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search for these Highlands to the west, where alone, I believe, they will be found to answer perfectly the description of the Treaty. If this question should unfortunately go to a further reference, I should by no means despair of finding some confirmation of this view of the case."
It is for the Senate to consider (added Mr. Rives). whether there would not be much risk of introducing new complications and embarrassments in this controversy, by leaving it open for another litigated reference; and if the British Government-strongly prepossessed, as its minister tells us it is, with the justice of its claims
would not find what it would naturally consider a persuasive “confirmation of its view of the case” in documents, such as those encountered by Mr. Sparks in his historical researches in the archives of France.
A map has been vauntingly paraded here, from Mr. Jefferson's collection, in the zeal of opposition, (without taking time to see what it was,) to confront and invalidate the map found by Mr. Sparks in the Foreign Office at Paris; but, the moment it is examined, it is found to sustain, by the most precise and remarkable correspondence in every feature, the map communicated by Mr. Sparks. The Senator who produced it could see nothing but the microscopic dotted line running off in a north-easterly direction; but the moment other eyes were applied to it, there was found, in bold relief, a strong red line, indicating the limits of the United States according to the Treaty of Peace, and coinciding, minutely and exactly, with the boundary traced on the map of Mr. Sparks. That this red line, and not the hardly visible dotted line, was intended to represent the limits of the United States according to the Treaty of Peace, is conclusively shown by the circumstance, that the red line is drawn on the map all around the exterior boundary of the United States; through the middle of the Northern Lakes, thence through the Long Lake and the Rainy Lake to the Lake of the Woods; and from the western extremity of the Lake of the Woods to the river Mississippi; and along that river to the point where the boundary of the United States, according to the Treaty of Peace, leaves it, and thence, by its easterly course, to the mouth of the St. Mary's, on the Atlantic. · Here, then, is a most remarkable and unforeseen confirmation of the map of Mr. Sparks, and by another map of a most imposing character, and bearing every mark of high authenticity. It was printed and published in Paris, in 1784, (the year after the conclusion of the peace,) by Lattré, graveur du Roi, (engraver of maps, &c., to the King.) It is formally entitled on its face, a " Map of the United States of America, according to the Treaty of Peace of 1783” (“ Carte des Etats Unis de l'Amérique, suivant le Traité de Paix de 1783"). It is “ dedicated and presented” (dediée et présentée) “ to his Excellency Benjamin Franklin, Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, near the court of France," and while Dr. Franklin yet remained in Paris, for he did not retnrn to the United States till the spring of the year 1785. Is there not, then, the most plausible ground to argue that this map, professing to be one constructed “according to the Treaty of Peace of 1783," and being “ dedicated and presented” to Dr. Franklin, the leading negotiator who concluded that treaty, and who yet remained in Paris while the map was published, was made out with his knowledge, and by his directions ; and that, corresponding as it does identically with the map found by Mr. Sparks in the Archives of the Foreign Affairs in Paris, they both partake of the same presumptions in favour of their authenticity.
A TREATY To settle and define the Boundaries between the Posses
sions of Her Britannick Majesty in North America, and the Territories of the United States ;-for the final suppression of the African Slave Trade ;- and for the giving up of Criminals, fugitives from Justice, in certain cases.
• WHEREAS certain portions of the Line of Boundary between the British Dominions in North America and the United States of America, described in the Second Article of the Treaty of Peace of 1783, have not yet been ascertained and determined, notwithstanding the repeated attempts which have been heretofore made for that purpose; and whereas it is now thought to be for the interest of both parties that, avoiding further discussion of their respective rights, arising in this respect under the said Treaty, they should agree on a Conventional Line in said portions of the said Boundary, such as may be convenient to both Parties, with such equivalents and compensations as are deemed just and reasonable :--And whereas, by the Treaty concluded at Ghent on the 24th day of December, 1814, between His Britannick Majesty and the United States, an Article was agreed to and, inserted, of the following tenor, viz. : “ Art. X. Whereas the Traffic in Slaves is 6 irreconcileable with the principles of humanity and “ justice; and whereas both His Majesty and the “ United States are desirous of continuing their efforts " to promote its entire abolition; it is hereby agreed, " that both the Contracting Parties shall use their best " endeavours to accomplish so desirable an object:"
And whereas, notwithstanding the laws which have at various times been passed by the two Governments, and the efforts made to suppress it, that criminal traffick is still prosecuted and carried on; and whereas Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United States of America, are determined that, so far as may be in their power, it shall be effectually abolished :-And whereas it is found expedient for the better administration of justice, and the prevention of crime within the territories and jurisdiction of the two Parties, respectively, that persons committing the crimes hereinafter enumerated, and being fugitives from justice, should, under certain circumstances, be reciprocally delivered up: Her Britannick Majesty, and the United States of America, having resolved to treat on these several subjects, have for that purpose appointed their respective Plenipotentiaries to negotiate and conclude a Treaty, that is to say: Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland has, on Her part, appointed the Right Honourable Alexander Lord Ashburton, a Peer of the said United Kingdom, a Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, and Her Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary on a Special Mission to the United States; and the President of the United States has, on his part, furnished with full powers Daniel Webster, Secretary of State of the United States; who, after a reciprocal communication of their respective Full Powers, have agreed to and signed the following Articles :
ARTICLE I. It is hereby agreed and declared, that the Line of Boundary shall be as follows:-Beginning at the monument at the source of the River St. Croix, as designated and agreed to by the Commissioners under the Fifth Article of the Treaty of 1794, between the Governments of Great Britain and the United States; thence north, following the exploring line run and marked by
the Surveyors of the two Governments in the years · 1817 and 1818, under the Fifth Article of the Treaty of Ghent, to its intersection with the River St. John, and to the middle of the channel thereof; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said River St. John to the mouth of the River St. Francis; thence up the middle of the channel of the said River St. Francis, and of the lakes through which it flows, to the outlet of the Lake Pohenagamook; thence south-westerly, in a straight line, to a point on the north-west branch of the River St. John, which point shall be ten miles distant from the main branch of the St. John, in a straight line and in the nearest direction ; but if the said point shall be found to be less than seven miles from the nearest point of the summit or crest of the highlands that divide those rivers which empty themselves into the River St. Lawrence from those which fall into the River St. John, then the said point shall be made to recede down the said north-west branch of the River St. John, to a point seven miles in a straight line from the said summit or crest; thence in a straight line, in a course about south, eight degrees west, to the point where the parallel of latitude of 46° 25' north, intersects the south-west branch of the St. John's; thence southerly by the said branch, to the source thereof in the highlands at the Metjarmette Portage; thence down along the said highlands which divide the waters which empty themselves into the River St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the head of Hall's Stream; thence down the middle of said stream, till the line thus run intersects the old Line of Boundary surveyed and marked by Valentine and Collins previously to the year 1774 as the 45th degree of north