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FRANCE.

was flanked by the cross aisles, and ter- joining, is still called St. Cuthbert's minated by the choir. He concludes, fee. Six stone coffins were dug up, about therefore, that what is now standing is forty years ago, by a Mr. Ridlington, not a fifth part of the original building, who levelled the hill before the north although it is an extensive portion of front the mansion house : they were the nave of the church. It measures arranged alongside each other, and cothirty-three feet, and is much admired vered over, but dust was the only vestige for its Norman door-way, which is com- of mortality which they contained. posed of a central and two smaller sidearches, with pointed and dental mouldings, supported by clustered and open

The Selector; pillars. The windows are in the same style, and their narrowness, together

LITERARY NOTICES OF with the painted glass they contained,

NEW WORKS. would doubtless have rendered the interior of the building very gloomy and obscure, had not the great number of lamps, which were kept continually The twelfth volume of the Cabinet Cy. burning, afforded a substitute for the clopædia consists of the first portion of purer light of heaven. The door-way a History of France, by Mr. Eyre Evans was repaired a few years since by the Crowe, whose name, by the way, has of ·late Marquess of Exeter ; but some parts late been attached to several novels of of it are still in a mutilated state. At considerable graphic power. We wish present, however, exhibits enough to Mr. Crowe well in his new vocation, awaken the curiosity of the stranger, and and are even glad to see his time and also to excite the interest of the acute talents directed from novel-writing to antiquary. This house was used as a

the more useful labour of condensing cell to the monastery of Durham, and

a national history. His taste will doubtserved as a nursery for young monks to less enable him to give a few touches to study under their seniors; as a place of narratives of events which will relieve punishment for those who were banished the occasionally unattractive style of his

from their principal houses ; and also tory. for the recess of eminent persons, who,

Criticism from us on this book is out - being ill-treated by the king, popę, or

of the question, and we do not affect to their own monasteries, chose to leave analyze its merits. All we do in these them, and live here in retirement. For cases is to cut open the pages of the some reason of the latter description, book, and glance at a few of the most this monastery became the residence of striking events; for which we have great Sir Henry de Stamford, during the latter facility in the head-lines of all the Cabi. part of his life, which ended in 1320, net histories— each line denoting the and he was buried in the choir before contents of the page. the high altar. He is said to have been

France is a fine field for the historian. born on St. Leonard's day, elected bishop Its annals are studded with splendid on St. Leonard's day, and buried in St.

events. It abounds with episodes of a · Leonard's church ; and ancient super

brilliant and stirring character. The stition records, that, after his interment, present volume extends from the Mero. a light was seen shining on his gravé vingians and Carlovingians, A.D. 400, to like a sunbeam.

the death of Henry Iỹ. 1610—upwards St. Leonard's had the manor of Cath of 1,200 years in less than 400 pages. bert’s* fee, which belonged to the ca

The great events are, however, vividly, thedral church of Durham (dedicated to if not elaborately told; and their great the latter saint), as part of its posses

names glitter over the pages like spearsions ; but it paid 81. per annum to the heads in battle array. Only think of Abbot of Croyland.

Charlemagne, the Crusades, St. Louis, It was valued at 25l. 18. 2d. per annum Cressy, Poitiers, Agincourt, Orleans, by Dugdale, at 361. by Rymer, and at Joan of Arc, Ravenna, Bayard, Fran361. 178. by Speed; and was granted in cis I., Pavia, Condé, Guise, and the the fifth of Edward VI. to Sir w. Cecil, glittering reign of Henry IV. by whose heirs it is still retained. The

We detach a few extracts, just to remains are now used as a storehouse show the spirit with which characters for bark, and with the small manor ad

are sketched, and events narrated : * Cuthbert was Archbishop of Canterbury, and

Joan of Arc. flourished about 750. He introduced burying in churches and churchyards, wbich before was not

“ Joan of Arc was a native of Dompermitted.

remi on the Meuse, whose low condistion, that of tending oxen, could not shadow, careless and uncognizant of stifle an enthusiastic and devout tempe- human destinies. rament. Prophecies floated about the “Joan soon sallied forth against the country that a virgin could alone rid English intrenchments. Already, since France of her enemies. Similar pro- the rumour of her presence, they had phecies respecting children and shep- abandoned the offensive, and even allowherds had prevailed during the crusades, ed a convoy of provisions to enter the but had not proved fortunate. At an town between their posts. The inactiearly period these prophecies had fixed vity of superstitious terror was attrithe attention of Joan. In her lonely buted to Joan's magic influence, and way of life, her imaginative spirit dwelt became morally infectious. Suffolk was on them; they became identified with driven from each of his bastilles, or her religious creed. During the state wooden towers, successively. A fort of ecstacy.which devotion causes in per- held by Sir William Gladesdale made sons of such sensitive and enthusiastic the most stubborn resistance. In vain, character, aught that flatters or exalts for a day's space, did the flower of the self is grasped with wild avidity; so French continually renew the assault. closely is mortal baseness' allied with Joan herself led them, when she was

our aspirations after immortality. It transfixed by an arrow; she fell, and a could not but occur to Joan, that she woman's weakness for an instant showed might be the object of these prophecies; itself ;-she wept; but this paroxysm it was but a short and flattering step for of sensibility was akin to that of devoher credulity to suppose, to believe, that tion. Her visions came, her protector she was. The idea was bright and daz- St. Michael appeared ; and if we are to -zling ;-she gazed upon it ;-it became believe the testimony of the French the object of her constant meditation. knights, she got up and fought till the When we see that ill success or contra- gallant Gladesdale was slain and his fort dictory events can seldom dissipate illu- taken. The English immediately raised sion in such cases, how strongly must the siege. Joan, having accomplished her successes have confirmed hers! The 80 considerable a portion of her pro*prophecy too was one that realizes itself. mises, would not allow the enemy to be To inspire confident hope of victory was pursued. the surest way to win it; and this she “ The gratitude of Charles was pro'effected. Never, by human means alone, portionate to the benefits he had rewas miracle wrought-more effectually or ceived. He no longer doubted the di‘more naturally.

vine inission of his preserver. A fresh “ Joan won first upon a knight to victory obtained over the English at believe, at least not to contemn, the Patay, in which Fastolffe showed a want truth of hér mission, which was to de- of courage, and the gallant Talbot was *liver France from the English, to raise made prisoner, greatly increased the conthe siege of Orleans, and bring Charles fidence of Charles. Joan proposed to to be crowned at Rheims. Her credit conduct him to be crowned at Rheims. soon extended from knights to nobles. It was distant: many strong towns, that Charles himself, in that crisis when men of Troyes for example, intervened, all grasp at straws, still dreaded the ridi- garrisoned by hostile troops, Still Joan

cule of being credulous, and the danger prevailed and kept her word. Troyes of meddling with sorcery; a priest re. surrendered, and Rheims also, where 'assured him. The simple, modest, and the coronation of Charles VII. fulfilled pious conduct of Joan herself gained the mission of the maid of Orleans. upon the monarch, and even upon his Paris itself was next attacked; but this warriors. She was provided with armour, was too hardy an enterprise. Joan was attendants, troops ; and in this train en- wounded in an assault upon the gate and tered Orleans. The besieged were elated boulevard St. Honoré, and the French beyond measure; the English, whom her were obliged to retreat. The exploits · fame had already reached, were propor- of Joan were drawing to a term; she tionally cast down. Superstition was was herself aware, and hinted, that then the ruler of men's minds, the great much longer time was not allowed her. dispenser of hope and fear; the imme- She was taken by the English as she diate hand of Providence was seen in headed a sortie from Compeigne. Her every event. The world did not com- capture was considered tantamount to a prehend, nor could it have been recon- victory: it was one, however, replete ciled to, that long chain of canses and with dishonour to the English. They effects which separates, it might be said bound and used every cruelty towards · which exiles, us of this day from heaven, 'the hapless maid of Orleans; raised acand renders the Deity, like his Platonic cusations of sorcery against her, whose only crime was man's first duty, to make cognised by Pomperant, the only coma religion of patriotism. With all the panion of Bourbon's flight. This genmeanness and cruelty of inquisitors, they tleman sprang to his aid, fell an instant laid snares for her weakness, and em- as if for pardon at the monarch's feet, ployed every effort to shake her confi- and then rose to defend him. He at the dence in her own purity and virtue. She same time counselled Francis to suryielded a moment under their menaces render, telling him that Bourbon was and false promises, through exhaustion near. The king, enraged at the name, and hunger, but she always rallied back protested he would rather die than surto courage, averred her holy mission, and render to the traitor. Pomperant theredefied her foes. She was burnt in the fore sent for Lannoi, the viceroy of Naold market-place of Rouen,'' a blessed ples, to whom Francis yielded his sword. martyr' in her country's cause."

“ Such was the signal defeat that put Death of Bayard.

an end to all French conquests and

claims in Italy. Francis wrote the fol: "The spring of 1524 brought on an lowing brief letter to his mother :- All action, if the attack of one point can be is lost, madam, save honour and life.' called such, which proved decisive for He was removed to the castle of Pizthe time. Bonnivet advanced rashly be- zighitone, till the emperor's pleasure yond the Tesino. The imperialists, should be known." commanded by four able generals, Launoi, Pescara, Bourbon, and Sforza, Duel between Jarnac and Chataigneraie. succeeded in almost cutting off his re- “ The famous duel between Jarnac treat. They at the same time refused and Chataigneraie, was the first strikBonniret's offer to engage. They hoped ing event of Henry's reign. They had to weaken 'him by famine. The Swiss both been pages in the court of Francis first murmured against the distress occa- I. Chataigneraie was a stout youth, sioned by want of precaution. They de- given to quarrel, skilled at his weapon, serted across the river, and Bonnivet, and renowned for his hardihood : he exthus abandoned, was obliged to make a celled in those rude and martial exercises precipitate and perilous retreat. A which the dauphin Henry loved, and bridge was hastily flung across the was consequently a favourite with him. Sessia, near Romagnano; and Bonnivet, Jarnac, on the contrary, was a bean, with his best knights and gensdarmerie, given to gallantry, and fond of dress and undertook to defend the passage of the elegance; a taste which he indulged to rest of the army. The imperialists, led an extent beyond his apparent means. on by Bourbon,' made a furious attack. It happened that once in the society of Bonnivet was wounded, and he gave his Henry, Chataigneraie, contemning such place to Bayard, who, never entrusted taste, and such a mode of life, asked with a high command, was always Jarnac, where he found resources foc chosen for that of a forlorn hope. The such expense ? Jarnac replied, that brave Vandenesse was soon killed; and although his father was liberal in his alBayard himself received a gun-shot lowances, yet that he had obtained an through the reins. The gallant cheva- increase of funds through his step-molier, feeling his wound mortal, caused ther, with whom he had made himself a himself to be placed in a sitting posture favourite.' This passed'; but Chataigbeneath a tree, his face to the enemy, neraie construed the words of Jarnac and his sword fixed in guise of a cross into an insinuation that he enjoyed the before him. The constable Bourbon, favour of his step-mother in a criminal who led the imperialists, soon came up sense.

He mentioned this to Henry, to the dying Bayard, and expressed his who repeated it to Diana of Poitiers. compassion. • Weep not for me,' said The calumny circulated in whispers, and the chevalier, but for thyself. I die at length reached the ears of "Jarnac's in performing my duty; thou art be- father. The son was summoned. In traying thine.'

horror he disavowed the crime, and sucFrancis I. made prisoner at the Battle lowed this up by appearing before

ceeded in exculpating himself. He fol

Francis in the presence of the court, and “ Francis had received several wounds, declaring, that whoever had given birth one in the forehead; and his horse, to such a report, “lied in his throat.' struck with a ball in the head, reared, The dauphin took this deadly insult to fell back, and crushed him with his himself: he, however, could not come weight : still Francis rose, and laid pros- forward. The rude Chataigneraie did, trate several of the enemies that rushed and asserted, that he had heard Jarnac upon him. · At this moment he was re- boast of having been too intimate with

of Pavia.

his step-mother. A challenge, of course, champions, and when these rites had was the consequence, and Francis was been duly paid, the body of Assueit was besought by the antagonists to appoint placed in the dark and narrow house, the field for a combat, the issue of while his faithful brother-in-arms enwhich was to decide the guilt or inno- tered and sat down by the corpse, withcence of Jarnac. Francis, however, for- out a word or look which testified rebade the duel, either averse to the ab- gret or unwillingless to fulfil his fearful surd principle of judicial combat, or engagement. The soldiers who had aware how much the imprudence of his witnessed this singular interment of the son had been the occasion of the quarrel. dead and living, rolled a huge stone to -On Henry's accession Jarnac renewed the mouth of the tomb, and piled so his challenge and demand. The king much earth and stones above the spot consented—the lists were prepared at as made a mound visible from a great St. Germain-Henry and his court were distance, and then, with loud lamentawitnesses. When the antagonists met tion for the loss of such undaunted in the enclosed field, the slender Jarnac leaders, they dispersed themselves like seemed unable to resist the powerful a flock which has lost its shepherd. Chataigneraie : he retired before his Years passed away after years, and a blows, covering himself with his buck- century had elapsed, ere a noble Swedish ler, until seizing an opportunity herover, bound upon some high adventure, wounded his adversary in the back of the and supported by a gallant band of folleg, and completely disabled him. The lowers, arrived in the valley, which took victor, however, spared his adversary. its name from the tomb of the brethrenHaving in vain asked Chataigneraie to in-arms. The story was told to the recall the calumnies that he had uttered, strangers, whose leader determined on Jarnac advanced towards the monarch, opening the sepulchre, partly because, and, by the usual courtesy of placing it as already hinted, it was reckoned a at the sovereign's disposal, waved his heroic action to brave the anger of deright to his enemy's life. The fierce parted heroes by violating their tombs ; Chataigneraie scorned to be thus spared : partly to attain the arms and swords of he refused chirurgical aid ; even tore his proof with which the deceased had done wounds open when they had been their great actions. He set his soldiers dressed, and died. Such was the to work, and soon removed the earth judicial combat in which may be said to and stones from one side of the mound, have originated the modern duel." and laid bare the entrance. But the

stoutest of the rovers started back when, instead of the silence of a tomb, they

heard within horrid cries, the clash of Saxo GRAMMATICus tells us of the fame swords, the clang of armour, and all the of two Norse princes, or chiefs, who had noise of a mortal combat between two formed what was called a brotherhood furious champions. A young warrior in arms, implying not only the firmest was let down into the profound tomb by friendship and constant support during a cord, which was drawn up shortly all the adventures which they should un- after, in hopes of news from beneath. dertake in life, but binding them by a But when the adventurer descended, solemn compact, that after the death of some one threw him from the cord, and either, the survivor should descend alive took his place in the noose. When the into the sepulchre of his brother-in-arms, rope was pulled up, the soldiers, instead and consent to be buried along with him. of their companion, beheld Asmund, the The task of fulling this dreadful com- survivor of the brethren-in-arms. He pact fell upon Asmund, his companion rushed into the open air, his sword Assueit, having been slain in battle. drawn in his hand, his armour half torn The tomb was formed after the ancient from his body, the left side of his face northern custom, in what was called the almost scratched off, as by the talons of age of hills that is, when it was usual some wild beast. He had no sooner to bury persons of distinguished merit or appeared in the light of day, than, with rank on some conspicuous spot, which the improvisatory poetic talent which was crowned with a inound. With this these champions often united with heroic purpose a deep narrow vault was con- strength and bravery, he poured forth a structed, to be the apartment of the string of verses containing the history of future tomb over which the sepulchral his hundred years' conflict within the heap was to be piled. Here they de- tomb. It seems that no sooner was the posited arms, trophies, poured forth, sepulchre closed, than the corpse of the perhaps, the blood of victims, introduced slain Assueit arose from the ground, ininto the tomb the war-horses of the spired by some ravenous goule, and

A SCANDINAVIAN VISION.

having first torn to pieces and devoured and the bottle was no sooner uncorked, the horses which had been entombed and placed upon the table, than it was with them, threw himself upon the com- carried off by a bullet, entering obpanion who had just given him such a liquely from a corner window, and passsign of devoted friendship, in order to ing out at the one that was opposite. treat him in the same manner. The 'By the powers,' exclaimed Pat to his hero, no way discountenanced by the comrades, but it's time for us to be horrors of his situation, took to his arms, off; they are firing grape-shot.' and defended himself manfully against Assueit, or rather against the evil demon « One of the Royal Guards, during who tenanted that champion's body. In the hottest period of the combat, sudthis manner the living brother waged a denly threw his musket to the ground, preternatural combat, which had en- tore off his uniform, and with tears of dured during a whole century, when rage and grief trampled them under his Asmund, at last obtaining the victory, feet. The wretched man, in firing prostrated his enemy, and by driving, as upon the people, had killed his own he boasted, a stake through his body, father! had finally reduced him to the state of quiet becoming a tenant of the tomb. « A National Guard, whose wife, Having chanted the triumphant account alarmed for his safety, had secured him, of his contest and victory, this mangled as she hoped, by locks and bolts, hearconqueror fell dead before them. The ing the sound of the tocsin, cautiously body of Assueit was taken out of the lowered his arms and accoutrements by tomb, burnt, and the ashes dispersed to a rope into the street, and then let himheaven; whilst that of the victor, now self down from the first floor, to join lifeless, and without a companion, was his brave companions. deposited there, so that it was hoped his slumbers might remain undisturbed.

Friday, Saturday, &c. The precautions taken against Assueit's The remains of the victims of the reviving, a second time, remind us of bloody conflicts which took place at those adopted in the Greek islands, and the Louvre and its vicinity on Thursday, in the Turkish provinces, against the were far too numerous to be interred Vampire. It affords also a derivation that day, though charettes had been of the ancient English law in case of employed during the whole of the aftersuicide, when a stake was driven through noon in that melancholy task, which the body, originally to keep it secure in was interrupted only by nightfall. About the tomb.- Scott's Demonology. eighty bodies were left on the enclosed

open space opposite the colonnade of The Anecdote Gallery. the Louvre for the night, and it was re

solved on the following morning, in conFRENCH REVOLUTION IN 1830. sequence of the difficulty of finding (From Galignani's Narrative.)

room in the usual places of interment,

that they should be buried upon the “The mischief and loss of property at spot near to which they had so glothe Tuileries during the assault, amount riously fallen. Two immense graves to about 300,000 francs. Some precious were therefore made near the Seine, articles, as Sevres vases,

where they were committed to the earth, tumbling out of the windows, along and placed between two layers of quickwith feathers of most costly price, birds lime. Here a young man perceiving of Paradise, &c. Notwithstanding this, the bloody and mangled body of his every thing considered, the palace es- brother, threw himself upon it, uttercaped wonderfully well. A statue in ing the most piercing cries. Having silver, of Henry IV. while a boy, and a obtained a knife, he cut off a lock of colossal statue of Peace, in silver, were hair, and then embracing the corpse, not touched.

resigned it to the tomb. The citizens

rendered the victims the honours due to “ Three Irishmen, connected with soldiers and Christians. A discharge some iron-works near Paris, found it of musketry was fired over the grave, necessary to take shelter in a wine-shop, and the Abbé Paravey, a priest of the near the Louvre, at the moment when church of St. Germain l'Auxerrois, in the whistling of the balls on all sides his robes, consecrated the ground. announced that the contest between the Many of the inhabitants of Paris at. people and the soldiers, for the posses- tended the ceremony, and threw flowers sion of that palace, was raging at its upon the graves, which have been since highest. They called for some wine, visited by hundreds, many of whom have

were

seen

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