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so appropriated to that given object. For instance, Sir, you will not pretend to say that the President's whole salary of 25,000 dollars can be paid him, on the first day, or within the first quarter, of his year of service; or that if it were so paid him, and he was immediately thereafter either to die or resign, the appropriation by Congress would not in such case be violated. Let me then ask you to point out what difference there is between the case of death and resignation, and the case of the expiration of the President's first term of service before stated, which can exonerate you from the charge of having violated the appropriation laws of Congress in favour of the President, by paying him more money than he was legally entitled to for his first term of service.
" A CALM OBSERVER." Philadelphia, 29th O&t. 1795."
“ From the (n. y.) Minerva *. “ The charges of a Calm Observer against the President, and the late and present Secretaries of the Treasury, are of a high nature, and demand notice. If these officers of government have violated the laws and constitution of our country, they are amenable to justice, and every good citizen will say, let justice be done.
“ By the imperious tone assumed by this abusive writer, and his repeated confident assertions, one would be led to believe him standing on the high ground of truth; yet, on scrutiny, his charges will be found to be sound without sense assertions with
* This article was imputed to Mr. Hamilton, the late Secretary of the Treasury.
out proof, or to be explained away by a fair, short, and simple statement of the regular mode of transacting business in the Treasury Department.The charges of violation of oaths, law, and constitution, by our high executive characters will end, like other jacobinical bugbears, in smoke.
“ We leave to the persons accused, and to Congress, a full examination of this business—all we shall do in this paper, will be to make the following short statement of facts, to obviate the undue impressions which the charges of the Calin Observer are calculated to make on a first reading.
“ Whenever an appropriation of money has been made by a law of Congress, it has been a constant practice with the officers of the Treasury to advance money on that appropriation, whenever it was necessary for the public service.-Thus money has been advanced to the officer of government, and for military services and supplies, and even to members of Congress, at the opening of a session. Thus, when Congress first meet, a warrant is issued, on application, to supply the Vice-President, for the senators, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, for the members, with a sum of money to defray their expenses which are daily accruing. Thus ten, fifteen, or twenty thousand dollars are drawn from the Treasury and paid to the members of Congress, before it has strictly become due, that is, before their services are rendered. This is a constant practice, and no person ever called in question the legality of it. Indeed it would be a hard case, that men who are in public service, should be compelled to advance large sums of their own money 10 defray weekly and daily expenses, or borrow of banks or private persons.-Yet this must be the case unless money is advanced from the Treasury. And no inconvenience can ensue to the public from such advance, as the money is in the Treasury and is appropriated to that specific purpose.
It is of no consequence to the public, whether the money is drawn from the Treasury at the beginning or end of a quarter.
“ A quarter's salary of the President is 6250 dollars. Now by the Observer's own statement, the President has not been in advance more than 5150 dollars at any time, if I understand him; which is less than he has a right to draw from the Treasury every quarter.
“ No man will say, that when money is in the Treasury, appropriated for the specific object of supporting the President's household, that he shall not be permitted to draw forth money at the beginning of the quarter, but shall advance five or six thousand dollars of his own money to support his family, while he is in the public service. It would be unreasonable to require this of an old patriot who has served his country faithfully, more than twenty years, without a farthing of compensation ; especially as every member of Congress is indulged in similar advances of money, at the opening of every session.
“ This general statement, until the persons accused shall enter into a full detail, will serve to show the baseness of the Calm Observer's charges, and obriate, in a great measure, the effect of his designs.”
REMARKS ON THE ABOVE. “ The charges of the CALM OBSERVER, have here been attempted to be obviated by sophistrý and evasion ;-falsehood at New York is called in aid, by the advocates of presidential infallibility. Here some trifling circumstances were pleaded in extenuation ; but there the defence presents a bolder front, and the justice of the country is chal
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“ Upon what is called, in the piece above quoted from the Minerva, “ a statement of facts," the following observations are submitted, which will shew it to be nothing but a string of falsehoods.
“ If it were true, that it is the practice at the Treasury to pay to officers their salaries before the service is rendered, the practice would still remain unauthorized by law or reason. But it is denied that such has been the general practice; and if it has prevailed at all, its not having prevailed universally adds to the degree of guilt; for then the Treasury, instead of dispensing the public monies withi an equal and legal hand has been a sink of intrigue and favouritism.
“ It is not true, that the members of Congress are paid any part of their compensation before it has strictly become due. For the convenience of the Treasury Department, it has been the practice at the beginning of each session to give the Speaker of the House and President of the Senate a credit at the Bank; out of which, during the course of the session, the members receive part of their conpensation as they earn it, but never one cent in advance, and at the close of the session their balance is paid them, for which their receipt is preserved in the Treasury. Thus the practice of the legislature cannot be cited as an excuse for the President's mal-conduct.
" The records can shew a letter from Mr. O. Wolcott, expressly certifying, that it was not the practice of the members of the legislature to draw
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their compensation in advance ; but that the contrary practice invariably prevailed. Will the New York paragraphist dispute the authority? If he does other testimony may be produced.
“ If the above statement is correct, and the phalanx of presidential sycophants are challenged to disprove it ; then the whole fabric of the defence in the Minerva falls to the ground, and the high charges against the President stand unanswered.
“ The writer in the Minerva, sensible of the weakness of the cause, attempts to call the feelings and passions of his readers in aid: We are told that Mr. G. Washington has served his country twenty years without a compensation. Before the late discovery, the world was led to believe that as President he received no compensation ; they are now permitted to suspect that his disinterestedness in his military capacity is of the same stamp, at least until his account during the war is exhibited and unequivocally proves the contrary.'
“ To the EDITOR of the AURORA.
“ Heavy charges have been made against the President, the Secretary and Comptroller of the Treasury, and these charges have not been refuted. An attempt at an exienuation, not justification, has been made by the Secretary of the Treasury; but he has proved the most unfortunate advocate in the world, før he has made the thing ten times worse. Had he been wholly silent on the subject, ingenuity might have worked out some kind of excuse for him; but his public appearance has robbed his friends of even a pretext in his behalf. Such a full