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rough Downs is called the Grey Wea- burning in the furnace. Now I am perthers, in the midst of which occurs a suaded that the sound comes of the rash çromlech, the local appellation of which of the sea water." Ammianus Maris the Devil's Den. A cromlech near cellinus, as we learn from Camden, has St. Columb, in Cornwall, has the name a passage which may possibly refer to of the Giant's Quoit; for the same rea- the same place : :-“ They that have son, a vast stone, weighing several tons, written histories do say, that in the Isle near Chew, in Somersetshire, has been of Britain there is a certain hole, or called Hautville's Quoit, as the common cave, under a hill, and on the top thereof people suppose that it was thrown to a gaping chink; and whensoever the that spot by Sir John Hautville. wind is gathered into that hole, and

A Druidical circle at Stanton Drew, tossed to and fro in the womb or conSomersetshire, has been named theWed- cavity thereof, there is heard above a ding ;-in an orchard are shown the sound of cymbals." metamorphosed bride, bridegroom, and A similar superstition respecting an clergyman: one circle is supposed to enchanted cavern, occurs in another part be the company dancing, another is of Wales :-“ According to a legend, shown as the fiddlers. A barrow near there is in Merlin's Hill a cave, the this place bears the name of Fairies mouth of which many have seen at a Foot. Another circle in Cumberland, distance, but when persons approach the called Long Meg and her Daughters, place, they are never able to find it. In is believed to have once been human. this cave King Arthur and the Knights

In North Wales are shown two stones, of the Round Table are supposed to reported to be the remains of a chapel, sleep; at a set time King Arthur will which was carried away by night by arise, and reign with splendour over the supernatural agency.

ancient Britons : The fortified Roman camp on Clifton “ In such folly if you trust, Down, now destroyed, was said by the

Wait for Arthur froin the dust." vulgar people to have been founded From the same cause, a cave at Bobefore the time of William the Con- sauan, in Cornwall, bears: the name of queror, by Jews or Saracens, under one Piskey Hall; another is called the Ghyst, a giant in the land ; and a ca- Giant's Holt. A similar story is told, vern, not far distant, has received the that at Alderly Edge, in Cheshire, the name of the “Giant's Hole.” The vast neighing of horses may be heard at cavern in Derbyshire is well known as night by the peasantry. On the top of the Devil's Peak; near Stanton Har- the mountains near Brecknock is Cadair court, in Oxfordshire, are the Devil's Arthur, or Arthur's Chair. According Quoits ; near West Acton, in Middlesex, to Geoffry of Monmouth, the cliff of was a place known as the Devil's Or- Lan Gæg Magog, or the Giant's Leap, chard ; two dykes, one in Cambridge in Cornwall, is the place where Gog shire, and the other in the North, are Magog was thrown headlong into the called the Devil's Ditch; four large sea by Corinæus and the Trojans. Near pyramidical stones, near Burrow Bridge, Warwick is shown Guy's Cliff, where in Yorkshire (one of which, says Cam- he lived as a hermit after his warlike den, was lately pulled down by some exploits. The chasm of the Holy Mounthat hoped to find treasure there, though tains, near Abergavenny, is supposed to they sought in vain), are known as the have been caused by the convulsion of Devil's Bolts; and the celebrated bridge the earth at the Crucifixion. Several at Pont Aber Glaslyn, is commonly called other such instances will occur to the the Devil's Bridge, as one part of the reader. The tradition of Wayland Smith, Cumberland Mountains is designated which has been introduced into “KenilThe Devil's, or Cross, Fell.

worth,” was well known in the Vale of The following is an extract from White Horse. Giraldus Cambrensis :-". In a rock or In Scotland, the foundations of old cliff, by the sea-side in Glamorganshire, houses beyond memory are named, near the Isle of Barry, there appeareth Pight's Houses ; and the arrows which a little chink, into which, if you lay were used by the original inhabitants your ear, you shall hear a noise as are called elf bolts, as the cornu amof smiths at work-one while the blow- monis, which is found in many parts of ing of bellows, another while striking of England, is reported to be an enchanted sledge and hammer, sometime the sound snake. Throughout the islands, suof the grindstone and iron tools rubbing perstitious belief appears to be prevaagainst it, the hissing sparks also of lent. In the Hebrides, a belief in the steel gads within holes as they are second sight and respect for the fairies beaten, yea and the puffing noise of fire is still common. .“ In the Isle of Man,”

ENVY.

SHAKSPEARE.

says Waldron, “ the reality of the appa- Yet on the boy's instructive sport, rition of the Manthe Dog is universally Is this contrivance built ; acknowledged.”

The source from whence his gains arise, “I was told,' says Gray in his letters, What is it but a stilt ? " by a ferryman at Netley, in the Isle of

Corinna’s fair, of stature low, Wight, that he would not for all the

Yet this defect supplies, world pass a night at the Abbey, there By stilt-like heels which may assist were such things near it, though there

The conquests of her eyes. was a power of money hid there."

The tales of haunted houses which See ! in his second childhood faint, may be met with in so many places, the

The old man walks with pain; frequent narration of finding giants' On crutches imitates his stilts, bones, the report that rivers in many

And acts the boy again. places are without a bottom, the stories So well concerted is this art, of endless subterraneous caves, as well as It suits with all conditions ; of inscriptions which have been found in Heroes, and ladies, beggars, bards, illegible characters, and the assertion And boys, and politicians. that the steeple of the village near Hase- Long through the various roads of life, borough, in Norfolk, which was de

‘Each artist walks unhurt, stroyed by the sea, is to be seen at low Till Death at last kicks down the stilts, water-may possibly rather have origi

And lays him in the dirt. G. K. nated in the love for the marvellous than the influence of superstition.

A little French girl was lately asked, The Gatherer.

why she no longer liked her doll. The A snapper up of uncousidered trifles.

answer was—" Because it vexes me to

see her better dressed than myself !” STILTS. LEAVING the grammar for his play,

When the surgeons of Tripoli take off Forgetful of the rod,

a limb, the stump is dipped into a bowl Tott'ring in stilts through mire and dirt, of hot pitch, which settles the bleeding, The schoolboy strolls abroad.

without the trouble of tying up the ar

teries. Why does this innocent delight Provoke the pedant's spleen ?

SYMPATHY. Look round the world, thou fool, and learn

It is from having suffered ourselves, that The use of this machine.

we learn to appreciate the misfortunes

and wants of others, and become doubly When quite deserted by his muse,

interested in preventing or relieving The sinking sonnetteer

them. , “ T'he human heart," as an eleHammers in vain a thoughtless verse,

gant French author observes, “resemTo please Belinda's ear ;

bles certain medicinal trees, which yield The mighty void of wit he stops, not their healing balm until they have With a successful chime;

themselves been wounded.” On stilts poetic rises quick, And leans upon his rhyme.

EPIG M, Through fields of blood the general Addressed to M- on his nomination stalks,

to the Legion of Honour. And fame sits on his hilt,

In ancient times—'twas no great loss Till sword or gun at last bestows They hung the thief upon the cross ; An honourable stilt.

alas !- I say't with grief The blund'ring statesman gains by these, We hang the cross upon the thief. His wisdom boasts aloud ;

ANNUALS FOR 1831. And on his gilded stilts sublime

With a fine Engraving, Steps o'er the murm’ring crowd.

THE MIRROR, No. 460, Supported by these faithful friends, Defies all charge of guilt ;

Extracts, Prose and Verse, from the Forget-me. And, in the mud of sinking, takes

nut-Friendship's Offering- Amulet - Juvenile

Forget-me-not-Humourist--and Literary SoriThe sceptre for a stilt. With well dissembled anguish see The cheating rascal beg,

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But now,

CONTAINING

Printed and published by J. LIMBIRD, 113, And by a counterfeit gain more

Strand, (near Somerset House,) London : soid Than by his real leg.

by ERNEST FLEISCUER, 626, New York. t, Leipsic : and by all Newsmen and Bock elle, s.

venir.

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Each reader of the Mirror will consider this Engraving in association with the illustrious individual whose title and name it bears; and whose auspicious advancement is a subject of congratulation both in political and literary history.

Apart from this consideration, (in itself no ordinary point of interest,) the district of Westmoreland in which Brougham Castle stood, is one of considerable antiquarian importance. The village of Brougham is situated at the northern extremity of the county, on the military way to Carlisle ; to the north of which are the venerable ruins of Brougham Castle, the history of which is described at some length in the Beauties of England and Wales, vol. xv. :BROVACUM,* and Brovonace, the for

* The fallacy of Camden's favourite method of settling the Roman Geography of Britain by similarity of sound between ancient and modern names, is no where more clearly exemplified than in his placing Aballaba at Appleby, and in telling us that the name Brovocum, or Broconiacum, as he has it, “ remains alınost unaltered; for we still call it Brougham.” Horsley rightly derives Brougham from Burg-hæm. i. e. Castletown , and Leland, in distinguishing between the cast!e and the village, shows he was ac. quainted with the true etymology of Brongham.

463

Interior of the Chapel in Brougham

Castle. VOL. XV).

2 E

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mer mentioned in the fifth, and the latter when it was erected; but its style of in the second Antonine iter, have often architecture, and particularly that of the been confounded with each other, and keep, indubitably pronounces it Roman.” with the Borcovicum and the Brabonia-. This, however, is a mere flourish of concum of the Notitia; but they are doubt- jecture; for an inquisition records that less names of distinct places, and we the prior of Carlisle, during the minoagree with Horsley and Gough, in rity of John de Veteripont, suffered the placing Brovacum, at Brougham Castle, walls and house of Brougham to go to concerning which Leland tells us " Ther decay for want of repairing the gutters is an old castle on the side of Eden thereof. The expression house seems water, called Burgh. About a dim from to infer that license at that time had not the castle is a village called Burgham, been procured to embattle it. Roger and there is a great pilgrimage to our

Lord Clifford, son of Isabella de Veteri. Lady. At Burgham is an old castle pont, built the greatest part of the casthat the common people there say doth tle, and placed over its inner door this sink. About this Burgham ploughmen inscription-This Made Roger. § By find in the fields many square stones,

an inquisition taken after his death, its tokens of old buildings. The castle is castellany was found to consist of eighty set in a strong place, by reason of rivers acres of arable land, forty acres of meainclosing the country thereabouts." • dow, three cotterels, and a water-mill, “ Some coins and urns have been found His grandson Robert built its eastern here," and the place has all the usual parts, where his arms, with those of his evidence of a Roman station : it stood wife, were cut in stone. An inquision the east side of the Lowther, about tion, in 1403, found it and its demesne two stone casts from the castle, and its worth nothing “because it lieth alto. form and extent may be easily traced.t gether waste by reason of the destruc“ It has formed an area and out-work tion of the country by the Scots ;” and one hundred and twenty paces square,

a like authority made in 1421, says it defended by a vallum and outward ditch, had a yearly rent of twenty quarters both at this time very discernible.”I of oats, and thirty shillings from the Here Horsley mentions a fragment of vills of Clyburne, Wynanderwath, and an altar, inscribed PRO SE ET SVIS9. Brougham; and twenty-two quarters L'L9M9; remarkable only for the form of oats from Clifton. The Countess of and size of the stops. He saw many Pembroke relates that Henry, Earl of fragments of altars and inscriptions at Cumberland, when he was but Lord the hall; and in the wall by the Roman Clifford, ruled his father's estate ; and road beyond the castle ; and near the that he, “with his father Francis, Earl Countess of Pembroke's pillar, a pretty of Cumberland, did magnificently enterbusto, part of a funeral monument, and tain King James, at Brougham Castle, further on another bas relievo, much de- on the sixth, seventh, and eighth days faced. He imagined the high ground of August, 1617, on his return from his by this pillar, where most of the inscrip- last journey out of Scotland.”: The tions were found, was the site of the next account we have of it is from the city, rather perhaps of the pomerium, following inscription : or cemetry; for it is to this day called This Brougham Castle was repaired the burial-ground; and urns and coins, by the Ladie Anne Clifford, Countesse among the rest a Faustina, have been dowager of Pembroke, Dorset, and dug out of it.

Montgomery, Baronesse Clifford, WestThe following inscription is on a plain merland and Vescie, Ladie of the honour mural altar, formerly built up in the sta- of Skipton in Craven, and high sheble at Brougham Castle; but presented riffesse by inheritance of the county of lately to the Antiquarian Society of Westmerland, in the yeures 1651 and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by Mr. G. A. 1652, after it had layen ruinous ever Dickson.

since about August 1617, when King D E 0 Deo.

James lay in it for a time, in his journie BLATVCA.RO Belatucrado.

out of Scotland, towards London, until AVDAGVS Audagus.

this time, Isa. c. LVIII. v. 12. God's V S P SS votum solvens posuit

name be praised."

The Countess Anne also tells us that sanctissime.

“ After I had been there myself to di“ History,' says Mr. Grose, “

“ has not recorded the builder of Brougham old decayed castle of Brougham to be

rect the building of it, did I cause my Castle, or handed down to us the time repaired, and also the tower called the + Hors. Brit. Rom. p. 297.

Roman Tower, in the said old castle, and Hutc. Exc. p. 49. Anno 1776.

Pemb. Mem.

VII. 63.

tion."

the court-house, for keeping my courts time of siege and assault, as the retrea in, with some dozen or fourteen rooms of the chief persons of the household.Ş to be built in it upon the old founda- You descend to it by several steps : “all

The Tower of Leagues, and the other “apartments are destroyed.” the Pagan Tower, and a state room The outward gateway is machicolated, called Greystocke Chamber, are mention- and has the arms of Vaux (chegny, or ed in her Memoirs ; but the room in and gules) on its tower.|| which her father was born, her “ blessed mother” died, and King James lodged last, it is observed that “The fine old

In the Spectator newspaper of Sunday in 1617, she never fails to mention, as being that in which she laid, in all her confounded with Lord Brougham's seat,

ruin, Brougham Castle, which is often visits to this place. A garrison of foot soldiers was put in it for a short time, his family.” We had reason to doubt

never was in his possession, or that of in August 1659. After the death of the entire accuracy of this statement, the Countesse, it appears to have been neglected. Its stone, timber, and lead the personage to whom the possession

and accordingly sought information of were sold for 1001. to Mr. John Monk- of the Castle had been attributed, and house and Mr. Adderton, two attorneys . it is with feelings of pride and pleain Penrith, who disposed of them in

sure that we submit the result of this public sales, the first of which was on the coronation of George I. 1714. The inquiry to the reader :wainscotting was purchased by the

(To the Editor of the Mirror.) neighbouring villagers, among whom Sır,-The Lord Chancellor being at specimens of it still remain. I

present very much occupied, has desired The approach to this castle, says me to answer your letter of the 29th. Hutchinson, in an account written in It is perfectly true that Brougham 1776, is guarded by an outward-vaulted Castle is not now the property of the gateway, and tower, with a portcullis ; Chancellor, nor has it been in his family and, at the distance of about twenty since the reign of King John. It bepaces an inroad vaulted gateway of longs to the Earl of Thanet, as repreribbed arches, with a portcullis, through sentative of the Clifford family. Before which you enter a spacious area, defend- the time of the Norman Conquest, the ed by lofty towers.

manor and lordship of Brougham (then The side next the river is divided by called Burgham) were held by the Saxon three square towers ; from thence, on family of de Burgham, from whom the either hand, a little wing falls back, the Lord Chancellor is lineally descended. one leading to the gateway, the other After the Conquest, William the Norconnected with the outworks, which ex- man granted to Robert de Veteripont, tend to a considerable distance along a or Vipont, extensive rights and terri. grassy plain of pasture ground, termi- tories in Westmorland ; and among nated by a turret, one of the outposts of others, some oppressive rights of seigthe castle. The centre of the building niory over the manor of Brougham, is a lofty square tower : the shattered then held by Walter de Burgham. To turrets which form the angles, and the relieve the estate of such services, Gilhanging galleries, are overgrown with bert de Burgham, in the reign of King shrubs. The lower apartment in the John, agreed to give up absolutely oneprincipal tower still remains entire ; third part of his estate to Robert de being a square of twenty feet, covered Veteripont, and also the advowson of with a vaulted roof of stone, consisting the rectory of Brougham. This third of eight arches, of light and excellent comprises the land upon which the casworkmanship. The groins are orna- tle is built, and the estate afterwards mented with various grotesque heads, given by Anne Countess of Pembroke, and supported in the centre by an octa- (heiress of Veteripont), to the Hospital gon pillar, about four feet in circumfe- of Poor Widows at Appleby. Brougham rence, with a capital and base of Nor- Castle, if not built, was much extended man architecture. In the centre of each by Veteripont; and afterwards still more arch rings are fixed, as if designed for enlarged by Roger Clifford, who suclamps to illuminate the vault. From ceeded, by marriage, to the Veteripont the construction of this cell, and its possessions. The manor house, about situation in the chief tower of the for. Three quarters of a mile from the castle, tress, it is not probable it was formed continued in the Brougham family; and for a prison, but rather as used at the part of it, especially the gateway, is * Pemh. Mem. V. I. p. 216.

supposed to be of Saxon architecture : † Pemb. Mem. V. I. p. 218.

Excur. to the Lakes, p. 47. Clarke's Survey, p. 5.

Hutch. Hist. of Cuinb. I. 294.

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