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The syllables gua, gue, gui, are pronounced ga,
ge, gi, or rather, gwa, gwe, gwi. The syllables ghe, ghi, are pronounced gue, gui ;
as, bottéghe shops, say bottégue; luoghi places, say luogui.
Z, as well single as double, is generally pro
nounced like Ts; as, zío an uncle, say tsio; zóppo lame, say tsoppo; bellézza beauty, fay bellét fa ; fazzoletta a handkerchief, say fatsoletta ; nozze a wedding, say not fe ; diligenza diligence, fay diligent fa ; forza strength, fay fortfa. And note, that in pronouncing these words, a small
rest is to be made on the t before the s. Z is pronounced like ds, in words which in Eng
lish and Latin are wrote with a Z; as, Lazaro Lazarus, say Ladsaro; zona a zone, say dsona ; gazzetta a gazette, say gadsetta ; mizo the middle, say midso ; azuro blue, say adfuro.
The letter H is neither aspirated, nor pro
nounced in the beginning of words; as, Hora an hour; ho I have; humano human; read ora, Ò, oomano.
The letter S, in the beginning of words, is pro
nounced as in English; as, Salute health, fervo a servant, Sopra upon.
S, before e, f, P, t, keeps its natural found; as,
scalà a ladder, véspa a wafp, stúdio study. S, before d, 8, l, m, n, r, u, is pronounced like
%; as, sdegno disdain, read zdegno ; sguardo a look, read zguardo ; fmánia madness, read
zmánia, &c. S, between two Vowels, is pronounced also like z;
as, mísero miserable, say mizero; desío a desire, fay dezío ; casa a house, say caza ; uso used, say uzo. Except S in cosi so, which is pronounced cosi. Sa, in these two words only, cosa a thing,
and rosa gnawed, is pronounced in like manner. Si, when added to other words, keeps its na
tural found ; as, Jorivesi they write, parlasi they say, &c.
T, before ia, ie, ii, io, in the middle or ending of words, is pronounced ts; as gratia grace, fay gratia ; natione a nation, say nat fione ; vitii vices, fay vitfi ; ótio idleness, fay ótsio. Except, in the words following, ambastiã extafy, faettia a pinnace, malatia fickness, questióne a question, moléstia trouble ; the letter s preceeding the letter t: Also in tiéne he holdeth, potiáre ye may be able, patiamo we may suffer, patiáte ye may suffer; and some other Verbs
which will be learnt by practice. Note. The other Consonants b. d. f. l. m. n.
p. r. are pronounced as in English: Instead of k, the Italians use ch; and instead of ph, the letter f.
For the Learner's more ready improvement, let him attend to the following Recapitulation of the Italian Pronunciation.
città chittà cia
chia ciascuno chiascuno cie
chie cielo chielo cio
chio bacio batchio ge
dge genio dgenio
ja giardino jardino gie
je Gia/u jesu
The fcemare shemare foi
shi lasciare lashiare ti
natione natsione no
Virt Virtoo u before og
buono bono VU
gio giu gli
Observe always to rest on the pronunciation of the Vowels accented thus, tì, virti, cecità, am), amerò, amerà, credi, sentì, crederà, sentirà.
Note. By these Examples it may be seen, that the Italian Tongue does not so greatly differ in pronunciation from the English; but, notwithstanding this, it may at ali times be most proper to attend to the instructions of an able Master, as every language has some peculiar expressions which are better learnt by the ear, than by any written Rules.
1. HE Italian Tongue differs in this from
the French, that all words are written after the same manner they are pronounced.
II. That the Consonants in the beginning of comprund words are doubled, as, ab- battere, ap- pogiare, ap- preso, dif- ficile, of - fendere, &c.
III. The letter g is doubled, when followed by ia and is, and make together but one syllable ; as, Loggia a lodze, Maggio May: But if the Vowels ia and io be divided or pronounced distinct, the g is not doubled ; as, agio easy, privilegio privilege, malvagio bad.
The letter g is also doubled in the infinitive mood of verbs, and in those tenses where a vowel comes before gere; as, leggere to read, reggere to govern ; other i: ise the g remains single ; as, fingere to feign, pingere to paint, &c.
IV. All words that begin in English with an'j cont nant, as, Jefus, Joseph, Journal, are by the Italians wrote by G ; as, Giefu, Gioseppe, Giornale.
V. That the Vowels E, 0, and I, are not pronounced when they follow the letters I, n, 1, and for the most part not expresfed in writing, unlefs they end the sentence ; as,
Bel tempo fà, it is fair weather, not bello.
alone, not uno male.
Huomin' da bene, honest men, not huomini.
Fra Bernardo, Brother Bernard, not Frate.
VI. Words beginning with S, require the preceeding word to end with a Vowel; as, grande Stato, quello spirito, essere state, for gran stato, quel Spirito, eller ftato.
VII. Words of the infinitive mood are not cut off at the end, though a Vowel follows; as, parlare alto to speak aloud, not parlar alto: And note the final Vowels of words are always to be pronounced very soft ; also, that the Italian Poets take great liberty in retrenching or cutting off words at their pleasure, which will be readily observed by reading the best Authors.