calls “ the critical and the convention did (as has been asserted) embarrassed state of Junot,” before that secure all the objects which were proposed general has been pressed by the British army; in the expeciition. If it did not, it was not and, in explanation of that expression, what his majesty was entitled to expect from observes, that the surrender of Dupont, the the relative situation of the two armies.existence of the victorious Spanish army in I lienbly conceive it to have been erroneous Andalusia, which cut off the retreat of the to regard the emancipation of Portugal from French in that direction, and the universal the French, as the sole or the principal hostility of the Portuguese, made the object of the expedition.-Upou whatever situation of Junot one of great distress. No territory we contend with the French, it temptation for the translation of the war into must be a proazinent object in the struggle Alentejo presents itself from this picture to destroy their resources, and to narrow
Nor does any other representation give their means of injuring, us, or those whose ground to suppose that Junot could have cause we are supporting. This seems to contemplated the measure as holding forth hirve been so little considered in the convenany prospect but ultimate ruin, after much tion, that the terins appear to have extricapreliminary distress and disgrace. The ted Junot's armiy froin a situation of infinite strongest of all proofs as to Junot's opinion, distress, in which it was wholly out of play, arises from his sending, the very morning and to have brought it in a state of entire after the battle of Vimiera, to propose the equipment, into immediate currency, in a evacuation of Portugal; a step wbich suffi- quarter too, where it must interfere with ciently indicated that he was satisfied he our most urgent and interesting concerns. could not only make no effectual defence, Had it been impracticable to reduce the but could not even prolong the contest to French army to lay down its arms unconditake the chance of accidents. He seems, tionally, still an obligation not to serve for a indeed, to have been without any-real re- specitied time might have been insisted upon, source. It appears in evidence, ihat of the or Belleisle osiglie have been prescribed as 'troops lett by bim in Lisbon and the forts, the place at which they should be landed,
(To be continued)
Printed by Cox and 'Baylis, Great Queen Streci ; published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Street, Coverit.
Garden, where former Numbers may be had : sold also by J. Budd, Crown and Mitre, Pall. Mall.
Vol. XV. No. 2.]
LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 14, 1809.
" The foolishest of all hopes (to say nothing of the wickedness of it) is, that Napoleon will be beaten, and " that then, the Spaniards will quietly return to submission to their former government. There are, I " am afraid, people enough, who entertain such hopes; but, if they reflect for one moment, they must * be convinced, that it can never be accomplished; for, to resist Buonaparte will require, such language, < such sentiments, such active measures as to rank and property, as well as to warlike preparatwn, as " will so completely annihilate the old guvernment, that it can never be restored.”—POL. Register, Vol. XIV. page, 105. 33)
-134 SUMMARY OF POLITICS. der all possible circumstances, to adhere ME. HERBERT.-This gentleman's ad- to this promise, and in that conclusion I dress to the electors of Hampshire, a copy have, I must confess, great pleasure. It is of which will be found immediately be one step, at least, in the right patli; and low* contains matter worthy of the no- it is a step, which, with the sole exception tice, not of the people of Hampshire only, of Lord Cochrane, no one, of late times, but of the whole nation. For the pur- has, as far as I have obseryed, thought pose of saving time, I have numbered the proper to take.----But, from place Mr. paragraphs. The First contains nothing Herbert will not debar himself by any of general interest. Not so the SECOND pledge. This he calls fore going the prosand THIRD, which may be looked upon, pects of fair ambition, and binding himself and evidently was intended as an answer to take no shure in the administration of to the pledge demanded by me, and which public affairs.---The pledge, which I depledge will be found in the last volume of manded, as the only terms, upon which I the Political Register at page 841. It would give my vote, had no such object in is something, at any rate, to hear a candi- view. As will be seen by reference to it, date declare, that he never will accept of all that I wished to accomplish was this, a pension or sinecure, and this declaration that persons, once chosen to be the guar. Mr. Herbert has distinctly made, in a dians of the people's monty, never skuld manner the most likely to be remembered. during their whole lives, pocket, either by 1, therefore, conclude, that he means, un- themselves or their relations and depen* MR. HERBERT's Address to the Gentlemen, should have paused for a time, and not
Clergy, and Freeholders of the County of without hesitation have pronounced his Southampton, dated, Highclerc, Dec. 21, judgment. I must express my thanks for 1809.
the profound attention with which the 11.-I SHOULD have thought myself very whole meeting, with which both parties deficient in respect to those, whom I once heard my refutation, of a most unjust and had the honour of calling my constituents, unfounded misrepresentation, of iny conif upon a vacancy, when no candidate ap- dact in parliament, and for the universal peared in the field against me, I had not expression of approbation at the part I renewed the humble offer of my services. bad acted on that occasion.-II. Called It is most pleasant to my feelings, that upon at that meeting to declare that I some, who were formerly hostile to my would accept no office or pension, I pledge pretensions, should have spontaneously ed myself to reject every offer of pentendered their support; and I shall ever sion or sinecure, and to exert myself in remember with gratitude and pride, that parliament to dry the sources of corrupat a premature and surreptitious nomina- tion; and I applaud the motives that tion, which the sheriff was persuaded to proinpted the request. But further urged call without due notice, (though an ac.. to debar myself from the prospects of fair live personal canvass had been undertaken and honourable ambition, and bind myby my opponent, with all the advantage self, at no future period to take any sbare of ministerial influence, though the greater in the administration of public affairs, I part of my friends knew not of the meet- felt it my duty, not to inyself only, but ing till the day was passed), the shew of to the body of electors, but to the nation hands in my favour should have been so at large, to refuse a pledge, which if uni. numerous and respectable, that the sheriff versally extorted from candidates would
dents, any part of that money. I said no- out a hearing; that evil counsellors, who thing about prohibiting any one from be- must tremble at the awful moment when coming a minister, or filling any office, they are publickly called to account, upon any future occasion ; but, then, I would lull themselves in security, without clearly meant, that, supposing him to fill the necessity and even without the means any office, he should do it without pay, of justifying themselves to the nation ; which, in many cases, at least, a man and, that the dread of meeting an able qualified to be a member of parliament, minority front to front, is, in these days, may very well do.
-But, I confess, that almost the only check upon the actions of my wish would be, that men who are
ministers. (« In these days” is an imporchosen members of parliament, should tant phrase; for, it is precisely because never become servants of the king. A the “ days” are what they are, that I wish man cannot serve two masters; and, it for a change. Mr. Herbert's doctrine is in matters very little, whether he be nomi- direct opposition to the Act of Settlement, nally the servant of both at one and the which declares persons holding places of same time; or whether he be the nomi- profit under the Crown to be incapable of nal servant of one of them, while he is serving as members of parliament. This paving his way for being taken into the act, till base and corrupt ministers found service of the other.- -But in his THIRD it troublesome, remained in force, and no paragraph, Mr. Herbert lets us see, that inconvenience was experienced from it. he thinks it right, and even necessary for Nay, when the act, as far as related to this the public good, that members of parlia- important point, was repealed, the repealment should, at the same time, be servants ers, though most profligate men, had not of the king ; that they should, in one and the impudence to do it without an appeara the same hour, ask for money in the latter ance of preserving the principle ; and, there. capacity, and vote it in the former. This fore, they enacted, that, if a member acopinion being so directly at variance with cepted of a place of emolument after his plain common sense, it is worth while to election, his seat should, in consequence examine into the reasons, upon which it is thereof, be vacated, in order to give the founded. He says, that, if members were people who elected him when he had no to lose the right of questioning the minis- place, an opportunity of rejecting him on ters face to face, the debates would become account of his having a place.-Now, will unimportant; that the censures of the Mr. Herbert say, that the object of this House would be littleworth,and passed with law was, and is, really what it professes to be subversive of the constitution, and fatal your notice; but ministers cannot toleto the liberties of the country. LIII. If | rate such freedom, and all the influence of the ministers of the crown are to be ex- government was armed against me, in facluded from parliament; if members are vour of a gentleman not eligible to repreto lose that which is the best privilege of sent the county. With a majority, even the representatives of the people, the right under those circumstances, of independent of questioning those ministers face to face electors in my favour, as the nomination before the public assembly; their debates on the 2$rd appeared to witness, I was would be frivolous, uninteresting, and un- advised not to harass the county by the important; their censures would be little prolongation of a poll, which was deemed worth, and passed without a hearing; the superfluous, when the only eligible oppoadvisers of the king, who, if they have err- nent felt himself unable to cope with me, ed through guilt or incapacity, must trem- and declined the contest. I am grateful ble at the awful moment when they are for the free and zealous friendship I have called upon publickly to account for their experienced, and that strong support which misconduct, would lull themselves in silent has deterred any eligible candidate from security, without the necessity, without persevering at the poll. I trust that I even the means of justifying themselves shall be seated as your representative in to the nation. The dread of meeting an parliament; and I hail the dawn of bet. able minority front to front in parliament, ter days in this county, from the unso. is in these days almost the only check licited assurances of support, in the preupon the actions of ministers.-IV. With seni and any future contest, which I have sentiments most hostile to the corruption received from freeholders connected with that preys upon the vitals of the kingdom, the dock-yard, who would not resign their most eager for satisfactory investigation mental independence, though harassed and of public misconduct, I offered myself to ' persecuted by the agents of government,