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Retrospective Gleanings. The right of electing the mayor was

formerly resident in the citizens at

large when assembled in general. FolkLORD MAYOR'S DAY IN THE OLDEN mote ; yet this, having been productive

of great disturbances, gave rise to the (For the Mirror.)

more confined mode of election by dele

gates chosen out of each ward. This "By this light, I do not thinke but to be Lord Mayor of London before I die, and have three

method (with some variations at different pageants carried before me. besides a sbip and periods) continued till the year 1475, an unicorn."

GREEN'S TU QUOQUE. when by an act of common council, the The inauguration of the chief magistrate choice of both mayor and sheriff's was of the City of London is attended with vested in the mayor, aldermen, and much solid festivity, and sometimes with

common council, and the masters, warconsiderable show; yet the manner dens, and livery of the city companies, in which Lord Mayor's Day, as it in which it still remains. The right is popularly called, is now observed, is has been confirmed to them by an act of not by any means comparable with the parliament. The election is made ansplendid pomp. and symbolic pageantry pually on Michaelmas Day, in Guildthat accompanied its celebration in for- hall, and whoever is chosen Lord Mayor mer ages.

must have previously served the office of Whilst under the dominion of « Im- sheriff. He must also be free of one perial Rome,'' London was governed by of the twelve principal city companies, a præfect-in the Saxon times by a port

or become so before he can be sworn. reve, and after the coming of the Nor. His power is very extensive, and his sumans by a portreve and provost jointly. premacy does not cease even on the The appellation of Mayor was first be- death of the sovereign, and when this stowed on Henry Fitz- Alwyn, or Fitz- happens, “he is considered as the prinLeofstan, goldsmith, a descendant of cipal officer in the kingdom, and takes the celebrated Duke Ailwyn, alderman his place accordingly in the privy counof all England, (and kinsman to Kingcil until the new king be proclaimed.” Edgar,),who founded Romsey Abbey: A memorable instance of this dignity This gentleman continued to hold the may be seen in the invitation sent by the office till his decease, about twenty-four privy council of James of Scotland, years afterwards; and in the following after the demise of Queen Elizabeth, in year (anno 1214) King John, as a means

which the name of Sir Robert Lee, the of conciliating the good-will of the citi- then Lord Mayor, stands foremost on zens, granted to the “ Barons of the the list, before all the great officers of city,” as they were called in the charter, state, and the nobility. Since the alterthe privilege of choosing a mayor out of ation of the style, the Lord Mayor has their own body, annually, or at their been first sworn into office on the 8th of own pleasure to continue him in that November, at Guildhall, and on the situation from year to year.

next day-(the 9th) at Westminster. The requisite, however, to render this choice procession made on this last occasion is effective, that the new mayor should be what is termed the Lord Mayor's Show. presented to the king, or in his absence The original processions both in goto his justice; but this condition having ing 'to and returning from Westminoccasioned great expense and inconve- ster, were by land; but in the year nience, the citizens, in the 37th of 1453, the custom of going thither by Henry VIII. obtained a new charter, water, which is still continued, was inempowering them to present their mayor troduced by Sir John Norman, who at to the " Barons of the Exchequer at his own charge, built a 'magnificent Westminster,” when the king should barge for the purpose, and his example not be there; and before those judges he was emulated by the twelve principal is still sworn.

Edward III. in the year city companies, who all built costly 1354, granted to the city the right of barges on this occasion. Fabian says having gold and silver maces carried be that the watermen of the Thames were fore their principal officers; and it was

so highly pleased with the Lord Mayor, probably at this period that their magis, through the advantage which they reaptrate was first entitled Lord Mayor, a ed in consequence, that they composed conjecture which receives corroboration, a song in his praise, beginning thus :from the circumstance of that officer

“ Row thy boat Norman, being rated as an Earl, under the levies

Row thy boat Lemman." of the Capitation Tax, in 1379, at the Long after this the processions by same time the Aldermen were rated as fand were rendered extremely attractive Barons.

through the variety and gorgeousness of

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the different pageants, which were in- worship other than the Church of Engtroduced as well at the cost of the cor- land, in the peculiar nabit of his office, or poration as of the more affluent compa- attending with the ensigns thereof, shall nies. Stow informs us that, in his be adjudged incapable to bear any public memory great part of Leadenhall was office or employment whatsoever.” It appropriated for the purpose of paint- appears that on one or two occasions, ing and depositing the pageants for the as during a plague, &c. when the Bause of the city, and a considerable rons of the Exchequer have been absent number of artificers was kept employed from London, the Lord Mayor has been to decorate them, and to invent and fur- sworn into office on Tower Hill, by the nish the machinery. But it should be Constable of the Tower. remembered that these expenses were Of the costume of the Lord Mayor not all incurred in honour of the Lord on these particular occasions anciently, Mayor, the city being at that time ac- we can only judge from accounts of customed to make pompous shows on it on other grand festivities, as it various occasions, as coronations, visits did not appear then as now, to have of sovereigns, victories, &c. Some of settled on any decisive habit; and indeed the pageants were entirely of a drama- in old prints of Mayors, each is dressed tic cast, and appropriate speeches were differently. In 1432, the Lord Mayor assigned to the different characters. and his brethren met Henry VI. on This was particularly the case at the in- his return from France, on horseback, auguration of Sir Woolstone Dixie, who “clothed in crimson velvet, a great velwas chosen mayor in 1585, and whose vet hat furred, a girdle of gold about his show displayed a pageant wherein Lon- middle, and a jewel of gold about his don was represented by “a beautiful neck, trilling down behind him, with girl gorgeously apparelled,” seated his three huntsmen on three great courunder a canopy adorned with the royal sérs following him, in suits of red, all arms “ in beaten gold,” attended by spangled with silver." Hentzner, in several nymphs, among whom was 1598, describes the then Lord Mayor,

at the proclaiming of Bartholomew Fair, "The pleasant Thames - a sweet and dainty

to have been dressed in his scarlet gown,

and about his neck a golden chain, to together with magnanimity, loyalty, which hung a golden fleece, besides a the country, the soldier, the sailor, and rich collar. Nor were the Lord Mayor's science. The whole was led by a

Feasts near this period, though certainly " Moor mounted on the back of a

not equal to modern times, devoid of lazarn,” who thus opened the same in considerable splendour ; Sir Richard an address to the chief magistrate :

Gresham, in 1531, had one hundred and “ From where the sun doth settle in his wain,

eleven messes of meat; the guests (freeAnd yokes his borses to his fiery car,

men) entertained at Guildhall were two And in bis course gives life to Ceres.corn

hundred and seventy-three, and the warEven from the torrid zone, behold I come, A stranger, strangely mounted as you see,

dens of the different companies, reckonSeated npon a lusty lazarn's back,

ing two to a company, were one hunTo offer to your Honour (good my Lord !)

dred and twenty, making together three This emblem thus in show siguificant or lovely London! rich and fortunate :

hundred and ninety-three, exclusively of Fam'd through the world for peace and bappi- many others.

Among his privileges, the Lord Mayor Sir John Shaw, who was Lord Mayor is, as head of the city, principal in all in 1501, revived the more ancient cus- commissions of felony, and Chief Judge tom of riding to Westminster on horse. for the sessions of gaol delivery at Newback, but this practice was finally dis- gate, Conservator of the Rivers Thames continued in Queen Anne's time, Sir and Medway, and also Chief Butler to Gilbert Heathcote being the last Lord the King at his Coronation. Mayor who rode thither, in 1711. Sir Humphrey Edwin, whom Dean Swift

THE FIRST PARLIAMENTARY SPEECH OF has immortalized in his Tale of a Tub, is noted for having gone to a conventicle while mayor, in 1698, in his formalities, This was delivered Ann. Dom. 1106, by and with all the insignia of his office. Henry I. to the great barons of the This indiscreet conduct is supposed to realm, whom he had summoned by roya have had considerable influence in the mandate to London. He had supplantframing of a proviso in the statute, 6th ed his brother, Robert of Normandy, Geo. I. c. iv., which declares that “any in his right to the English crown, and mayor, bailiff

, or other magistrate, con- being apprehensive of that injured revicted of being present at any place of lative's vengeance he endeavoured, by



sent you.

the most artful insinuations, to engage

CHRIST'S HOSPITAL. the barons and other nobles in his in

(For the Mirror.) terest.

“ My friends and faithful subjects, The following is a copy of the speech both foreigners and natives, you all that was addressed to his Majesty, by know very well that my brother Robert the senior scholar of the grammarwas both called by God and elected King school, in Christ's Hospital, on Lord of Jerusalem, which he might have hap- Mayor's Day, 1761, pily governed, and how shamefully he “ Most august and gracious sovereign, refused that rule, for which he justly from the condescension and goodness deserves God's anger and reproof. You which your majesty displays towards know also, in many other instances, his even the meanest of your subjects, we pride and brutality: because he is a

are emboldened to hope you will accept man that delights in war and bloodshed, the tribute of obedience and duty which I know that he thinks you a parcel of we poor orphans, are permitted to precontemptible fellows ; he calls you a set of gluttons and drunkards, whom he

“ Educated and supported by the hopes to tread under his feet. I, truly, a munificence of a charity, founded, enmeek, humble, and peaceable king, will larged, and protected by your royal prepreserve and cherish you in your ancient decessors, with the warmest gratitude liberties, which I have formally sworn

we acknowledge our inexpressible oblito perform; will hearken to your wise gations to its bounty, and the distincounsel with patience, and will govern guished happiness we have hitherto enyou justly after the example of the best joyed under the constant patronage of of princés. If you desire it I will former princes. May this ever be our strengthen this promise with a written boast and our glory! Nor can we think charter, and all those laws which the we shall' prefer our prayer in vain, holy King Edward, by the inspiration whilst with earnest but humble suppliof God, so wisely enacted, I will swear cations, we implore the patronage and to keep inviolate. If you, my brethren, protection of your majesty. will stand by me faithfully, we shall

« To our 'ardent petition for your easily repulse the strongest efforts that princely favours, may we presume, dread the cruellest enemy can make against sovereign, to add our most respectful me and these kingdoms. If I am only congratulations on your auspicious marsupported by the valour and power of riage with your royal consort. Strangers the English nation, all the threats of to the disquietude which often dwells the Normans will no longer seem for- within the circle of a crown, long may midable to me."

your majesties experience the heartfelt satisfaction of domestic life; in the un

interrupted possession of every endearGUNPOWDER TREASON.

ment of the most tender union, every On January 30, 1606, Sir Everard blessing of conjugal affection, every Digby, Robert Winter, John Grant, comfort of parental felicity. And may and Thomas Bates, were executed at

a race of princes, your illustrious issue the west end of St. Paul's Church; and and descendants, formed by the example, Guy Fawkes was executed with Thomas and inheriting the virtues of their great Winter, Ambrose Rockwood, and Ro- and good progenitor, continue to sway bert Keyes, within the Old Palace Yard, the British sceptre to the latest posWestminster, and near the Parliament terity.” House, January 31, 1606. Besides the

As soon as he had finished, the boys above - mentioned culprits, the Lords in a grand chorus chanted God save Mordaunt and Stourton, two Catholic the King, Amen." After this the lords, were, fined £1,000. each, and senior scholar delivered two copies of £10,000. afterwards, by the Star-cham- the speech to the King and Queen. ber, upon farther discovery of their vil

J. G. B. lanies, and because their absence from parliament had begotten a suspicion of their being deep in the conspiracy ; A GENTLEMAN, unfortunately linked for moreover it was proved that they had life to one who made him feel the weight advanced considerable sums for carrying of his chain, was one day told by the on the above work. The Earl of Nor- maid that she was going to give her thumberland was fined £30,000. and de- mistress warning, as she kept scolding tained for several years a prisoner in the her from morning till night.- “Ah, Tower.

J. R. S. happy girl!” said the master, “] visb

I could give her warning too !”


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TRAITOR'S GATE. The Cut is but a mere vignette illustra- solemnly absolved her from any knowtion of the sanguinary history of the ledge of his design. Elizabeth was conTower of London. It represents the veyed by water to the Tower, and comnorth, or inside view, of the Traitor's pelled to enter at the Traitor's Gate, Gate, beneath St. Thomas's Tower, where, on setting her foot upon the which stands over the moat, near the steps, she exclaimed, with that spirit middle part of the southern wall. The and dignity which ennobled her characGate communicates with the river ter—" Here landeth as true a subject, Thames by a passage beneath the wharf, being a prisoner, as ever landed at these forming the principal entrance to the stairs; and before thee, O God, I speak Tower from the river, and through it." which, in former times, it was customary Elizabeth is said to have been confined to convey state delinquents to the for- in the Bell Tower, so named from the tress.

alarm-bell of the garrison being placed The very place has an air of interest in a wooden turret on its summit. ing melancholy in its associations : in The Tower above Traitor's Gate is common terms, it even smells of blood ; "a large rectangular edifice, the outer and it is no stretch of romance to ima line of which is strengthened by two gine the arrival of the boat, with its circular towers, projecting from the heavily-plashing oar breaking the death- south-east and south-west angles. These like silence of the arched channel in the towers have been very little altered, and distance of the Engraving. The ill- interiorly exhibit some interesting exam. starred captives who have passed through ples of the early pointed architecture of this gate to their “prison lodging’ like Henry the Third's reign. Within each wise increase the gloom of the scene. tower are two little vaulted apartinents Among its records, we may mention of a sexagonal form, and corresponding one in the reign of Queen Mary; when, in dimensions, their greatest width being upon the rising of Sir Thomas Wyatt, nine feet. The ribs of the vaulting rise the Princess Elizabeth, Mary's sister, from the capitals of small round columns. underwent a strict and severe confine This Tower is now appropriated to the ment in the Tower of above two months' raising of water, and contains a steamduration, on suspicion of being impli- engine, water-wheel, and other machicated in that attempt; but Wyatt, with nery.”** his dying breath, when on the scaffold, * Brilton's Memoir of the Tower, sm. 8vo. 1830.


sock, and bearing either long bows or

steel cross-bows. The duke rode a Public Journals.

Spanish horse, with which a rich Nor

man had presented him, on his return NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND. from a pilgrimage to Sant Iago, in GaliBy M. Thierry.

cia. He wore, suspended round his

neck, the most holy of the relics upon We give the account of this memorable which Harold had sworn ; and a young day in the words of our author, as we Norman called Tonstain-le-Blanc carconsider his description a fine specimen ried at his side the standard which had of historical writing; the facts and the been blessed by the pope. At the momanners being first drawn fresh from ment the soldiers were about to march, the well of contemporary writers, and with a loud voice he thus addressed then thrown together with that felicitous them :- Take care that you fight well, grouping, and that warm glow of ima- and to death : if the day is ours, it will gination, which distinguish the higher make our fortunes for us all. Whatever historian from the mere chronicler or

I gain, yon shall gain; if this land is to annalist.

be mine, it shall be yours also. You “ Upon that ground, which ever since know well that I am come here not has been known by a name borrowed only to claim my right, but to avenge from the battle, the Anglo-Saxon lines our nation of the felony, perjury, and occupied a chain of little hills, fortified treasons of these English. Have they on all sides by a rampart of strong not murdered the Danes upon the night wooden piles and twisted branches. On of St. Brice, slaying alike both women the night of the 13th of October, 1066, and men ? Have they not decimated the William announced to his army, that on companions of Alfred, my ancestor, and the day following he had determined to caused them to perish ? Advance then, fight. Upon this the priests and monks, and with the aid of God let us revenge who with the hopes of plunder had upon them all their misdeeds.' changed their cassocks for steel coats, « The army moved forward, and soon and followed the army in great numbers, found itself in view of the Saxon camp, résumed their religious duties, and whilst which lay to the north-west of Hastings, the knights and soldiers were preparing and the priests and monks who had their arms and their horses, offered up hitherto marched in the ranks, now left prayers and sang litanies for the safety them in a body and took their station of the host. The little portion of time upon a neighbouring height, where they which remained was employed by the could offer up their prayers, and behold soldiers in the confession of their sins the battle undisturbed. At this moment, and receiving the sacrament. In the a Norman knight, named Taillefer, spurother army the night passed in a very red his horse in front of the battle, and different manner, the Saxons abandoning with a loud voice began the song of themselves to great revelry, shouting Charlemagne and Roland, chanting and singing their national ballads, crowd- those valorous deeds which were then ing round their camp fires, and quaffing famous throughout France. As he sung, their horns full of beer and wine.

he played with his sword, casting it “ When morning broke, in the Nor- high in the air and catching it again man camp the Bishop of Bayeux, cloth with his right hand, whilst the Normans ed in a steel hauberk which he wore be joined in the chorus, or shouted their neath his rocquet, celebrated mass, and cry of God aid us! God aid us ! Arblessed the troops : he then threw him- rived within bow shot, the archers beself upon a superb white horse, and gan to discharge their arrows, and the with his lance in his hand drew up his cross-bowmen their quarrels, but the squadron of cavalry. The Norman army shots were for the most part blunted or was divided into three columns or lines, thrown off by the high parapet which In the first were the men at arms belong- surrounded the Saxon intrenchments. ing to the counties of Boulogne and The foot lancers and cavalry then adPonthieu, along with the greater part of vanced to the gates of the fortification those soldiers who served for pay; the and attempted to force them ; but the second consisted of the Bretons and Anglo-Saxons drawn up on foot around Poitevins; and the third was formed of their standard, which was fixed in the the best troops of Normandy, led by the earth, and forming a compact and solid duke in person. In front of each of mass behind their intrenchments, rethese columns or battalia were drawn ceived their assailants with tremendous up several lines of footmen clothed in cuts of their steel axes, which were so light armour, worn over a quilted cus- heavy and sharp, that they broke the

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