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Crested aloft, and carbuncle his eyes ;
With burnish'd neck of verdant gold, erect
Amidst his circling spires, that on the grass
Floated redundant: pleasing was his shape
And lovely; never since of serpent kind

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his eyes;

have the description of such a

and with the greater propriety, sort of serpent in Ovid, Met. iii. as he was himself now trans32.

formed into a serpent. And in -cristis præsignis et auro;

this view it is said that none Igne micant oculi

were lovelier, not those that in Ille volubilibus squamosos nexibus Illyria changed Hermione and orbes

Cadmus. Cadmus and his wife Torquet, et immensos saltu sinuatur

Harmonia or Hermione, for she in arcus: Ac media plus parte leves erectus in is called by either name, and I auras,

presume Milton thought Her Despicit omne nemus &c.

mione and Cadmus more musical Fire broke in dashes when he glanc'd in verse as it certainly is than

Harmonia and Cadmus. This His tow'ring crest was glorious to Cadmus together with his wife behold,

leaving Thebes in Bæotia, which His shoulders and his sides were scal'd with gold.

he had founded, and for divers Spire above spire upreard in air be misfortunes quitted, and coming stood,

into Illyria, they were both And gazing round him overlook'd turned into serpents for having the wood.

Addison. slain one sacred to Mars, as we The reader may observe some

read in the fourth book of Ovid's touches very like Grotius's de- Metamorphosis. But the exscription of the same serpent in pression, those that changed Herhis tragedy of Adamus Exul. mione and Cadmus, has occa

sioned some difficulty. act iv.

Did those serpents, says Dr. Bent-oculi ardent duo: Adrecta cervix surgit, ei maculis ley, change Hernione and Cadnitet

mus? or were not these, who Pectus superbis; cærulis picti notis

man and woman once, Sinuantur orbes: tortiles spiræ mi. changed into serpents? And Dr.

Pearce replies, We may excuse Auri colore &c.

this as a poetical liberty of ex504. -never since of serpent pression ; it is much the same kind &c.] Satan is not here as the critics have observed in compared and preferred to the Ovid's Metam. i. 1. where formas finest and most memorable ser- mutalas in nova corpora stands pents of antiquity, the Python for corpora mutata in noras forand the rest ; but only to the most In both places the changmemorable of those serpents into ing is attributed, not to the perwhich others were transformed; sons changed, but to the forms VOL. II.






Lovelier, not those that in Illyria chang'd
Hermione and Cadmus, or the God


or shapes into which they were Play'd round her neck in many a changed. Which changed Her

harmless twist,

And lick'd that bosom which, a man, mione and Cadmus, that is, into

he kist. which Hermione and Cadmus were changed. So Horace says, And after the wife was changed sat. ii. viii. 49.

too, it is said, ver. 602.

Nunc quoque nec fugiunt hominem, Quod Methymnæam vitio mutaverat nec vulnere lædunt: uvam,

Quidque prius fuerint, placidi memi. for in quod vitio mutata est uva

nere dracones, Methymnæa. If this may not Fearless see men, by men are fearbe allowed to pass, yet I see no

less seen, reason (says Dr. Pearce) why

Still mild and conscious what they

once have been. Eusden. the construction may not be this, not those that in Illyria (were) They were therefore still Herchanged, viz. Hermione and Cad- mione and Cadmus, though mus, &c. Or perhaps this; not changed; as the devil was still those that Hermione and Cadmus the devil, though inclosed in changed, where changed stands for serpent. And thus it may be changed to, as in x. 540. we have said with the greatest propriety, the same way of speaking, that none of serpent kind were

lovelier, not those that in Illyria -for what they saw, They felt themselves now changing.

changed Hermione and Cadmus, But after all these very, inge- Asculapius the God of physic,

or the God in Epiduurus, that is, njous conjectures, I conceive the the son of Apollo, who was wormeaning to be as it is expressed, shipped at Epidaurus, a city of and the expression to be the Peloponnesus, and being sent most proper and apposite that for to Rome in the time of a could be. The serpents changed plague, assumed the form of a Hermione and Cadmus, the

serpent and accompanied the form of serpents was superin- ambassadors, as the story was duced, but they still retained the related in the eleventh book of same sense and


and this Ovid says expressly. When the fifteenth book of Ovid's Me

Livy, and may still be read in Cadmus was first changed, iv. tamorphosis: but though he was

, 595.

thus changed in appearance, he -Ille suæ lambebat conjugis ora ; was still Æsculapius, In serpente Inque sinus caros, veluti cognosce- Deus, as Ovid calls him xv. 670. ret, ibat ;

the deity in a serpent, and under Et dabat amplexus, assuetaque colla

that form continued to be worpetebat,

shipped at Rome. Nor were The husband-serpent show'd he still had thought,

those serpents lovelier, to which With wonted fondness an embrace transformed Ammonian Jove or he sought;

Capitoline was seen, Jupiter Am

In Epidaurus ; nor to which transform'd
Ammonian Jove, or Capitoline was seen,
He with Olympias, this with her who bore
Scipio the highth of Rome. With tract oblique
At first, as one who sought access, but fear’d
To interrupt, side-long he works his way.
As when a ship by skilful steersman wrought


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mon and Jupiter Capitolinus, the The principal is one in four one the Lybian Jupiter, the books, the first of the creation, other the Roman, called Capito- the second of the happy state of line, from the Capitol, his temple man, the third of the fall of man, at Rome: Hewith Olympias, the the fourth of the redemption of first the pretended father of man by Jesus Christ: and this Alexander the Great, conversing poem was recommended to me with his mother Olympias in the as a performance to which Milform of a serpent; this with her ton had been much obliged and who bore Scipio the highth of indebted: but upon perusing it Rome, the latter fabled in like I do not well see how two aumanner to have been the father thors could write so much upon of Scipio Africanus, who raised the sanie subjects, and write his country and himself to the more differently. There are few highest pitch of glory. Dr. or no traces to be discovered of

. Bentley objects to this expres- any similitude or resemblance sion the highth of Rome. But, between them, but in the simile as Dr. Pearce observes in answer, before us, and the following one this expression is much of the of the Scotch poet, and these same nature with Ovid's Summa are so different, and applied so ducum Atrides, Amor. I. i. el. 9. v. differently, that they may both 37. and with Cicero's expression be originals, or at least not the Apex senectutis est auctoritas, copy the one of the other. Milde Senect.: the Italians, whose ton's is applied to the oblique expressions Milton often imitates, motion of the serpent, this of use altezza in the same sense, if Ramsay to the Devil tempting I remember aright.

our Saviour, and when 513. As when a ship &c.] temptation would not avail, tryThere are some Latin poems of ing another: Andrew Ramsay, a Scotchman --Ut vento portum qui fortè rein the time of Charles the First,

flante under this title, Poemata sacra Non potis est capere, is malos et Andrea Ramsæi Pastoris Edin

Carba seosque sinus obliquat, tendere burgeni. Edinburgi 1633. The

rectà book is now grown very scarce, Qua nequit, incurvo radit vada cæ. but there are few poems in it. rula cursu;


lintea vela


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Nigh river's mouth or foreland, where the wind
Veers oft, as oft so steers, and shifts her sail :
So varied he, and of his tortuous train
Curl'd many a wanton wreath in sight of Eve,
To lure her eye; she busied heard the sound
Of rustling leaves, but minded not, as us’d
To such disport before her through the field,
From every beast, more duteous at her call,
Than at Circean call the herd disguis’d.
He bolder now, uncall'd before her stood,
But as in

in gaze admiring : oft he bow'd
His turret crest, and sleek enamell’d neck,
Fawning, and lick’d the ground whereon she trod.





Sic gnarus versare dolos, et imagine books which he has read withfalsa

out his knowing it, as the stream Ludere Tartareus coluber, contingere partakes of the qualities of the Se non posse videns primo molimine, earth through which it passes ;

and he may sometimes make use Mutat, et ad palmam converso tra- of the thoughts of others, and mite tendit.

still believe them his own. This So that upon the whole it is to may be the case with regard be questioned whether Milton to those authors, whom he is had ever seen these poems of known to have read; and much Ramsay, or knew anything of less can he be certainly charged them; and he might still say with stealing from authors, when with truth that he pursued

it is very uncertain whether he

has read them or not. Things unattempted yet in prose or 522. Than at Circean call the rhime.

herd disguis'd.] All beasts of And in the general it may be the field used to play and sport said, that resemblance is not before her, more obedient to plagiarism. Different authors her voice, than men turned into may possibly hit upon the same beasts by the famous inchantress thought without borrowing from Circe were at her beck. Ovid. one another. An author, of great Metam. xiv. 45. reading especially, may be tinged and coloured as it were by his

-perque ferarum

Agmen adulantům media procedit reading; his writings may have something of the taste of the


ab aula.



His gentle dumb expression turn'd at length

of Eve to mark his play; he glad
Of her attention gain’d, with serpent tongue
Organic, or impulse of vocal air,
His fraudulent temptation thus began.

Wonder not, sovran mistress, if perhaps
Thou canst, who art sole wonder ; much less arm
Thy looks, the heav'n of mildness, with disdain,
Displeas'd that I approach thee thus, and

Insatiate, I thus single, nor have fear'd
Thy awful brow, more awful thus retir'd.
Fairest resemblance of thy Maker fair,
Thee all things living gaze on, all things thine
By gift, and thy celestial beauty' adore
With ravishment beheld, there best beheld
Where universally admir'd; but here
In this inclosure wild, these beasts among,
Beholders rude, and shallow to discern



530. Organic, or impulse of ning a temptation upon a wovocul air,] That the devil man, namely, flattery, extravamoved the serpent's tongue, gant admiration of her person, and used it as an instrument and fulsome commendations of to form that tempting speech he her merit and beauty, and by made to Eve, is the opinion of these means engaging her atten. some; that he formed a voice tion, and so deluding her to her by impression of the sounding ruin. This speech is much of air, distant from the serpent, is the same strain and spirit with that of others: of which our that which Satan had made to author has left the curious to her before in her dream, v. 37, their choice. Hume.

&c. and it had a fatal effect, for 531. His fraudulent temptation

Into the heart of Eve his words thus began.] We see by this first speech of Satan what our author thought the most pro- To cry her up as a goddess was bable, the most natural, and the the readiest way to make her a most successful way of begin- mere mortal.

made way.

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