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the judges of the dead, seated on his tribunal. On his left hand stood the keeper of Erebus, on his right the keeper of Elyfium. I was told lie sat upon women that day, there being several of the fex lately arrived, who had not yet their mansions assigned them. I was sure prised to hear him ask every one of them the same question, namely, What they had beeu doing? Upon this question being proposed to the whole assembly, they itared one upon anotlier, as not knowing what to answer. He then interrogated each of them separately, Madam, says he to the firit of them, you have been upon the earth about fifty years: what have you becon doing there all this while ? Doing, says the ; really I do mot knew what I have been doing : I desire I may have time given me to recollect. After about half an hour's pause, she told him that she had been playing at crimp; upon which Rhadamanthus beckoned to the keeper on Juis left hand to take her into cuftody. And you, Madam, says the judge, that look with fuch a soft and languishing air ; I think you set out for this place in your nine-and-twentieth year, what have you been doing all this while ? I had a great deal of business on my hands, fays fhe, being taken tip the first twelve years of my life in dresling a jointed baby, and all the remaining part of it in reading plays and romances. Very well, lays he, you have employed your time to good purpose. Away with her. The next was a plain country.woman: Well, mistress, says Rbadamanthus, and what have you been doing? An't please your worship, says she, I did not live qnite forty years; and in that time brought my husband seven Jaughters, made him nine thousand cheeses, and left my eldest girl with him to look af. ter his house in my absence; and who, I may venture 10 say, is as pretty a housewife as any in the country, Rhadamnanihus Tiled at the simplicity of the good woman, and ordered the keeper of Elyfium to take her in to his care, And you, fair lady, says he, what have you been doing these five and thirty years I have been doing no hurt, I afsure you, Şir, said he. That is well, said he; but what good haye you been doing? The lady was in great confusion at this question ; and, net knowing what to answer, the two keepers leaped


out to seize her at the same time ; the one took her by the isand to convey her 10 Elysium, the other caught hold of her to carry her away to Erebus. But Rhadamanthas observing an ingenuous modesty in her countenance and behaviour, bid them both let her loose, and fet her aside for re-examination when he was more at leisure. An old woman, of a proud and four look, presented herself next at the bar; and being asked what the had been doing? Truly, said she, I lived threefcore and ten years in a very wicked world, and was so angry at the behavionr of a parcel of young flirts, that I palled most of my last years in condemning the follies of the times. I was every day blaming the lilly conduct of people about me, in order to deter

those I conversed with fron falling into the like errours and miscarriages. Very well, says Rhadamanthus, but did you keep the fame watchfut eye over your own actions ? Why truly, fays the, I was so taken up with publishing the faults of others, that I had no time to consider my own. Madam, says Rhadamanthus, be pleased to file off to the left, and make room for the venerable matron that ftands behind you.' Old gentlewoman, fays he, I think you are fourscore : you have heard the question ; what have you been doing so long in the world? Ah, Sir, fays the, I have been doing what I should not have done; but I had made a firm resolution to have changed my life, if I had not been fiatched off by an untimely end. Madam, says he, you will please to follow your leader: and, spying another of the fame age, interrogated her in the same form. To which the matron re. plied, I have been the wife of a husband who was as dear to me in his old age as in his youth. I have been a mother, and very happy in my children, whom I en. deavoured to bring up in every thing that is good. My éldest fon is blest by the poor, and beloved by every one that knows him. I lived within my own family, and left it much more wealthy than I found it. Rhadamanthus, who knew the value of the old lady, smiled upon her in such a manner, that the keeper of Elyfium, who knew his office, reached out his hand to her. He 80 sooner touched her, but her wrinkles vanished, her eyes sparkled; her cheeks glowed withi bluthes, and

she appeared in full bloom and beauty. A young woman, observing that this officer who conducted the happy to Elyfium, was so great a beautifier, longed to be in his hands ; so that, pressing through the crowd, she was the next that appeared at the bar: and being asked what she had been doing the five and twenty years that she had passed in the world? I have endeavoured, says she, ever since I came to years of discretion, to make myself lovely, and gain admirers. In order to it, I paft my time in bottling up May-dew, inventing whitewashes, mixing colours, cutting out patches, consulting my glass, suiting my complexion, Rhadamanthus, with out hearing her out, gave the sign to take her off. Upon the approach of the keeper of Erebus, her colour faded, her face was puckered up with wrinkles, and her whole person lost in deformity.

I was then surprised with a distant found of a whole troop of females that came forward, laughing, finging, and dancing: I was very desirous to know the reception they would meet with, and withal was very apprehensive that Rhadamanthis would spoil their mirch : but at their nearer approach, the noise grew


very great that it awakened me."

I lay fome time reflecting in myself on the oddnefs of this dream; and could not forbear asking my own heart, 'what I was doing? i answered myself that I was writing Guardians. If my readers make as good a ule of this work as I design they should, I hope it will never be imputed to me as work that is vain and unprofitable.

I shall conclude this paper with recommending to them the fame short felf-examination. If every one of them frequently lays liis hand upon his heart, and confiders what he is doing, it will check him in all the idle, or, what is worse, the vicious, moments of life; lift up his mind when it is running on in a series of indifferent actions, and encourage him when he is engaged in those which are virtuous and laudable. In a word, ie wüt very much alleviate that guilt which the belt of men have reason to acknowledge in their daily confeflions, of “ leaving undone those things which they ought to have done, and of doing those things which they ought not to have donc.*,

XVI. Cha

XVI. Character of Francis I. FRANCIS died at Rambouillet, on the last day of March,

in the fifty-third year of his age, and the thirty-third of his reign. During twenty-eight years of that time, an avowed rivalship fubfifted between him and the Ema peror ; which involved, not only their own dominions, but the greater part of Europe, in wars, profecuted with more violent animosity, and drawn out to a greater length, than had been known in any former period. Many circumstances contributed to both. Their animosity was founded in oppofition of interest, heightened by perfonal emulation, and exasperated, not only by mutaal injuries, but by reciprocal infults. At the same time, whatever advantage one seemed to poffefs towards gaining the afcendant, was wonderfully balanced by fome favourable circumstance peculiar to the other. The Emperor's dominions were of great extent; the French king's lay more compact : Francis governed his kingdom with absolute power; that of Charles was limited, but he supplied the want of authority by address : the troops of the former were more impetuous and enterprising; those of the latter, better disciplined, and more patient of fatigue.

The talents and abilities of the two monarchs were as different as the advantages which they poffeffed, and contributed no less to prolong the contest between them. Francis took his refolutions suddenly ; prosecuted them, at first, with warmth'; and pushed them into execution with a most adventurous courage : but, being destitute of the perseverance necessary to furmount difficulties, he often abandoned his designs, or relaxed the vigour of pursuit, from impatience, and sometimes from levity. Charles deliberated long, and determined with coolness: but, having once fixed his plan, he adhered to it with inflexible obstinacy; and neither danger, nor discouragement, could turn him aside from the execution of it.

The success of their enterprises was as different as their characters, and was uniformly influenced by them. Francis, by his impetuous activity, often disconcerted the Emperor's best-laid schemes ; Charles, by a more calm, but steady prosecution of his designs, checked the


rapirapidity of his rival's career, and bafiled or repulfed his most vigorous efforts. The former, at the opening of a war or of a campaign, bruke in upon


enemy with the violence of a torrent, and carried-all before him ;. the latter, waiting until he saw the force of his rival begin to abate, recovered, in the end, not only all that he had lost, but made new acquisitions. Few of the French monarch's attempts towards conqueit, whatever promifing afpe&t they might wear at firit, were conducted to an happy iffue; many of the Emperor's enterprises, even after they appeared defperate and impracticable, terminated in the most prosperous manner.

The degree, however, of their comparative merit and reputation, has not been fixed, either by a stri& fcrutiny into their abilities for government, or by an impartial. consideration of the greatness and success of their undertakings ; and Francis is one of those monarchs, who occupy a higher rank in the temple of fame, than eie ther their talents or performances intitle tliem to hold. This pre-eminence he owed to many different circumstances. The superiority which Charles acquired by the victory of Pavia, and which, from that period, he preferved through the remainder of his reign, was fo manifest, that Francis's struggle against his exorbitant and growing dominion, was viewed by most of the other powers, not only with the partiality which naturally arises for those who gallantly maintain an unequal conteit, but with the favour due to one, who was refiiting a common enemy, and endeavouring to set bounds to a monarch equally formidable to them all. The characters of princes, too, especially among their contempoTaries, depend, not only upon their talents for government, but upon their qualities as men. Francis, nots withstanding the many errours confpicuous in his foreign policy and domestic administration, was, nevertheless, humane, beneficent, generous. He poteffed dignity without pride, affability free from nreanness, and courtesy exempt from deceit. All who had access to know him, and no man of merit was ever denied that privilege, respected and loved him. Captivated with his perfonal qualities, his subjects forgot his defects as a monarch; and, admiring him as the most accompliihed and amiable


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