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pression in Spain would not have been very mies of the French ? If so; ifwe really are thus different from what it has been, and that, to be quieted, it matters very little who are as to Portugal, we should not, in that case, our commanders, who are our rulers, or have been upon quite another footing than what either of them do. Tell us not that What we now are. It is clear, that, since the borses were at Chichester or at Cork, the signing of the Convention, the Portu- and that thie cannon were at Woolwich. guese have disliked our army; that they What is that to as? They should have been have harboured suspicions injurious to it; where they were wanted. It was the busithey have wished it away; in short, that they ness of some of you to see that they were have been very little better than open enc- there. You had a thousand ships of war at mies. How different would all this liave your command ; the transports for the year been; how different would the impression will cost us two millious of pounds sterling; have been in all Europe, and particularly in you might have shipped off one half of the Ireland, if we lud brouglit Junot and his whole nation in tlie ships at your command; army prisoners to England; which no one and now you tell us a whining story about a denies that we could have done, all the dis- want of horse and artillery. What are pute being about the pitiful circumstance of your bickerings to us? What is it to us, who tiine ; three wceks sooner, or three weeks amongst you are to blame? It is some of later. That army, which we have carried you. You have an army, be it what it may, to France, and there put down, ready equip that costs us 23 millions a year; and, after ped for battle ; that army, which is now all, where is this army? If Spain was to be actually in Spain, and which may, possibly defended, why was not this army in Spain, assist in capturing the very men, before time enough to meet Buonaparte ? What is whom they fled at Vimeira ; that army, it this army for ? For what do we pay all this is now evident to every one, might have money; this sum, at the contemplation of been safely lodged in the prisons of Eng- which the brain turns ? Where is it wanted land, while the Russian feet was brought but where the enemy is to be met and fought? prizes and their crews prisoners to Spithead, - These, and the like, are the proper instead of the latter being carried, at our ex- questions for the people of England to put. pence, to fight against our ally in the Bal- It is not for us to be amused with tales of tic; all this, it is now evident, might have wants ; a want of this, or a want of that. been donc, without, in the smallest degree, Where 23 millions a year is paid for the
supretarding any assistance that we had to give port of an army, that army should want no.. to the Spaniards. And yet, we are told, by ihing, especially in the day of battle. It is this Court of Inquiry, that nothing beyond quite beneath us ;'it is to assist in abusing their unmeaning, and, in part, contradice and cheating ourselves, to enter at all into tory Report, is necessary to give us satisfac- the squabbles between ministers and genetion; while, on the other hand, with langs rals. It signifies not a straw to us who is to of Stentor and with front of brass, the hire- blame. The blame, where there is any, is ling writers of the day are calling upon us amongst them; and we have a right to com. for new and greater sacrifices in support of plain, and to expect redress.
just and necessary war.” Cavalry view of the maiter. The petition that I and artillery! Good God! As if we did not would present to the king, should express, pay for enough! An army that cost for the or be built upon, sentiments like these. I last year, upwards of twenty millions of would complain to him, that, after all our pounds sterling, out of which above four sacrifices for the support of such an inn. millions went for ordnance; such endless mense military establishment, I saw little trains of horses and waggons and equipage of attempted against the enemy, and less efall sorts ; a country full of barracks and ma. fected ; that, whenever the army was congazines and laboratories ; every town tull of cerned, there generally appeared some desoldiers and horses; the drum and the trum- ficiency in those things for which we pay so pets stunning us, and the country shaded with dearly ; that the time for action seemed, in clouds of military dust from April to Octo- almost every instance, to have passed by beber: and, with all these means, with all this fore we began to act; that the armies of warlike parade and bustle and clutter and ex- the conqueror of Europe were distinguished pense before our eyes, are we, in good earnest, by a conduct exactly the contrary ; that to to be quieted, by being told, that our army of oppose him with effect it seemed requisite 35,000 men failed to capture 14,000 French- for us to adopt a new line of conduct; and men for the want of horse and artillery, and that, before all other things, it appeared nethat, too, in a country where, it is notorious, all cessary to cause a further and more eficient The people were our friends, mid all the ene- inquiry to be made into the causes of the
This is my
late Conventions in Portugal. -Who is work. It all appears to me very plain ; and there ihat does not entertain these senti. much too plain to give me any portion of ménts ? Not a man in the whole kingdom, that “sincere satisfaction," which an editor who can be said to entertain any sentiments of last evening appears to have felt, or, at all upon the subject; and, I verily be- that he has, at least, done his best to make lieve, that there are none, (except a few his readers feel.-lo Romána's powers wretched parasites) who, in private conver- and proclamation I see much of dread and sation, will affect to entertain different sen- of despair, but not a glimpse of confidence timents thereon. But, when it comes to or of hope ; and, I see still l'ess of either speaking out ; when it comes to voring, or in the "oath" not to surrender Cadiz and even bolding up hands; then you perceive, at the fieet. I remember the oath of Potsdam, once, the effect of that chain of dependence, and, remembering it, I must beg to be which the Whigs of the Revolution first excased, if I entertain a strong suspicion forged by means of the funding and taxing of the efficacy of oaths as opposed to the system, and which has been, iu subsequent, arıs of Buonaparté. The stories, inand especially in recent times, so strength deed, from Spain are of a “mixed nature;" ened, and so lengthened, as to embrace and for those which come from Corunna widely hold fast, or to shackle, at least, almost differ from tbose which come from other every soul in society. Were it not for this, ports not in the hands of the enemy. But, is it possible, that we should see the torpor why should we deceive ourselves ? This is that now prevails? Is there any instance, the foolishest of all things ; and I am in any part of our history, no matter under utterly astonished, that such prints as the whatrace of kings, of the people's appearing Times and the Morning Chronicle, for so insensible to their situation as they appear instance, should publish as in!elligence, at this moment? Were there ever before unaccompanied with suitable comment, found Englishmen so base as to defend acts statements of facts, which their editors such as are now openly defended ? How must know to be false, the effect of this will and must end, and that, too, at no which must be to aggravate the public very distant day, unless a saluiary con- disappointment. The news froni 00stitutional reform speedily take place, it runna talks of à desperale defence of is much easier to foresee than it is safe Madrid, and gives 115 the detail, with all to describe. Whether the people should the coolness imaginable, just about a week now petition the king, or the parliament, after we have received the account of Mamay be a question with some; though, drid's having surrendered at discretion.for my own part, I should certainly be for “Oh!” says the loyal man,
what, you the former, as well as for the latter. But, " believe the Corsican's bulletins, do
?" that those who petitioned before are bound Yes. I do believe them; and you shall to do it now, I think, nobody will attempt have my reason for it, in a few words. I to deny. All the former motives still exist, have read these bulletins during three wars ; with the addition of those which naturally not three campaigns; but ihree distinct arise out of what has since taken place, in wars, each of them ending in the conquese, relation to the subject, both at honie and of kingdoms, or principalities; and, though, abroad. By bringing the matter before as to little matters of detail, they have someparliament, we shall see wbo, in that body, tinies been incorrect, or false, if you like will stand up in defence of the Conventions; that word better, they have uniformly: and, what is of far greater importance, we proved substantially true, to the worful exa shall ascertain in wbat degree the House of perience of those, who, as well as ourselves, Cominons, the people's House of Parlis. have affected to treat them as lies. Loyally, nient, participate in the feetings of the as was observed a week or two ago ; your people, it being impossible for the most true modern loyally, consists, in part, of a impudent man in existence to deny, that, little fingering in the public purse; but uwon the subject of the Portugal Conven another essential ingredient of it is, a total tions, the people of England were, and disbelief in any of the victories of Buona are, upanimous in a feeling of indignation. parte, till, like a thunder clap, they break
SPANISH REVOLUTION. One of the over our heads, after having been kept off newspapers has observed, that the intel.
as long as possible by means, such as those ligence from Spain is of a mixed nature ; used by Messrs. Ward and Huskisson previous
a good deal chequered." I nast confess, to that terrific clap, the battle of Austerlitz. that I can, after a pretty attentive perusal I am satisfied, that we are the most of all the public, and of some private, in- credulous nation, particularly the Cockney telligence, perceive none of this chequer- part of us, of any at this day existing in the
world. The Spanish peasants, it is true, sabres of which we were afraid, and to do believe that the Dolls, stuck up in their this, too, under a false pretence! Oh, village chapels, work miracles in the cure God! it would have been an act of infamy, of tooth-ache, rheumatism, incontinence, the very thought of bearing a share of sterility, and other cases; but, then, those which would turn one wild. I hope, nay, Dolls are made in Holland ; whereas we I trust I may say, that I am sure, that there swallow the byrefaced lies, which are fabri- is not one single native of this kingdoni, cated here at home, and fabricated too, in so who does not contemplate such an act with slovenly a manner as 'not to cover any : inexpressible horror. Every other evil, part of the hook. Fish in the river St, when compared with this, is a blessing. John are so eager for the bait, that, after Therefore, let what will happen else, the first time, they will bite at, and swal- slaugliter, " capture, total destruction, any low, the naked wire ; but, wė, still more thing is consoling in exchange for this. The eager, want no bait at all. We take in, country may lose the flower of its army, with great self-complacency, lie after lie and individuals amongst uis may lose brothers duriog the whole of a campaign ; and when, and sons and fathers and friends ; but, nei. at last, by a long series of defeats and dis- ther the dead nor the living will be stained graces, Buonaparte has conquered another with that dishonour, which, to a mind rightkingdom, we talk about the result with ly constructed, would have rendered life injust as little suprize as if it had come gia. supportable. The very worst of all our dually upon us through the channel of truth.
acts, during the last war, was the abandon. Now, what sense is there in this ? A greatment of the French Emigrants at Guadadeal of modern loyalty there, doubtless, is ; loupe. I trust we shall never see the like bút, what sense is there in it? To give repeated. I know not their philosophy at any opinion as to what will be the result of the Horse Guards, or at the Military Colthe engagement, or engagements, towards lege ; but, I know that it ought to teach, which, apparently, our army, in Spain, was, that one part of the duty, which a soldier when the last intelligence came away,
fast owes his country, is, to die, and that, too, at approaching, would be foolish; because, in any time when his death will be more serfact, we know just nothing at all about' viceable than his life, which is always the either the relative strength, or relative po. case when the choice lies between death and sition of the hostile armies. All that I can the chance of dishonour. If a man cannot decidedly express upon the subject is a sit down, by the side of his wife surroundwish, and that wish is, that whenever and ed with his children, and coolly screw his wherever and against whomsoever English mind up to this pitch, his money, intended men fight they may be victorious; but, I for the purchase of commissions, he would must confess, that this wish is accompanied, do well to apply to the purchase of " COD in the present instance, with most serious sols," or of sugar and plumbs, to be sold apprehensions. The movements of our by retail. I hope, there will come some troops have hitherto, if our intelligence be circumstance to explain ; satisfactorily to
, to Sir David Baird's Proclamation of the 1st clanation, if it should prove to be authenof December, I trust it will prove to be a tic; but, I must confess, that it is with exo forgery; for, if true, it will require more treme reluctance, that I admit even the than a whole life of glory to wipe it away. possibility of its being genuine, - If our There are, perhaps, few persons who have army should gain a battle, though against stronger reasons than I have to be anxious only a comparative small part of the French about the safe return of the individuals force, it may have a wonderful effect upou coinposing that part of our army; but, much the Spaniards, and may lead to important rather than hear of their sneaking out of results ; but, vnless the people be com. Spain without daring to look the French in pletely let loose ; unless the war assume a the face, I would hear of their being, to revolutionary turn, still, in my opinion, the last man, cut to pieces upon the plain. Buonaparte will prevail. It appears to me “ No tears are so sweet as those wbich be- to be murally impossible, that he should be « dew the unburied head of the soldier ;" beaten by any other ineans. The only ar. ind nu stain so foul as that of military ticle of really cheering news that I can col. Iowardice. To draw off, leaving the Spa- lect out of all that I have lately read about nish peasants, whom we had encouraged to ibe operations in Spain, is contained in one take up arms; ta skulk away, at the ap; of Buonaparte's bulletins. It is that in proach of the French, still encouraging those which he says, ibat all the respectable, or loor creatures to expose themselves to the
, people are for him, and none' bune.
the rabble against him. This language of to report to your majesty a state thereof, as his being exactly like that of our peculators it shall appear, together with our opinion and plunderers, there is some ground to thereon, and also our opinion, wherber any, hope, that he has all these on bis side, in and what farther proceedings should be had Spain, and, of course, that the people are thereupoo. We have, at several meetings, against bim. The Morning Chronicle has, perused and considered yopr majesty's orders with much acuteness, noticed this exhili and instructions, as transmilied to us by rating circumstance, and has observed, that, the right hon. lord Castlereagh, your ma. if the fact be so, it is a little awkward for jesty's principal secretary of state, together the doctrine of those amongst us, who are with sundry letters, , and other papers, so eager to contend, that the people, or therewith transmitted : and have heard and rabble, as they call them, are every where examined lieutenant general sir Hew. Dal. the allies of Buonaparte. But, my great rymple, Sir Harry Burrard, and Sir Arthur fear is, that the peculators are against him, Wellesley, and other principal officers em and that the " rabble " are for him.- played on the said expedition, with such Some persons, anticipating a failure in witnesses as any of them desired : and also Spain, are making for themselves a con- such other persons as seemed to us most like. solation in the new possessions and sovely to give any material information : and in reignty, that we shall, in that case, have in order that your majesty may be fully the Spanish colonies, including, of course, possessed of every circumstance wbich has all the gold and silver mines. I beseech appeared in the course of this inquiry, them to dismiss this busy devil from their We beg leave to lay before your majesty the thoughts ; for, in the first place, we should whole of our examinations and proceedings pot get those possessions and that sovereign to this our report annexed. And upon the ty without long and bloody wars ; and, in most diligent and careful review of the the next place, they would, if we had them, whole matter, we do, in further oberience to be an addition to the many burthen some your royal command, most humbly report to colonies we already have. They would, in your majesty:-That it appears that early in short, be another Easi- Indies, and ibat is, the month of May, 1908, a very considerable in one compound word, to express all man- 1 force destined for foreigo service, was assemner of national corruptions, calamities, and bled near Cork, the command of which, it is curses.
imagined, was intended for Sir Arthur Wele Westminster, 5th January, 1809.
lesley That in the inonth of May, univer
sal and unexpected resistance to French OFFICIAL PAPERS.
tyranny had taken place in Spai-That apCONVENTION IN PORTUGAL. - Report of plication was made for the assistance of
the Bourd of Inquiry to the King, dated Britain, and that goverament with the uniDec. 22, 180s. Also the subsequent Pro- versal concurrence of the country, deterceedings of the said Board.
mined on giving Spain and Portugal, then. May it please your majesty. We tbe also in commotion, the most effectual aid. under-written general officers of the army, ---It appears, that in consequence of such in obedience to your majesty's warrant, determination major general Spencer, before which bears date the 1st day of November, the surrender of the French fleet - at Cadiz, 1808, commanding us strictly to inquire was off that port with about 5,000. men, into the conditions of a suspension of arms, sent by sir Hew Dalrymple frogi Gibraltar. concluded on the 22d of August, 1808, His assistance not having been called for between your majesty's array in Portugal, and there, he proceedid 19 the mouth of the the French force in that country--and also i Tagus, with a view of aiding sir Charles
w the French general commanding on the 31st been represented that there were not in die Angust following-alsa into all the causes forts and about Lisbon, more than four and circumstances (whether arising from thousand men. But general Spencer being the previous operation of the British army, then off the Tagys (June 24) reports front or otherwise which led to them) and into the best authoriiy he could have, that the the conduct, behaviour and proceedings of enemy had 11,000 meu in and about Lisbon, lieutenant general sir Hew Dalrymple, and and 9,500 at St. Ubes, the east of Portogai, such other commander or commanders of and elsewhere. In this situation the intend, your majesty's forces in Portugal mand of ed attack could not take place, and geperal any olber person or persons, as far as the Spencer returued to Cadiz and Gibraltar. same were connected with the said armistice, It appears that on the 14th June, applicasuspension of arms, and convention and tion was made to the Admiralty to provide a
convoy to sail with the troops then under enemy's whole disposable furce, to whose orders from Cork, on the arrival of lieu- atrack we should be exposed in landing, tenant general sir Arthur Wellesley, ap- probably in a crippled state, certainly not in pointed to the command.-On the 21st a very efficien one.—Peniche fortress was June, lord Castlereagh acquaints sir Arthur in possession of the enemy. Mondego bay Wellesley that accounts from Cadiz are was therefore agreed on as most eligible to bad, and general Spencer was returning to land at. Thinking it most important to Gibraltar, and that the cabinet postpone drive the French from Portugal, he ordered their instructions to him till more is knowo. general Spencer to embark (with his 5,000 On the 28th of June, lord Castlereagh men), and join off that coast. By his in. acquaints general Spencer, then supposed at formation of the 241h June, the French Gibraltar, that Sir Arihar Wellesley, with had more than 20.000 men in Portugal. nine thousand men, is ordered to proceed The admiral's account made them less. Sir, from Cork, and to act with his. (Spencer's) Arthur Wellesley thonghi they had not less corps, in support of the Spanish narion. than from 16 to 19,000 --It appears, that sic He is, therefore, with his corps, to go off Artbur Wellesley quitted the admiral off the to Cadiz to wait for him; in the meantime, Tagus, on the 27th, and joined ihe transavailing himself of any circumstance, that ports off Mondego, on the 30th, He there offers of acting to advantage, even within received
information from government the Straits. It appears that, on the 12th (dated 15th July), that a reintorcement of July, lieut. general sir Arthur Wellesley brigadier general Ackland and five thousand sailed from Cork with 9,000 men, (under men was intended for him, and eventually instructions of the 30th Jupe) generally to ten thousand more men, under licgienant aid the Spanish nation, and the principal general sir John Moore: Tiat sir. Hew object to attack the French in the Tagus; Dalrymple was to command the army: That but autborised, as he understood, to pursue sir Arthar Wellesley was also to proceed on any other object, if more likely to conduce the instructions he had received, viz. the atto the benefit of the two nations. And (of tack of Lisbon, if his force was sufficient. t'e 15th July) to endeavour, if possible, Dupont having surrendered, general Spennot only to expel the enemy from Lisbon, cer's arrival was now considered as certain, but to cut off their retreat towards Spain. and also that of general Ackland very soon, He arrived at Corunna the 20ih, con: mani. The insurrection in Alentejo was a fortunate cated with the Gallician Junta, who wished occurrence at this time, and sir Arthur the troops to be enployed in expelling the Wellesley also received information from French from Portugal, and recommended the secretary of state, dated 15th July, that him to land in that country (this was on the sir Hew Dalrymple was appointed to the 26th communicated to general Spencer). command of ibe forces in Spain and PortuSailed from Corruna tle 22d, went gal, and sir Harry Burrard second in comOporto, (leaving the fleet off Cape Finis- mand; and if, in the meantime, he was terre); arrived ihe 241h, desired by sir joined by any officer, senior in rank, he Charles Cotton to leave the troops at Oporio (sic. Arthur Wellesley) was to serve under or Mondego bay, and come to the Tagus to him. Of the same date, sir Harry Burrard communicate. Had a conference with the was also acquainted by the secretary of stale generals and bishop, at Oporto, about the that operations are intended to be directed, disposal of their force. The bishop pro- in the first instance, to the reduction of the mised mules and other means of carriage, Tagus, and secondly, to the security of and also a sufficiency of slaughter cattle. - Cadiz, and destruction of the enemy's force It appears that sir Arthur Wellesley sailed
in Andalusia.--It appears, that sir Arthur from Oporto thy 25th July, ordered the Wellesley was induced, from various strong transports to go to Mondego, proceeded reasons, as stated in bis narrative, to disemand joined the admiral off ibe Tagus the bark in Mondego bay. This comme ed 26th. Letters were received from general on the 1st of August ; but the surf occaSpencer at Cadiz, which had returned, and sioued great dificulties, so that his corps where the Spaniards pressed him, to remain, was not all landed before the 5th. General and be expected orders from sir Arthur Spencer arrived on the 5th, and his corps on Wellesley. Agreed with sir Cbarles Cot- the Oth. They landed on the 7th and sth. ton, that landing in the mouth of the Ta- It appears, that from the 1st August vill the gus was in practicable, and unadvisable, as 8th, when the whole was disembarked, that there was great risk from the state of the ineasures were taking for the immediate surf, from the defences and adverse nature of movement of the army towards Lisbon, and the coast, and from the neighbourhood of the horses and carriages were solicited. Sir Are's