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by Great Britain. From these Falls upwards, and westwardly to the source of the river, it is only navigable for flat-bottomed boats and canoes, and during that portion of the year when drought prevails and the river is low, even unloaded canoes can with difficulty be propelled along in various parts of it. That part of the territory which has been ceded to the United States is watered by those shallow parts of the river, and by some of its tributaries, of which the principal ones are the Roostuc and the Alleguash. By referring to the map it will be seen that the Roostuc holds a northeasterly course from its sources until it empties itself into the St. John, a few miles south of the Great Falls; the navigation, however, of the Roostuc ceasing for boats and canoes of every kind, a few miles before it reaches the St. John, on account of a steep cataract and rapids. The Alleguash, which has its sources a little to the west of the sources of the Roostuc, holds a north course through a country of lakes and rapids difficult of navigation, until it empties itself into the St. John. The exportable products, therefore, of this territory, where it is adjacent to the Roostuc, would naturally pass along that stream to the St. John, whilst those of the parts adjacent to the Alleguash, would pass into the waters of the Penobscot, with
which a communication has already been made by the people of Maine. There are also some inferior tributaries, such as the Fish River, emptying into the St. John west of Madawasca, and the Meduxnakeag, which rises not far from the northern sources of the St. Croix, and empties into the St. John at Woodstock.
The Treaty provides that where the River St. John is declared to be the boundary between the two countries; to wit, from the point where the north line intersects the St. John to the St. Francis, the river shall be free and open to both parties; and that where both banks of the river belong to one Government, -as in the British territory upon the St. John, from its mouth to its intersection by the north line, and in the American territory from the mouth of the St. Francis to the point where the boundary line from Lake Pohenagamook again joins the waters of the St. John-the inhabitants under each Government shall have free access to and through the river for certain kinds of produce, subject to such provincial regulations of the respective governments as may relate to the navigation of those parts of the river, both banks of which belong to the same Government, and which are not inconsistent with the terms of the Treaty. It is, moreover, especially provided that the produce belonging to the citizens of Maine, thus to be admitted upon the British waters of the St.-John, is to be accompanied, if required, by reasonable evidence that it was grown upon some part of the territory now conceded to the United States, which is watered by the St. John, or by its tributaries; so that a complete check is provided, not only against any disorders with which the transit of this produce might be accompanied through British territory, but also against any fraudulent introduction into it of produce raised without the limits prescribed by the Treaty. The produce thus to be admitted is limited to the raw material of the forest, and the unmanufactured articles of agriculture, so that flour in barrels, the only form in which manufactured wheat could be introduced, is altogether excluded. And as to wheat in bulk-the only form in which under the Treaty it can be introduced-finding its way through that channel to the port of St. John's, and reaching England, as some have apprehended, without paying a foreign duty, it would be attended with so much expense and waste before it reached the St. John, on account of the difficulties of the navigation, that the cost of it would far exceed the price it could be sold for. But there is a more conclusive reason to be given against the supposition that this Treaty has opened such a
door for the evasion of our own laws. Wheat is not, and will never be grown in this conceded territory. The patches of land applicable to its culture are very rare, and not more than adequate to the consumption of the scattered population that can ever find subsistence there, if even the climate were favourable to its growth and harvest; but in a country where the rigour of winter does not permit the ground to be tilled until the month of May, and where the frosts in the early part of September compel the farmer to trust only to such scanty crops of rye and oats as he can snatch from the ground, often in an immature state, the whole time of the settler is consumed in securing these coarse grains together with his potatoes, in sufficient quantities to provide his family for a tedious winter of seven months, during which his agricultural labours are suspended, and he is driven to the forest to add to his scanty means, by cutting a few logs for the speculator who is to pay him for them in the month of May, when the waters are high enough to float them down the stream. In a severe climate of this kind, and with such a soil, it may safely be asserted that the inhabitants will for ever be condemned to precarious, scanty, and limited crops; and that, far from having an agricultural surplus to export, all their industry will be
required to pay for that which they are unable to produce themselves, and which must be drawn from a distance. The wheat flour, therefore, to be hereafter consumed on that territory will have to be imported, as it is now done, from a wheat-producing country; and if it is imported by way of the River St. John it must pay the same duty at a British custom-house that it has always been liable to before the Treaty of Washington was made
This being the case, the only article which the Treaty practically opens a free transit to is the raw material of the forest, in those various forms enumerated in the Treaty, being those in which it is usually sent to market. And here it will not be difficult to show that the Treaty introduces nothing that is new, and changes nothing in the accustomed channel of business connected with the supply of timber. In fact, all that the Treaty does is to give some regularity to a branch of industry which stood in great need of it, and to save that small portion of the forest timber which still remains from the indiscriminate waste and destruction which invariably accompanied the cutting of it down, when no one had a settled title to the land upon which it grew. Whilst the country was in dispute the forests were a prey to speculators living under both Governments, who sent par