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More to the part sinister, from me drawn,
Well if thrown out, as supernumerary
To my just number found. O why did God,

888. To my just number found.] suppose, procured Euripides the The just number of ribs in a man name of the Woman-hater. Ariis twenty-four, twelve on each osto however hath ventured upon side, though sometimes there the same in Rodomont's invechave been found those who have tive against women. Orlando had thirteen, as Galen says, and Furioso, cant. xxvii. st. 120, very rarely some who have had

Perche fatto non ha l'alma Natura but eleven, as Tho. Bartholinus, Che senza te potesse nascer l'huomo, a famous physician, observed, in Come s'inesta per umana cura, a lusty strong man whom he dis. L'un sopra l'altro il pero, il sorbo,

e'l pomo? sected in the year 1657, who had but eleven on one side, and Why did not Nature rather so proa small appearance of a twelfth vide on the other. Hist. Anatom. et

Without your help, that man of man

might come, Medic. Centur. 5. c. 1. But

And one be grafted on another's some writers have been of opi- side, nion, that Adam had thirteen ribs As are the apples with the pear and on the left side, and that out of plome ? Hurrington, st. 97. the thirteenth rib God formed Nor are similar examples wantEve: and it is to this opinion ing among our English authors. that Milton here alludes, and Sir Thomas Brown, in the second makes Adam say, It was well if part of his Religio Medici, sect 9. this rib was thrown out, as super- has something very curious to numerary to his just number.

which no doubt 888. - why did God, &c.] Milton had read, that work This thought was originally of having been first published in Euripides, who makes Hippo. the year 1642, about twentylytus in like manner expostulate five years before Paradise Lost. with Jupiter for not creating Shakespeare makes Posthumus man without women. See Hip- cry out in resentment of Imopol. 616.

gen's behaviour, Cymbeline, act Ω Ζευ, τι δε κιβδηλον ανθρωπους κακον,

ii. which we are sure that our Γυναικας, εις φως ηλι8 κατωκισας ;

author had read, Ει γαρ βρoτειον ηθελες σπειραι γενος, ,

γυναικων κρην παρασχεσθαι Is there no way for men to be, but Todt &c.

Must be half-workers ? And Jason is made to talk in the And the complaints which Adam same strain in the Medea, 573.

makes of the disasters of love χρην γαρ αλλοθεν ποθης βροτος may be compared with what Taidas Tizvoda, Onav 8' 8x uvas 7905, Shakespeare's Lysander says

Ούτω δ' αν εκ ην εδεν ανθρωπους κακον. . in the Midsummer Night's And such sentiments as these, we Dream, act i.

this purpose,

Oux sx

women

890

895

Creator wise, that peopled highest heaven
With spirits masculine, create at last
This novelty on earth, this fair defect
Of nature, and not fill the world at once
With men as angels without feminine,
Or find some other way to generate
Mankind ? this mischief had not then befall'n,
And more that shall befall, innumerable
Disturbances on earth through female snares,
And strait conjunction with this sex : for either
He never shall find out fit mate, but such
As some misfortune brings him, or mistake;
Or whom he wishes most shall seldom gain
Through her perverseness, but shall see her gain'd
By a far worse, or if she love, withheld
By parents; or his happiest choice too late
Shall meet, already link'd and wedlock-bound
To a fell adversary', his hate or shame:
Which infinite calamity shall cause
To human life, and household peace confound.

He added not, and from her turn’d; but Eve

900

905

The course of true love never did speech had not ended where run smooth ;

these lines begin. The sense is But eitber it was different in blood. Or else misgraffed in respect of quite complete without them; years,

and they seem much fitter for a Or else it stood upon the choice of digressional observation of the friends,

author's, such as his panegyric Or if there were a sympathy in

on marriage, &c. than to be put choice, War, death, or sickness did lay siege into the mouth of Adam, who to it, &c.

could not very naturally be sup

posed at that time to foresee so 898.

--for either very circumstantially the inconHe neter shall

find out fit mate, veniences attending our strait &c.] I have often thought, it conjunction with this ser, as he was great pity that Adam's expresses it. Thyer.

915

Not so repuls'd, with tears that ceas'd not flowing, 910
And tresses all disorder'd, at his feet
Fell humble, and embracing them, besought
His peace, and thus proceeded in her plaint.

Forsake me not thus, Adam, witness Heaven
What love sincere, and reverence in my heart
I bear thee, and unweeting have offended,
Unhappily deceiv'd ; thy suppliant
I beg, and clasp thy knees; bereave me not,
Whereon I live, thy gentle looks, thy aid,
Thy counsel in this uttermost distress,

920
My only strength and stay : forlorn of thee,
Whither shall I betake me, where subsist ?
While yet we live, scarce one short hour perhaps,
Between us two let there be peace, both joining,
As join’d in injuries, one enmity
Against a foe by doom express assign’d us,
That cruel serpent: On me exercise not
Thy hatred for this misery befall'n,
On me already lost, me than thyself
More miserable ; both have sinn'd, but thou
Against God only', I against God and thee,
And to the place of judgment will return,

925

930

916. -and unneeting but perhaps the author put one have offended,] Spenser, Faery in opposition to both; bolh joinQueen, b. i. cant. ii. st. 45. ing one enmity. As all unwceting of that well she 926. Against a foe by doom knew.

express assign'd us,] For it was

Thyer. part of the sentence pronounced 925. one enmity] There upon the Serpent, Gen. ii. 15. is something not improbable in I will put enmity between thee Dr. Bentley's reading,

and the woman, and between thy both joining

seed and her seed. As join'd in injuries, in enmily: VOL. II.

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935

There with my cries importune Heav'n, that all
T'he sentence from thy head remov'd may light
On me, sole cause to thee of all this woe,
Me, me only, just object of his ire.

She ended weeping, and her lowly plight,
Immoveable till peace obtain'd from fault
Acknowledg’d and deplor’d, in Adam wrought
Commiseration; soon his heart relented

940

i

936. Me, me only, just object] to meet him at a friend's whom The repetition of me me here is he often visited, and there fell like what we took notice of in prostrate before him, imploring iii. 236. and like that in Virgil's forgiveness and reconciliation. Æn. ix. 427.

It is not to be doubted (says

Mr. Fenton) but an interview Me, me, adsum qui feci, in me convertite ferrum:

of that nature, so little expected, and like Abigail's speech to

must wonderfully affect him: David, 1 Sam. xxv. 24. Upon made on his imagination con

and perhaps the impressions it me, my Lord, upon me let this iniquity be. Dr. Bentley would of that pathetic scene in Paradise

tributed much to the painting read,

Lost, in which Eve addresseth Me, only me, just object of his ire : herself to Adam for pardon and but as the repetition is highly peace. At the intercession of pathetic, Mr. Upton thinks the his friends who were present, trochaic following the spondee after a short reluctance, he gemakes the pathos more percep

nerously sacrificed all his retible.

sentment to her tears : 940. --soon his heart relented]

soon his heart relented This seems to have been drawn

Tow'ards her, his life so late and from a domestic scene. Mil.

sole delight, ton's wife soon after marriage

Now at his feet submissive in diswent to visit her friends in Oxfordshire, and refused to Mr. Thyer thus farther enlarges return at the time appointed : upon the same subject. " This he often solicited her, but in picture of Eve's distress, her vain; she declared her resolu- “ submissive tender address to tion not to cohabit with him “ her husband, and his generous any more. Upon this he wrote “ reconcilement to her, are exhis Doctrine and Discipline of “tremely beautiful, I had alDivorce; and to shew that he “ most said beyond any thing was in earnest, was actually “ in the whole poem; and that treating about a second mar- “ reader must have a very sour riage, when the wife contrived “ and unfriendly turn of mind,

tress.

Tow’ards her, his life so late and sole delight,
Now at his feet submissive in distress,
Creature so fair his reconcilement seeking,
His counsel, whom she had displeas’d, his aid;
As one disarm’d, his anger all he lost,

945 And thus with peaceful words uprais’d her soon.

Unwary', and too desirous, as before,
So now of what thou know'st not, who desir’st
The punishment all on thyself; alas,
Bear thine own first, ill able to sustain

950
His full wrath, whose thou feel’st as yet least part,
And my displeasure bear'st so ill. If prayers
Could alter high decrees, I to that place
Would speed before thee, and be louder heard,
That on my head all might be visited, ,

955 Thy frailty and infirmer sex forgiven, To me committed and by me expos'd. But rise, let us no more contend, nor blame

“ whose heart does not relent
“ with Adam's, and melt into a
“ sympathizing commiseration
" towards the mother of man-
“ kind; so well has our author
“ here followed Horace's ad-
“ vice,

-Si vis me flere, dolendum est
Primùm ipsi tibia

Art, Poet, 102.
“ Milton with great depth of
“ judgment observes in his

Apology for Smectymnuus, that he who would not be frustrate " of his hope to write well in laudable things, ought himself to be a true poem, that is, a “ composition of the best and

honourablest things,—and have in himself the experience and

practice of all that which is 'praiseworthy: of the truth of " which observation he himself

' is, I think, a shining instance “ in this charming scene now “ before us, since there is little

room to doubt but that the particular beauties of it are owing to an interview of the

same nature which he had “ with his own wife, and that “ he is only here describing " those tender and generous “ sentiments, which he then “ felt and experienced."

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