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28 a beverage: it was but little used in other countries; in fact hardly known, save in Egypt and Greece. In those days, wine was seldom allowed to young men, virgins, or matrons. The severest restrictions were laid upon it during the first two hundred years of Rome; but about five hundred years before Christ, it began to be mancfactured in great abundance. In ancient Ilaly, the Romans carried the cultivation of the vive to much greater perfection than in after years. The former productions were greater by one-half than those of modern times, or even ihe present. The variety of grapes at this period is remarkable. The aucients vumbered po less than fifty; and so minute, that many of them are traced down to the present day with great certainty, not so much from the name of the vine, as from the place where the wide was manufactured, as Vinum Falernian,' and the like.
An analysis of the grape shows the following ingredients: Water and sugar, something analogous to mucilage ; tartrate of potash, tartrate of lime, phosphate of magnesia, muriate of soda, sulphate of potush, and a particular liquid substance, on which the fermentative process depends. Each vine differs in these ingredients, but all possess that ingredient which causes fermentation. In the manufacture of wine, it is essential that the grapes should be of uniform ripeness, and equally trodden, aud that the vat be filled within twenty or twenty-four hours, as fermentation commences almost immediately: iu some instances, indeed, it will ferment while running from the press to the vat. .. France, Spain, Italy, and Portugal, are the most congenial climates for the more delicate wines. It is said that France occupies four millions of acres in vineyards, and produces yearly one hundred and ninety millions of gallons. The quantity consumed yearly in Paris is immense ; soinething like six bundred thousand hogsheads. In fact, I never saw a Frenchman drink water; and yet it is a very rare thing to see him intoxicated. The French are prodigious eaters; but in their wive-drinking, they differ from the English and Americans. When a Frenchman has done eating he has done drinking. Not so with the two former pations: they eat, and then sit two hours and drink without eating. A Frenchinan would go into spasms, if he did not take wine after his soup.
Wine has been considered a wholesome and innocent beverage for three thousand years; but like our daily and necessary food, it is frequently abused; and then the 'te-totallers' class it with all that is * awful, terrible, mischievous, wicked, and dumpable. Now BOERHAAVE, ABERNETHY, SIGMOND, and many other eminent pbysicians, aver tbat over-eating is decidedly more dangerous, and liable to bring us prematurely to the grave, through apoplexy, dyspepsia, gout, etc. Tbis over-eating, bowever, is considered quite rational; but wine-drioking, even the most sparing, is ' wicked.' I sincerely wish that some learned and pious divine would take up this subject, and give it a fair analysis, without prejudice. I am anxious to know how an entire te-totaller' would manage that part of Sacred Writ where the Saviour, at the wedding in Cana of Galilee, turned the water into wine. The christian world believe that Christ knew the effect this would have in after ages. Why did he not turn that water into milk? I sbould then doubtless have been a milk-man, and sold milk in lieu of wine! Why did Paul recommend Timothy to take wine! Timothy had been preaching in lesser Asia : he came down to Smyrna, and crossed over into Greece, on a visit to Paul: but Greece being a lime-stone country, the water did not agree with him. It gave him a species of summer complaint.' Hence Paul says: 'take not water, but a little wine, for thy stomach's sake, and thine oft infirmities. It is not the use but the abuse of wine, which should be coudemuod, and hunted down. It is unfortunate, that we seldom or ever start a new reform,' but we end in fanaticism. The negro question, for example, when first agitated, was well enough, in the way of colonization ; but now our country is in a state of effervescence upon this theme; to such a degree, indeed, that some prefer negroes to white men; and would be quite delighted to have them intermarry in their families ! So it was, a few years since, in the matier of diet. I at one time took three small ineasures of inustard-seed daily, and ate wbat was called 'Graham-bread.' (made of flour ground in a saw-millaod bolted through a ladder,) until it irritated my stomach to an alarming degree. The great secret of health is this: Early rising, exercise, good and wholesome food, in moderate quantities, with a little pure wine when eating : be sure to end your drinking when you cease eating.
lo summer, let your wines be Hock, Claret, Sauterne, Barsac, Burgundy, or Champague. Madeiras, Sherries, and Ports, are better cold-weather
Moselle is a delightful summer beverage, if of a good and pure kind ; Burgundy is a generous wine, and will bear reducing, as will Champagne; but Burgundy should be reduced with cool water, and Champagne with ice, or ice-water. Ice will kill Burgundy, as well as fiue Claret. I have visited many large cities and towns in France, and am compelled to say, that one shall see more druokeoness in NewYork on a Fourth of July, than in Paris in tweuty years. How can we be otherwise than a drunkea city or nation? The quantity of grain distilled in the cities of New York and Brooklyo is nearly two millions of bushels. This is equal to four hundred thousand barrels of four, and produces about seven millions of gallons of whiskey yearly. Much of this is rectified into a pure spirit, and is then mixed with spirits, as Gin, Brandy, and Rum. Now if a person should feel disposed at any time to take a drop of either Brandy, Holland Gin, or Rum, it is ten chances to one, that balf of what he drinks is whiskey. I will venture this to be the case throughout the country.'
The following among other papers, in prose and verse, are filed for early insertion : 'Three Hours at Saint Cloud;' 'Wayside Passages, No. One: The Norsemen;' Old Spanish Bells ;''The Spirit of Music:' 'Henry Cott; a Sketch of Long Island' by the author of 'The Kushow Property;' 'The Lone Widow, a Lament;' Abysinian Ethics,' by Launcelot Limner ; 'The Review,' by Hon. Chief Justice MELLEN; 'Our Country, a Lyric; 'A Leaf from the Confessions of a Quack;' 'Lines to a Flower broughi from Mars Hill, Athens;' 'To the Seuring Sun;' 'Winter ;' 'Eginhard and Imma, or Love's Stratagem;' "What is it to Die?' "The Muckle House,' by Laurie Todd í 'Lines to an Invalid Poet,' 'A Page of Life;' 'Night Study,' 'Romance of Western History: The Single Combat,' by Hon. Jurge Hall.
The annexed papers are for future insertion or decision : "The Dead Hunter;' Dear New-England ;''Some Thoughts on Acting and Actors; "Tragi-Comedy ;' 'An Essay on Comfort, with an Illustration;' 'The Lioness, a
Sketch ;' *Down East, and So Forth :' "What are Dreams ?-a Philosopbical Colloquy;' 'Itinerary Clergy;' 'Melancholy and Suicides;' 'Soliloquy upon GEOFFREY Crayon's tribute to the Hudson;' "Winter Thoughts;' The Voice of Ocean;' " Thoughts during a North-East Storm;''Nature, an Outline;' 'Religion's Champions ;''Passages from the Public Chronicles of Little Dingleton;' Two Old GraveStones ;'. The Source and Cure of Discontent;' 'Memorial of J. G. BRAINERD ;' To the Evening Star;' 'Hymn to Nature ;', A New Travelling Project :' "The Burial of the Year;' The Loves of the Lakes ;' The Rainbow Chase,' etc. ; 'Caught and Held' is caught, but not held.
MR. Cole's PICTURES. - We have passed several delightful hours at Mr. Cole's apartments at the new Athenæum, in the examination of a series of allegorical pictures illustrating "The Voyage of Life.' The subject is comprised in four pictures. The first represents the period of Childhood, the second Youth, the third Manhood, and the fourth Old Age. The following original programme, or order of movement, will: afford the reader an idea of the character of each painting, with its allegory:
A stream is seen issuing from a deep cavern; in the side of a craggy and precipitous mountain, whose summit is hidden in clouds. From out the cave glides a Boat, whose golden prow and sides are sculptured into figures of the Hours: steered by an Angelic Form, and laden with buds and Powers, it bears a laughing Infant, the Voyager whose varied course the artist has attempted to delineate. On either hand the banks of the stream are clothed in luxuriant herbage and flowers. The rising sun bathes the mountains and flowery banks in rosy light.
The dark cavern is emblematic of our earthly origin, and the mysterious Past. The Boat, composed of Figures of the Hours, images the thought, that we are borne on the hours down the Stream of Life. The Boat identifies the subject in each picture. The rosy light of the morning, the luxuriant flowers and plants, are emblems of the joyousness of early life. The close banks, and the limited scope of the scene, indicate the narrow experience of Childhood, and the nature of its pleasures and desires. The Egyptian Lotus in the foreground of the picture is symbolical of Human Life. Joyousness and wonder are the characteristic emotions of childhood.
SECOND PICTURE: The stream now pursues its course through a landscape of wider scope and more diversified beauty. Trees of rich growth overshadow its banks, and verdant hills form the base of lofty mountains. The Infant of the former scene is become a Youth, on the verge of Manhood. He is now alone in the Boat, and takes the helm himself; and in attitude of confidence and eager expectation, gazes on a cloudy pile of Architecture, an air-built Castle, that rises dome above dome in the far-off blue sky. The Guardian Spirit stands upon the bank of the stream, and with serious yet benignant countenance seems to be bidding the impetuous voyager 'God Speed.' The beautiful stream flows directly toward the aërial palace, for a distance; but at length makes a sudden turn, and is seen in glimpses beneath the trees, until it at last descends with rapid current into a rocky ravine, where the voyager will be found in the next picture. Over the remote hills, which seem to intercept the stream, and turn it from its hitherto direct course, a path is dimly seen, tending directly toward that cloudy Fabric, which is the object and desire of the voyager.
The scenery of this picture - its clear stream, its lofty trees, its towering mountains, its unbounded distance, and transparent atinosphere - figure forth the romantic beauty of youthful imaginings, when the mind magnifies the Mean and Common into the lagnificent, before experience teaches what is the Real. The gorgeous cloud-built VOL. XVI.
palace, whose most glorious domes seem yet but half revealed to the eye, growing more and more lofty as we gaze, is emblematic of the day-dreams of youth, its aspirations after glory and fame ; and the dimly-seen path would intimate that Youth, in his im. petuous career, is forgetful that he is embarked on the Stream of Life, and that its current sweeps along with resistless force, and increases in swiftness as it descends to. ward the great Ocean of Eternity.
THIRD PICTURE: MANHOOD. STORM and cloud enshroud a rugged and dreary landscape. Bare impending precipices rise in the lurid light. The swollen stream rushes furiously down a dark ravine, whirling and foaming in its wild career, and speeding toward the Ocean, which is dimly seen through the mist and falling rain. The boat is there, plunging amid the turbulent waters. The voyager is now a man of middle ages the helm of the boat is gone, and he looks imploringly toward heaven, as if heaven's aid alone could save him from the perils that surround him. The Guardian Spirit calmly sits in the clouds, watching with an air of solicitude the affrighted voyager. Demon forms are hovering in the air.
TROUBLE is characteristic of the period of Manhood. In Childhood there is no cankering care; in Youth no despairing thought. It is only when experience has taught us the realities of the world, that we lift from our eyes the golden veil of early life; that we feel deep and abiding sorrow; and in the picture, the gloomy, eclipse-like tone, the conflicting elements, the trees riven by tempest, are the allegory; and the Ocean, dimly seen, figures the end of life, to which the voyager is now approaching. The demon forms are Suicide, Intemperance, and Murder, which are the temptations that beset men in their direst trouble. The upward and imploring look of the voyager, shows his dependence on a Superior Power, and that faith saves him from the destruction that seems inevitable.
FOURTH PICTURE: OLD AGE.
PORTENTOUS clouds are brouding over a vast and midnight Ocean. A few barren rocks are seen through the gloom - the last shores of the world. These form the mouth of the river, and the boat, shattered by storms, its figures of the hours broken and drooping, is seen gliding over the deep waters. Directed by the Guardian Spirit, who thus far has accompanied him unseen, the voyager, now an old man, looks upward to an opening in the clouds, from whence a glorious light bursts forth, and angels are seen descending the cloudy steps, as if to welcome him to the Haven of Immortal Life.
The stream of life has now reached the Ocean, to which all life is tending. The world, to Old Age, is destitute of interest. There is no longer any green thing upon it. The broken and drooping figures of the boat show that Time is nearly ended. The chains of corporeal existence are falling away; and already the mind has glimpses of Immortal Life. The angelic Being, of whose presence until now the voyager has been unconscious, is revealed to him, and with a countenance beaming with joy, shows to his wondering gaze scenes such as the eye of mortal man has never yet seen.
We shall be fully borne out, we think, in the opinion, that in many respects Mr. COLE has exceeded the best of his previous efforts in this noble series of pictures. We shall endeavor, in another number, to review tbem in detail; and in the mean time, we cannot forbear the expression of our belief, that for unity of design as a whole, and for truth, beauty, and sublimity of individual execution, they have not been approached by any modern artist. The second and fourth pictures, the one for its vast variety of grand and lovely scenery, and its atmospheric effects, and the other for its sublime conception and adequate execution, would alone stamp Mr. Cole as one of the first artists of modern times. We are glad to learn that “The Voyage of Life' has been opened for public exhibition at the Athenæum Building, corner of Leonard-street and Broadway.
SELECTIONS FROM THE AMERICAN POETS. – Mr. Bryant's volume, thus entitled has been issued by the BrothERS HARPER. It contains selections from ninety-eight American writers, and is such a work as might be anticipated, from so competent a hand as that of the compiler. We republish the following, originally written for the KNICKERBOCKER, because additional stanzas have been interpolated by the writer, and we are desirous to preserve a corrected version in these pages :
We shall refer to these selections' again ; but in the mean time, cannot resist the inclination to quote the annexed stanzas from 'The Tread-mill Song,' by
Oliver WENDELL HOLMES, who in the way of pathos, sublimity, and humor, is the Hoop of American poets :
THE TREAD-MILL SONG.
Wake up, wake up, my duck-legg'd man,
And stir your solid pegs;
And shake your spider.legs;
There's time enough to learn;
And take another turn. They've built us up a noble wall
To keep the vulgar out;
But just to walk about :
And try to beat the ends;
Among one's bonest friends.
Here! tread upon the long man's toes;
Hesbain't he lazy here:
Apd tweak that lubber's ear -
Because he wears a scratch,.
That is a't in the patch.
And so our work is done;
A rolind or two for fun !
When I have better grown,
A tread-mill of my own!
HAMBLIN'S EXPERIMENT AT THE BOWERY THEATRE.-The strong excitements which political events have constantly ministered to our citizens of late, have taken away, in a great measure, their relish for the Drama. The stream of human thought flows decper than in times past, and assumes a deeper coloring. Men have learned to delight in extremes ; and hence, they prefer a broad sarce or a splendid spectacle, to the usual performance of ap old comedy or tragedy. The past season has been less propitious for the encouragement of the drama, than any within the recollection of man; and the managers of our different theatrical establishments are one and all known to have lost large sums of money. HAMBLIN, the proprietor and manager of the Bowery, the most persevering and industrious of his class, finding, after months of untiring effort, that all his exertions were crowned with disappointment, set his busy brain a-thinking, and at last hit upon the novel plan of replenishing his exchequer, by converting his large and elegant establishment into an arena for the performance of those famed dramatic and equestrian pieces, exhibited with so much éclat at FRANCUNI'r and Astley's, the most profitable and popular places of amusement in Paris and London. The plan was no sooner conceived than.executed. On the ninth ultimo, ibe extensive alterations requisite for the undertaking being completed, the bouse was opened for the season ; and long before the rising of the curtain, was crowded from pit to gallery. The acknowledged skill of Welsh's cquestrian corps, and the production of a new grand military spectacle ; the union of the most graceful and pleasing exhibitions of the circus with a dramatic performance which heretofore has been thought of itself a sufficient eutertainment for a whole evening ; were altractions too powerful for our citizens to resist. On entering the boxes, the first alteration that attracted attention, was the removal of the equestrian ring to the stage; and before the first act of horsemadship was hulf over, we felt, in common with the spectators, that the improvement was a marked one. Every action, both of horse and rider, is visible to the whole house; and there is now no danger of the former shying' from the applause, or motions of the audieace. The audience have often heretofore been incommoded by the dust of the arena. This cannot now occur. The entertainment commenced with the entrance of twelve beautiful horses, richly caparisoned, and was followed by various feats of horsemanship by CADWALLADER, DALE, and the young GLENROY, on one, two, and three horsok. Gymnastic exercises were at intervals exhibited by the troupe ; and the whole eolivened by the vagaries of two clever clowns. The equestrian portion of the performance passed off with great spirit; and in an incredibly short space of time, the stage resumed its usual appearance. A military uverture, arranged by MAEDER, introduced the dew military spectacle of the Battle of Waterloo, the chief attraction of the evening. It was known that great labor and expense had been incurred in the production of this drama, and public curiosity was highly excited. The opening scene presents a view of a Prussian bivouac by moonlight, and cominences with an appropriate and very beautiful duet, composed by Maeder. We were shortly afterward introduced to a specimen of war on a larger scale; the march of the French army, cavalry, infantry, and artillery, with drums beating, and colors flying, on their way to attack the Prussians under Blucher. CHARLES Mason, in feature a fac simile of Bonaparte and wbose dress and appearance cannot be too highly extolled, entere on horseback as the Emperor NAPOLEON, and addresses a short but stirring speech to the troops, when the march is resumed