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cies of composition only, but extends to all the various kinds; to the humble pastoral as well as to the lofty epic ; from the flightest letter to the most solemn diicourse.
I know not whether Sir William Temple may not be considered as the first of our profe authors, who introduced a graceful manner into our language. At least that quality does not seem to have appeared early, or spread far, amongst us. But wlieresoever we may look for its origin, it is certainly to be found in its highest perfection in the elays of a gentleman whose writings will be distinguished so long as politeness and good sense have any admirers. That becoming air which Tully esteemed the criterion of fine composition, and which every reader, he says, imagines so easy to be imitated, yet will find so difficult to attain, is the prevailing characteristic of all that excellent author's most elegant performances. In a word, one may justly apply to him what Plato, in his
allegorical language, lays of Aristophanes; that the Graces, having searched all the world round for a temple wherein they might for ever dwell, settled at last in the breast of Mr Addison.;
II. On the Structure of Animals. THOSE who were skilful in anatomy among the an,
cients, concluded from the outward and inward make of an human body, that it was the work of a being transcendently wise and powerful. As the world grew more enlightened in this art, their discoveries gave them freth opportunities of admiring the conduct of providence in the formation of an human body. Galen was converted by his dislections, and could not but own a fupreme Being upon a survey of his handy-work. There were, indeed, many parts of which the old anatomists did not know the certain use; but as they saw that most of those which they examined were adapted with adi mirable art to their several functions, they did not question but those, whose uses they could not determine, were contrived with the same wisdom for respective ends and purposes. Since the circulation of the blood has been found out, and inany other great discoveries · have been made by our modern anatomists, we see new
wonders in the human frame, and discern several im. portant uses for those parts, which utes the ancients knew nothing of. In short, the body of man is such a lubject as stands the utmost teft of exainination. Though it appears formed with the nicest wisdom, upon the most fuperficial survey of it, it fill mends upon the search, and produces our furprise and amazement in proportion as we pry into it. What I have here faid of an human body, may be applied to the body of every animal which has been the subject of anatomical observations.
The body of an animal is an object adequate to our senses. It is a particular fyftem of providence, that lies in a narrow compals. The eye. is able to command it, and by successive inquiries can search into all its parts. Could the body of the whole earth, or indeed the whole universe, be thus submitted to the examination of our fenfes, were it not too big and disproportioned for our enquiries, too unwieldy for the management of the eye and hand, there is no question but it would appear to us as curious and well contrived a frame as that of an human body. We should fee the same concatenation and subserviency, the same neceffity and usefulness, the same beauty and harmony in all and every of its parts, as what we discover in the body of every single animal.
The more extended our reason is, and the inore able do grapple with immense objects, the greater still are. those discoveries which it makes of wisilom and provi dence in the works of the creation. A Sir Isaac News ton, who stands up as the miracle of the present age, can look through a whole. planetary fyftem ; consider it in its weight, number, and measure ; and draw from it. as many demonstrations of infinite power and wisdom, as a more confined understanding is able to deduce from the system of an human body.
But, to return to our speculations on anatomy. I shall here consider the fabric and texture of the bodies of animals in one particular view, which, in my opinion, thows the hand of a tlıinking and all-wife Being in their formation, with the evidence of a thoufand demonstrations. I think we may lay this down as an incontested. principle, that chance never acts in a perpetual uniformity and consistence with itself. If one should always
fling the same number with ten thousand dice, or lee every throw just five times less, or five times more in number than the throw which immediately preceded it, who would not imagive there were some invisible power which directed the cast ? This is the proceeding which we find in the operations of nature. Every kind of animal is diversified by different magnitudes, each of which gives rise to a different species. Let a mari trace the dog or lion kind, and he will observe how many of the works of nature are publihed, if I may use the express fion, in a variety of editions. If we look into the repo tile world, or into those different kinds of animals that fill the element of water, we meet with the same repe. titions among several species, that differ very little from one another, but in size and bulk. You find the same creature that is drawn at large, copied out in several proportions, and ending in miniature. It would be redious to produce instances of this regular conduct in providence, as it would be fuperfluous to those who are versed in the natural history of animals. The magnificent harmony of the universe is such that we may obferve indumerable divisions running upon the fame ground. I might also extend this fpeculation to the dead parts of nature, in which we may find matter dit. posed into many fimilar systems, as well in our survey of stars and planets, as of stones, vegetables, and other fublunary parts of the creation. In a word, providence has shown the richness of its goodness and wisdom, not only in the prodnction of many original species, but in the raultiplicity of defcants which it has made on every original species in particular.
But, to pursue this thought still farther. Every living creature, considered in itself, has many very complicated parts, that are exact copies of some other parts which it possesses, which are complicated in the same manner. One eye would have been sufficient for the subsistence and preservation of an animal ; but, in order to better his condition, we fee another placed with a mathematical exactness in the fane most advantageous fituation, and in every particular of the same size and texture. Is it possible for chance to be thus delicate and uniform in her operations? Should a million of dice turn up twice
together the same number, the wonder would be nothing in comparison with this. But when we see this fimilitude and resemblance in the arm, the hand, the fingers ; when we see one half of the body entirely correlpond with the other in all those minute strokes, without which a man might have very well subfifted ; nay, when we often see a single part repeated an hundred times in the same body, notwithstanding it consists of the most intricate weaving of numberless fibres, and these parts differing still in magnitude, as the convenience of their particular fituation requires ; sure a man must have a strange cast of understanding, who does not discover the finger of God in so wonderful a work. These duplicates in those parts of the body, without which a man might have very well fubfifted, though not so well as with them, are a plain demonstration of an all-wise Contriver ; as those more numerous copyings, which are found among the vessels of the fame body, are evident demonstrations that they could not be the work of chance. This argument receives additional strength, if we apply it to every animal and infect within our knowledge, as well as to those numberless living creatures that are objects too minute for a human eye: and if we consider Jiow the several species in this whole world of life resemble one another, in very many parti. culars, so far as is convenient for their respective. Itates of existence; it is much more probable that an hundred million of dice should be casually thrown a hundred mil. lion of times in the same number, than that the body of any single animal should be produced by the fortuitous concourse of matter. And that the like chance should arise in innumerable instances, requires a degree of dulity that is not under the direction of common sense.:
III. On Natural and Fatastical Pleasures. . IT is of great use to consider the pleasures which cone
stitute human happiness, as they are distinguished into Natural and Fantastical. Natural pleasures I call-thofe, which, not depending on the fashion and caprice of any. particular age or nation, are suited to human nature in general, and were intended by Providence as rewards for the using cur faculties agreeably to the ends for
which they were given us. Fantastical pleasures are those, which, having no natural fitness to delight our minds, presuppose fome particular whim or taite acci. dentally prevailing in a set of people, to which it is oiving that they pleale.
Now I take it, that the tranquillity and cheerfulness with which I have passed my life, are the effect of having, ever since I came to years of discretion, continued my inclinations to the former sort of pleasures. But as my experience can be a rule only to my own actions, it may probably be a stronger motive to induce others to the fame scheme of life, if they would contider that we are prompted to natural pleasures by an instinct inpressed on our minds by the Author of our nature, who beit underliands our frames, and consequently belt knows what those pleasures are, which will give us the least uneasiness in the pursuit, and the greatest satisfaction in the enjoyment of them. Hence it follows, that the objects of our natural defires are clieap or easy to be obtained; it being a maxim that holds throughout the
hole fyftem of created beings, “ that nothing is inade in vain, much less the instincts and appetites of animals, which the benevolence as well as wildom of the Deity is concerned to provide for. Nor is the fruition of those objects lefs pleasing than the acquisition is eafy; and the pleasure is heightened by the sense of having answered löine natural end, and the consciousness of acting in concert with the supreme Governor of the universe.
Under natural pleasures I comprehend those which are universally suited, as well to the rational as the fenfual part of our nature. And of the pleasures which af. fect our senses, those only are to be esteemed natural that are contained within the rules of reason, which is allowed to be as necessary an ingredient of human na. ture as fenfe. And, indeed, exceffes of any kind are hardly to be esteemed pleafures, much less natural pleafures.
It is evident, that a desire terminated in money. is fantastical ; fo is the defire of outward distinctions, which bring na delight of sense, nor recommend us as useful to raankind; and the defire of things merely becaule they