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are new or foreign. Men who are indifpofed to a due exertion of their higher parts, are driven to such parfuits as these from the restlessness of the mind, and the fenfi. tive appetites being easily satisfied. It is, in fome fort, owing to the bounty of Providence, that, disdaining a cheap and vulgar happiness, they frame to themselves imaginary goods, in which there is nothing can raise defire, but the difficulty of obtaining them. Thus men become the contrivers of their own misery, as a punishment on themselves for departing from the measures of nature. Having by an habitual reflection on these truths made them familiar, the effect is, that I, among a number of persons who have debauched their natural taste, fee things in a peculiar light, which I have arrived at, not by any uncommon force of genius or acquired knowledge, but only by unlearning the false notions instilled by custom and education. : The various objects that compose the world were by mature formed to delight our senses ; and as it is this alone that makes them desirable to an uncorrupted taste, a man may be said naturally to poffefs them, when he poffefseth those enjoyments which they are fitted by nature to yield. Hence it is usual with me to consider myself as having a natural property in every object that administers pleasure to me. When I am in the country, all the fine seats near the place of my residence, and to which I have access, I regard as mine. The fame I think of the groves and fields, where I walk, and muse on the folly of the civil landlord in London, who has the fantastical pleasure of draining dry rent into his coffers, but is a stranger to the fresh air and rural enjoy. ments. By these principles I am possessed of half a dozen of the finest seats in England, which in the eye of the law belong to certain of my acquaintance, who being men of business choose to live near the court.
In some great families, where I choose to pass my time, a stranger would be apt to rank me with the other domestics; but in my own thoughts, and natural judge. ment, I am master of the house, and he who goes by that name is my steward, who eases me of the care of providing for myself the conveniencies and pleasures of life.
When I walk the streets, I use the foregoing natural maxim, (viz. That he is the true pofíeflor of a thing who enjoys it, and not he that owns it without the enjoyment of it) to convince myself that I have a property in the gay part of all the gilt chariots that I meet, which I regard as amusements designed to delight my eyes, and the imagination of those kind people who fit in them gaily attired only to please me. I have a real, and they only an imaginary pleasure from their exterior embellishments. Upon the fame principle, I have discovered that I am the natural proprietor of all the diamond necklaces, the crofles, stars, brocades, and embroidered elothes, which I see at play or birth-night, as giving more natural delight to the spectator, than to thole that wear them. And I look on the beaus and ladies as fo many paroquets in an aviary, or tulips in a garden, designed purely for my diverfron. A gallery of pictures, a cabinet or library that I have free access to, I think my own. In a word, all that I desire is the use of things, let who will have the keeping of them: by which maxim I am grown one of the richest men in Great Britain ; with this difference, that I am not a prey to my own cares, or the envy of others.
The same principles I find of great use in my pri. vate economy. As I cannot go to the price of historypainting, I have purchased at eafy rates several beautifully designed pieces of landskip and perspective, which are much more, pleasing to a natural taste than unknown faces or Dutch gambols, though done by the best masters: my couches, beds, and window-curtains are of Irifh stoff, which those of that nation work very fine, and with a delightful mixture of colours. There is not a piece of china in my house; but I have glasses of all sorts, and some tinged with the finest colours, which are not the less pleasing, because they are domestic, and cheaper than foreign toys. Every thing is neat, entire and clean, and fitted to the taste of one who would rather be happy than be thought rich.
Every day, numberlefs innocent and natural gratifi. cations occur to me, while I behold my fellow-creatures labouring in a toilfome and absurd pursuit of trifles : one that he may be called by a particular appella: tion ; another, that he may wear a particular ornament, which I regard as a bit of ribband that has an agreeable effect on my fight, but is so far from supplying the place of inerit, where it is not, that it serves only to inake the want of it more conspicuous. Fair weather is the joy of my soul : about noon I behold a blue sky with rapture, and receive great consolation from the roly dalhes of light which adorn the clouds of the morning and evening. When I am loft among the green trees, I do not envy a great man with a great crowd at his levee. And I often lay afide thoughts of going to an opera, that I may enjoy the filent pleasure of walking by moon light, or viewing ise stars sparkle in their azure ground; which I look upon as a part of my porsessions, not without a secret indignation at the tastelessness of mortal men, who, in their race through life, overlook the real enjoyments of it.
But the pleasure which naturally affects a human mind with the most lively and transporting touches, I take to be the sense that we act in the eye of infinite wisdom, power and goodness, that will crown our virtuous en. deavours here, with a happiness hereafter, large as our desires, and lafting as our immortal souls. This is a per. petual spring of gladness in the mind. This lessens our calamities, and doubles our joys. Without this the highest state of life is insipid, and with it the lowest is a pa radise.
IV. The Folly and Madness of Ambition illustrated. AMONG the variety of fubjects with which you have
entertained and instructed the public, I do not remember that you have any where touched upon the fol. ly and madness of ambition; which, for the benefit of those who are dissatisfied with their present situations, I beg leave to illustrate by giving the history of my own life.
I am the son of a younger brother of a good family, who at bis decease left me a little fortune of a hundred pounds a year. I was put early to Eton school, where I learnt Latin and Greek; from which I went to the university, where I learnt not--totally to forget them. I came to my forţine while I was at college ; and" ha
ving no inclination to follow any profession, I removed myself to town, and lived for Tome time as most young gentlemen do, by spending four times my income. But it was my fiappiness, before it was too late, to fall in love, and to marry a very amiable young creature, whose fortune was just sufficient to repair the breach made in my own. With this agreeable companion I retreated to the country, and endeavoured as well as I was able to square my wishes to my circumstances. In this endeavour I succeeded so well, that except a few private hankerings after a little more than I pofTeffed, and now-and-then a sigh when a coach-and-fix happened to drive by me in my walks, I was a very happy
I can truly assure you, Mr Fitz-Adam, that though our family economy was not much to be boasted of, and in consequence of it, we were frequently driven to great Straits and difficulties, I experienced more real fatisfaction in this humble situation, than I have ever done since in more enviable circumstances. We were some. times a little in debt, but when money came in, the pleafure of discharging what we owed was more than equivalent for the pain it put us to : and though the narrowness of our circumstances subjected us to many cares and anxieties, it served to keep the body in action as well as the mind ; for, as our garden was somewhat large, and required more hands to keep it in order, than we could afford to hire, we laboured daily in it ourselves, and drew health from our necessities.
I had a little boy who was the delight of my heart, and who probably might have been spoilt by nursing, if the attention of his parents had not been otherwise employed. His mother was naturally of a sickly constitution ; but the affairs of her family, as they engrossed all her thoughts, gave her no time for complaint. The ordinary troubles of life, which, to those who have nothing else to think of, are almost insupportable, were less terrible to us than to persons in easier circumstances ; for it is a certain truth, however your readers may please to receive it, that where the mind is divided between many cares, the anxiety is lighter than where there is only one to contend with. And even in tlie happiest fi
tuation, in the midst of eale, health, and affluence, the mind is generally ingenious at tormenting itself; losing the immediate enjoyment of those invaluable blessings, by the painful suggestion that they are too great for continuance.
These are the reflections that I have made since : for I do not attempt to deny that I fighed frequently for an addition to my fortune. The death of a diftant reJation, which happened five years after our marriage, gave me this addition, and made me for a tinie the happiest man living. My income was now increased to fix hundred a-year; and I hoped, with a little economy, to be able to make a figure with it. But the ill health of my wife, which in less easy circumstances liad not touched me fo nearly, was now constantly in my thoughts, and foured all my enjoyments. The conscious ness too of having such an estate to leave my boy, made me so anxious to preserve him, that instead of suffering him to run at pleasure where he pleased, and to grow hardy by exercise, I almost destroyed him by confinement. We now did nothing in our garden, because we were in circumstances to have it kept by others: but as air and exercise were necessary for our healths, we resolved to abridge ourselves in some unnecessary articles, and to set up an equipage. This in time brought with it a train of expences which we had neither prudence to foresee, nor courage to prevent. For as it enabled us to extend the circuit of our visits, it greatly increased our acquaintance, and subjected us to the necessity of making continual entertainments at home, in return for all those which we were invited to abroad. The charges that attended this new manner of living were much too great for the income we possessed ; insomuch that we found ourselves in a very short time more necessitous than ever. Pride would not suffer us to lay down our equipage ; and to live in a manner unsuitable to it, was what we could not bear to think of. To pay the debts I had contracted I was soon forced to mort. gage, and at last to sell, the best part of my estate ; and as it was utterly impossible to keep up the parade any longer, we thought it adviseable to remove of a sudden,