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turbulency and a vain ambition: fhe guarded not herself, with equal care or equal fuccefs, from leffer infirmities the rivalship of beauty, the desire of admiration, the jealousy of love, and the fallies of anger.
Her fingular talents for government were founded equally on her temper and on her capacity. Endowed with a great command over herself, she foon obtained an uncontrolled ascendant over the people ; and while the merited all th esteem by her real virtues, she also en. gaged their affection by her pretended ones. Few fove. reigns of England fucceeded to the throne in more difficult circumstances, and none ever conducted the govern. ment with such uniform success and felicity. Though unacquainted with the practice of toleration, the true secret for managing religious factions, the preferved her people, by her superiour prudence, from thofe confufions in which theological controverfy had involved all the neighbouring nations : and though her enenries were the molt powerful princes of Europe, the most active, the most caterprising, the least ferupulous, she was able, by her vigour, to make deep impreflions on their state; her own greatness, meanwhile, remaining untouched and unimpaired.
The wife ministers and brave warriours who flourish. ed during her reign share the praise of her success; but, inftead of Jeffening the applause due to her, they make great addition to it. They owed, all of them, their ad. vancement to her choice; they were supported by her constancy; and, with all their ability, they were never able to acquire an undue afcendant over her. In het family, in her court, in her kingdom, she remained equally mistress. The force of the tender paffions was great over her, but the force of her mind was still fuperiour ; and the combat which her victory visibly coft her, ferves only to display the firmness of her resolution, and the loftiness of her ambitious sentiments.
The fame of this princess, though it has surmounted the prejudices both of faction and of bigotry, yet lies Itill exposed to another prejudice, which is more durable, because more natural ; and which, according to the different views in which we survey her, is capable either of exalting beyond measure, or diminishing, the luftre of
Hier charactéro This prejudice is founded on the confia deration of her fex, When we contemplate her as a woman, we are apt to be truck with the highest admiration of ber qualities and extensive capacity.; but we are also apt to require fome more softness of dispolition, fome greater lenity of temper, fome of those amiable weaknelfes by which her sex is distinguished. But the true method of estimating her merit, is to lay aside all these considerations, and to consider her merely as a ra. tional being placed in authority, and entrusted with the government of mankind. We may find it difficult to reconcile our fancy to her' as a wife or a mistress; but her qualities as a fovereign, though with some consider, able exceptions, are the object of undisputed applaufe and approbation.""
V. Charles Vo's Resignation of his Dominionis. CHARLES
resolved to resign his kingdoms to his son, with a folemnity suitable to the importance of the transaction, and to perform this laft act of fovereignty with fuch formal pomp, as might leave an indelible im. preffion on the minds, not only of his subjects, but of his fucceffor. With this view, he called Philip out of England ; -where the peevith temper of his queen, which increased with her defpair of having issue, rendered him extremely, unhappy, and the jealoufy of the English left him no hopes of obtaining the direction of their affairs. . Having assembled the states of the Low Countries at Brussels, on the twenty-fifth of O&ober one thousand five hundred and fifty five,, Charles seated himself for the last time in the chair of state ; on one side of which was placed his son, and on the other his sister the queen of Hungary, regent of the Netherlands; with a splendid retinue of the grandees of Spain and princes of the empire standing behind him. The president of the council of Flanders, by his command, explained, in a few words, his intention in calling this extraordinary meeting of the Itațes. He then read the instrument of resignation, by which Charles surrendered to his son Philip all his terTitories, jurifdiction, and authority in the Low Countries ; ablolving his subjects there, from their oath of allegiance to bim, which he required them to transfer to
Philip his lawful heir, and to serve him with the same loyalty and zeal which they had manifested, during fe long a course of years, in support of his government. ;
Charles then rose from his feat, and, leaning on the shoulder of the prince of Orange, because he was unable to Itand without fupport, he addressed himself to the au dience; and, from a paper which he held in his hand in order to affift his memory, he recounted with dignity, but without oftentation, all the great things which he had undertaken and performed fince the commencement of his administration. He observed, that, from the feven ecenth year of his age, he had dedicated all his thoughts and attention to public objects, reserving no portion of his time for the indulgence of his ease, and very little for the enjoyment of private pleasure: that, either in a pas cific or hostile manner, he had visited Germany nine times, Spain fix times, France four times, Italy fever tîmes, the Low Countries ten times, England twice, A frica as often, and had made eleven voyages by feas that, while his health permitted him to discharge his duty and the vigour of bis conftitution was equal in any de gree to the arduous office of governing such extent hive dominions, he had never shunned labour, nor rer pined under fatigue : that, now, when his health was broken, and his vigour exhausted by the rage of an in eurable distemper, his growing infirmities admonished bim to retire ; nor was he fo fond of reigning as to retain the fceptre in an impotent hand, which was
no longer able to protect his subjects, or to render them happy: that,, instead of a fovereign worn oat with diseases and fcarcely half alive, he gave them one in the prime of life, accustomed already to govern, and who added to the vigour of youth all the attention and fagacity of maturer years that if, during the course of a long ada ministration, he had committed any material errour in gov vernment, or if, under the pressure of fo many and great affairs, and amidit the attention which he had been obli: ged to give them, he had either neglected or injured any of his subjects, he now implored their forgiveness :: chat, for his part, he should ever retain-a grateful sense of their fidelity and attachment; and would carry the res membrance of it along with him to the place of his re* treat, as his fweetest confolation, as well as the best reward for all his fervices; and, in his last prayers to Almighty God, would pour forth his ardent wifhes for their welfare
Thens turning towards Philip, who fell on his knees and kiffed his father's hand, "If,!! says he, “ I had left you, by my death, this rich inheritance, to which I bave made fuch large additions, fome regard would have been juftly due to my memory on that account; but: now, when I voluntarily resign to you what I might have still retained, I may well expe& the warmeft exo. preffions of thanks on your part. With these, however, I difpenfe; and fhall consider your concern for the wel. fare of your subjects, and your love of them, as the best and most acceptable teftimony of your gratitude to me. It is in your power, by a wife andi virtuous administra. tion, to justify the extraordinary proof which I this day give of my paternal affe&ion, and to demonstrate that you are worthy of the confidence which I'repose in you. Preferve an inviolable regard for religion ; maintain the Catholic faith in its purity ; les the laws of your coun: wy be facred in your eyes; encroach not on the rights and privileges of your people; and, if the time fhall ever come when your thall with to enjoy the tranquillity of private life, may you have a fon, endowed with such qualities that you can refign your fceptre to him, with as much fatisfaction as I give up mine to you.''
As foon as Charles had finifhed this long address to his fabjeds and to their new fovereign, he funk into the chair, exhausted and ready to faint with the fatigue of fuch an extraordinary effort. During his difcourse; the whole audience melted into tears; some; from admis ration of his magnanimity; others, softened by the expreffions of tenderness towards his fon and of love to: his people;; and all were affected with the deepest for row at losing a sovereign, who had distinguished the Ne. therlands, his native country, with particular marks of his regard and attachment.
A few weeks thereafter, Charles, in an assembly ne less splendid, and with a ceremonial equally pompous, refigned to his
fon the crowns of Spain, with all the tersitories depending on them, both in the old and in the
new world. Of all thefe valt poffeffions, he reserved nothing for himself but an annual pension of an hundred thousand crowns, to detray the charges of his family; and to afford him a small fum for acts of beneficence andi charity. ***The place he had chosen for his retreat was the mot nastery of St Justus, in the province of Extremadura. It was seated in a vale of no great extent,; watered by a fmall brook, and furrounded by riting grounds covered with lofty trees, From the nature of the foil, as well as the temperature of the climate, it was efteered the most healthful and delicious situation in Spain. Some-manths before his resignation, he had sent an architect thither to add a new apartment to the monastery for his accomo modation", but he gave strict orders that the tite-otitke building should be fuch as fuitest his present fituation rather than his former dignity. It congfted only of fix rooms : four of them in the form of friars cells, with naked walls; the other two, each twenty, feet fquare, were hung with brown cloth, and furnished in the most simple
They were all on a level with the ground with a door on one side into a garden, of which Charles himself had given the plan, and which he had filled with various plants, intending to cultivate them with his owa hands. On the other fide: they communicated with the chapel of the monastery, in which he was to perform his devotions.--Into this humble retreat, hardly fufficient for the comfortable accommodation of a private gentleman, did Charles enter with twelve domesties only. He buried there, in solitude and silence, his grandeur, his ambition, together with all those vaft projects, whichs during half a century, had alarmed and agitated: Eus mope, filling every kingdom in it by turns with the terra rour of his arms, and the dread of being subjected to his power.
VI. Importance of Virtue. Virtue is of intrinsic value and good defërt, and of
indispensable obligation ; not the ereature of willz but neceflary and immutable; not locator temporary but of equal extent and antiquity with the Divine minds not a mode of sensation, but everlasting truth ; not der