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the taste of more advanced pupils, has been confirmed by that of teachers who have adopted the system.
Appendices, containing directions for the Correction of the Press, a list of Books of Reference, and an Explanatory Index giving brief definitions of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms, have been added to the work, in order to render it as complete as possible.
W, S. D.
1. Discursive Themes,
2. Argumentative Themes,
ADVANCED TEXT BOOK
PART 1.-ON STYLE.
Chapter I.-Style in General.
1. Style signifies manner of writing. It is the name given to that combination of qualities which Rhetoric requires a good composition to possess. Style takes no account of the matter of a literary work. It is concerned only with its form; and not with its form as thought, but only with its form as expressed. The question which it asks is not what does an author say? but, how does he say it? It does not ask whether the thought is true or false; that is a question of science, or of fact: it does not inquire whether the conclusions are accurately drawn; that is a question of Logic. The domain of Rhetoric is posterior to, and independent of, both of these inquiries. The facts may be undoubted, or the truths unimpeachable; the reasoning may be the most exact, and the conclusions inevitable; yet the language may be obscure or inelegant, and the construction weak or clumsy. It is here that Rhetoric steps in, to enounce principles regulating both the choice of words and the arrangement of words in sentences, and of sentences in an extended composition.
(a) These principles have already been glanced at, both under the Sentence and under the Paragraph. At this stage, however, it is expedient that they should be more formally elucidated, for the purposes both of criticism and of practical application to the art of composition.
2. The excellence of a literary composition depends primarily upon that of its separate sentences. The qualities of style in general, therefore, may be reduced to the qualities of the sentence. Now, the excellence of a sentence depends upon two thingsfirst, upon the Language, or the choice of words; second, upon the Construction, or the arrangement of its parts. We have thus two divisions of the subject of style, which require separate treatment.
3. Before proceeding to examine these divisions in detail, there are certain general qualities of style to be noted, which indicate the ends sought to be attained by the special qualities of language and of construction. These are Perspicuity, Energy, and Grace.
4. I. Perspicuity of style is opposed to obscurity, or indefiniteness of meaning. It corresponds with transparency in sensible objects. It is the quality which renders style a true medium for transmitting the writer's thought to the reader. It aims at conveying a clear and intelligible idea of the author's meaning. Style is wanting in perspicuity, if it leaves any doubt as to the precise drift of every sentence, or any difficulty in ascertaining this. It is a quality of the first importance.
5. II. Energy of style is opposed to feebleness. It is that quality by which an author makes his meaning not only plain, but also impressive. If perspicuity makes it impossible to misunderstand a writer, energy makes it difficult to forget him ; it may be, difficult to differ from him.
6. III. Grace of style is opposed to clumsiness and vulgarity. Its aim is to please the reader,-to gratify his taste, and so to gain his sympathy. Its, general effect resembles that of good manners in society. Both are the result of culture in its widest sense. If energy corresponds with the fortiter in re, grace of style corresponds with the suaviter in modo.
7. Nearly corresponding with this classification of the qualities of style, there is a threefold division of Rhetoric, according to the end 'which a composition has in view. Its aim may be, 1st, simply to inform,—to convey information regarding objects, events, or the truths of science; 2d, to persuade,—to induce those addressed to pursue a certain course of action; 3d, to