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III. Operations of Major-Gen.

INTERNATIONAL. IV o: of Maior.Gen.

- ations of Major-Uren.

Treaty of Washington (Appen. ". - Joruen. div) - - - - - Correspondence relative to alleged Outrages committed by

APPENDIx to STATE Papers—

DESPATCHES, &c. the Troops in Affahanistan -489
Copy of the Treaty of Wash-

Despatches and Papers relating

to Military Operations in ington - Affahanistan :-

I. Political - - - - 405 PATENTs - - - - 504 II. Operations of Major-Gen. PoETRY - - - - 508

Sir R. Sale - ". . . 447 index c - - - 521

THE

ANN UAL RE GISTER,

CHAPTER I.

General Observations on the state of the country and position of the Government at the commencement of the year 1842—Secession of the Duke of Buckingham from the Cabinet—Parliament opened on the 3rd of February by the Queen in person—Presence of the King of Prussia on the occasion—Her Majesty's Speech from the Throne— Address moved in the House of Lords by the Marquess of Alercorn, seconded by the Earl of Dalhousie–Speeches of Wiscount Melbourne,

Duke of Wellington, Lord Brougham, Earl Fitzmilliam, Duke of Buckingham, and other Peers—Address carried unanimously-Debate in the House of Commons—Address moved by the Earl of March, seconded by Mr. Beckett–Speeches of Mr. Enart, Lord John Russell, Sir Robert Peel, Mr. Williers, and Mr. Escott General allusion to the Corn-lans—Statement of Sir R. Peel respecting his Financial Measures—Address carried mithout a division.

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Corn-laws, and a necessity now generally acknowledged for some re-settlement of that delicate and arduous question; increasing disunion between the agricultural and manufacturing interests; loud and general complaints of depression in all the principal branches of trade, aceompanied by distress among the poorer classes, which, making every allowance for exaggeration, was beyond all doubt both real and extensive;—all these causes seemed to impose upon the ministry which had lately been called to office a task which it would require no ordinary resources of statesmanship to discharge in a manner commensurate with the exigencies of the times. To allay the popular outcry for cheap food, without withdrawing its due support from agriculture; to impart a new stimulus to trade without detriment to interests which claimed protection, and to retrieve the deficiencies of the revenue without imposing new burthens on industry, were problems on the solution of which the credit of the new Administration was staked, and on which its existence might be considered, not. withstanding its present apparent strength, to depend. Moreover, to these requisitions of the country, Sir Robert Peel had, on accepting office, declared himself prepared to minister, stipulating only for time to mature his remedial measures, while the interval thus necessarily employed, of which his opponents did not fail to take advantage against him, served in no small degree to enhance the expectations and hopes of the public, and to prepare them to feel a keener disappointment in the event of any short-coming in the promised measures of relief. The Ministry, therefore, to which the country

had given by anticipation so large a pledge of its confidence at the late elections, was still only a Mimistry on its trial, and that trial as keen and severe as any Cabinet in modern times has been required to undergo. It was consequently impossible even for those whose political creed led them to place the greatest confidence in the ability and resources of Sir Robert Peel and his colleagues, not to feel an anxious solicitude when the time approached for the development of those measures of which the prudence of the Prime Minister had hitherto refused to allow even the slightest outline to transpire to the curiosity of the public. The embarrassments of the country were beyond dispute; the capacity of the existing Administration to grapple with them was warmly controvert

ed, and the disclosure of their plans

was anticipated by the different parties in the country according to their respective predilections or interests, with all the eagerness of hope or fear. The only incident worthy of remark which occurred ho to the opening of Pariament to excite public speculation and throw some degree of light upon the forthcoming policy of the Government, was the announced retirement in the month of January of the Duke of Buckingham from the office of Lordkeeper of the Privy Seal. It was palpable that dissatisfaction with the measure projected by his colleagues for d. settlement of the Corn-laws had induced this step and the original admission o the Duke, the uncompromising advocate of the landed interests, into the Cabinet, having been looked upon as a pledge and security to the agriculturists that their interests would be adhered to, his secession at this moment caused some anxiety to that body. The opponents of the protective system, on the other hand, rejoiced in the hope that a division was taking place, which would tend to weaken a Cabinet from which they expected little satisfaction to their views, and deprive it of that support of the farming body which was so essential to its strength. How far these expectations were realised will appear from the events hereafter to be unfolded.

On the 3rd of February the Session was opened under circumstances of unusual splendour, occasioned by the presence of the King of Prussia, at that time making a visit to England in order to stand sponsor at the christening of the infant Prince of Wales, .# who accompanied Her Majesty to the ceremonial. The recent birth of a male heir to the Throne likewise added an interest to the appearance of the Sovereign, who now addressed her Parliament in the following Speech from the Throne:—

“My Lords and Gentlemen,

“I cannot meet you in Parliament assembled without making a public acknowledgment of my gratitude to Almighty God on account of the birth of the Prince my son ; an event which has completed the measure of my domestic happiness, and has been hailed with every demonstration of affectionate attachment to my person and government by my faithful and loyal people.

“I am confident that you will participate in the satisfaction which I have derived from the presence in this country of my good brother and ally the King of Prussia; who, at my request, undertook in per

son the office of sponsor at the christening of the Prince of Wales. “I receive from all Princes and States the continued assurance of their earnest desire to maintain the most friendly relations with this country. “It is with great satisfaction that I inform you that I have concluded with the Emperor of Austria, the King of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of Russia, a treaty for the more effectual suppression of the Slavetrade; which, when the ratifications shall have been exchanged, will be communicated to Parliament. “There shall also be laid before you a treaty which I have concluded with the same Powers, together with the Sultan, having for its object the security of the Turkish empire, and the maintenance of the general tranquillity. “The restoration of my diplomatic and friendly intercourse with the Court of Tehran, has been followed by the completion of a commercial treaty with the King of Persia; which I have directed to be laid before you. “I am engaged in negotiations with several Powers, which, I trust, by leading to conventions founded on the just principle of mutual advantage, may extend the trade and commerce of the country. “I regret that I am not enabled to announce to you the re-establishment of peaceful relations with the Government of China. The uniform success which has attended the hostile operations directed against that Power, and my confidence in the skill and gallantry of my naval and military forces, encourage the hope on my part that our differences with the Govern[B 2) .

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