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weft monsoon should set in with from England, the government of any degree of violence, before they the conquered country was to be were advanced on their voyage, vested in that body; the land and the success of the whole enterprife fea forces, by common consent; would have been rendered exceed- were mutually to participate in the ingly precarious. There was, be- diftribution of their feveral capfides, another confideration, which tures, according to the rules estademanded all possible hate ; this blifhed in the navy. These precauwas, that the English army might tions had so good an effect, that no come to its deftination, before the circumstance of disagreement once news of a war being actually broke arose between the army and the out between England and Spain marine, either in the conduct of could reach the Manilas, and, by the enterprise, or in the division of rouzing the Spaniards from their the advantages of it. Nothing difill-grounded fecurity, give them tinguishes this war more from every time to put themselves into the former war, in which we have been best posture of defence.

engaged, than that, in so many conThe judgment, with which every junet expeditions, and in such a arrangement was made, equalled vast variety of difficulties and of the celerity of the preparations. services, there was so perfect an A fhip of force was dispatched be- harmony, and so cordial a co-opefore the feet through the streights ration between the land and the of Malacca, in order to watch the sea forces, that there is not a fingle entrance of the Chinese sea, and to instance of the leaft degree of difintercept whatever veffels might cord or diffention between them. be bound to Manila, or fent from Nothing can more advantageoufly the neighbouring settlements, to characterise the spirit of the age. give the Spaniards notice of the All things being thus judiciously design. As it was necessary to take disposed, and all difficulties forein water at Malacca, a division of seen and provided for, the last and the squadron, with a considerable grand division of the fleet set sail part of the land forces, was sent from Madrass the first of Auguft 29th of Ju

off, before the reft 1762. On the 19th of the same ly, 176a.

could be got ready, in month they arrived safe at Ma

order that a moment lacca, formerly considered as the of fuperfluous delay might not hap- key of the Indian commerce, pen to the fleet in procuring this and still the center of a very connecessary refreshment.

fiderable trade. It had formerly Before they failed, every thing been disputed between the then was settled with relation to the co- great naval powers in India, Poroperation of the land and sea tugal and Holland, as a port of the forces, to the distribution of the utmost moment in determining the plunder, and to the government of abfolate fovereignty in those feas ; the place, in case it should be because it commands the grand taken, that no dispute might arise communication between China and in the course of their operations. Indostan, and that it is a situation, The East India company were, by which has a considerable influence agreement, to have a third of the on all the islands that compose the booty, or the ransom ; by orders great Indian Archipelago. But at this time, fo great was the revolu- ceffary not already provided for tion in this part of Afia, and the the fiege they meditated. fuperiority of the English was such, The weather favoured them ve. that it was of no great moment to ry much. Without the least difthem, in whose hands Malacca was. tress to the squadron, or the disThe Dutch, who could look with persion of any of the thips which no very favourable eye upon our composed it, in thirty-one days progress in those eastern regions, from Malacca they were neither in fpirit nor condi- came in fight of Lu- 19th of Sep

tember. tion to give any check so it. The conia. At that time, English feet used Malacca as a indeed, the squadron was separated, port of their own, and there they and driven out to sea, but they supplied themselves, not only with soon recovered the shore, and again refreshments, but with every ne- completed their junction.


CH A P. II. Condition of Manila. The forces landed. A fally of the enemy. They are

repuljed. Ships brought against the town. A violent form. The *Spaniards and Indians make two attempts on the English camp. Repulsed in both. Character of these Indians. A breach made in the fortifications, The totun stormed. The citadel surrenders. Capitulation, by which all the Philippines are surrendered.

HEN the British armament ceed dire@ly to the grand ob

arrived upon the coast of Lu- ject, judging very properly, that conia, they found the Spaniards a conqucit there would of course absolutely unacquainted with the occafion, and draw after it the fall breaking out of the war, conse- of Cavite. The delay naturally quently unprepared, and in all that attendant on the first plan would confufion, which neceffarily at- have given time to the Spaniards tends a sudden and precipitate dif- to recover their spirits, dismayed position against an attack. That by the sudden appearance of an they might have as little time as enemy on their coasts, which had possible to recover from this con- been long unaccustomed to the afufion, fo favourable to our enter- larms of the war, they would have prize, it was determined that the had leisure to clear away the build. forces should be landed, and the o- ings which obstructed their fortiperations commenced immediately. fications, to put their works in

A small fort and town lay upon repair, and to take every step tothe harbour of Cavite, which was wards an orderly, and therefore, conveniently atuated to strengthen probably, an effectual defence. Manila, and might afford an use. Besides, the hifting of the morful station for Thips during the foons began to display itself by vefiege. The first idea was to begin ryevident and alarming signs. The with the attack of this fort; but weather grew uncertain and meon consultation between Mr. nacing; the rain began to pour Draper and the admiral, it was down in torrents; the winds became concluded more adviseable to pro- bciserous; and it was greatly to

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be feared, that, if the operations tives, a fierce and daring people, should be drawn into any consider who in a short time came to the able length, the overflowing of the allistance of the place with a body country of the country would have of ten thousand men, armed in made all approaches to the place their barbarous fashion. by land impra&icable, whill the The governor was, indeed, a tempestuous weather would have churchman, the archbishop of the rendered the afiftance of the squa, Manilas, by a policy not wholly dron precarious in the fiege, and without precedent in the Spanish even its safety very doubtful, colonies, in which they have been

The dispositions for landing known more than once to unite were made a little to the south of not only the civil government, but the town. The boats were ranged the command of the forces, with in three divisions, under the pro- the ecclesiastical dignity, But. tection of the men of war. Fri- however unqualified by his chagates were ordered to the right and racter, for the defence of a city atleft, by a brisk fire to cover their tacked, the archbishop seemed not flanks, and to disperse the enemy, unfit for it by his spirit and resowho began to astemble in great lution. Thele, together with the numbers, both horse and foot, to obstructions which arose from the oppose the descent. Measures feason, (which grew daily more were so well taken, that the ene- embarrassing) were the difficulties my retired from the fire of the our army had to contend with. On squadron, and left the coast clear. the other hand they had many cirThe English with an even front cumstances in their favour. The made towards the fore, and thro' ditch of the town, in some impora violent surf, which dashed many tant parts, had never been com

of their boats to pleated ; the covered way was out 24th of Sep- pieces, (but fortu- of repair ; the

glacis was too low ; tember.

nately without any some of the out-works were not loss of lives) gained the coast, and armed ; and the suburbs, which formed upon the beach.

they had not time to burn, affordThe days which immediately ed shelter to our troops, and cover. fucceeded their landing were spent ed them in their approaches. in seizing the most advantageous The ability of the commanders, pofts, in fecuring the communica- and the spirit of the troops, made tion with the navy, and in recon use of all these advantages, and noitring the roads and approaches to overcame all these difficulties, the town. They found it regular. The country being almost wholly ly fortified, and defended by some fooded, they were obliged to good works, a number of excel. throw themselves into the houses, lent cannon, garrisoned by about which were under the fire of the 800 regular troops, and incapable bastions, and the Spaniards canby its extent of being compleatly nonaded their quarters, which were invested by such an army as ours, nearer to the walls than the ordiand in a condition, therefore, of nary rules of war prescribed. Nebeing constantly supplied from the ceflity superseded these rules ; and country, and reinforced by the na even the precipitation with which


they were obliged to urge their conducting into the town the go. motions, had a good effect, and vernor's nephew, who had been probably haftened the decision of taken. Their savage cruelty enthe fiege in their favour fooner titled them to no mercy ; and than could be expected from a whenever they fell into the hands more regular proceeding, and more of the English foldiers, they favourable circumstances.

found none. Before batteries could be erect As little success attended the ated, the enemy attempted a fally tempt in which this cruel action

with about four hun- was committed, as they met with 26th of Sep- dred men. But

this in their former fally. The operatember.

effay of their strength tions against the town proceeded proved extremely discouraging to with unremitted vigour and dilithem, and they were obliged to re- gence, The bombardment contitire with loss and precipitation. nued day and night. The navy, The superior kill and bravery of who had hitherto assisted no otherour troops appeared in so striking wise than by furnishing men and a light in this little engagement, stores, (in which, however, it was that it was thought it might prove of the greatest service) began now an inducement to the governor to

to take a direct part. They placed endeavour at adyantageaus terms themselves as near the town, as the by an early surrender. But his depth of water would admit, and answer to the summons of our began a fire in order to second the commander was more spirited than operations of the land forces, by the behaviour of his garrison had enfilading the front they prohitherto proved. It was plain we poled to attack. Although the had to expect nothing but what we shallows obliged the thips to keep were able to command.

at too great a distance to have all Through all the difficulties of the effect they wisted, this fire, the season our works proceeded, which was opened on a new quarand by the indefatigable vigour ter, and was kept up without interand unconquerable spirit of our sol- mislion, added not a little to the diers and learnen, three batteries fatigue of the garrison, and to the for cannon and mortars were raif- confusion and terror of the inhabied, and played on the town with tants. considerable effect. The Indians Whilst the fiege advanced in so from time to time continued their successful a manner by the perseattack ; but they rather molested verance, and by the uncommon our troops, than obstructed their harmony and united efforts of the progress. Equally ignorant of the land and sea forces, the

if of Oc. laws of humanity and of arms, elements threatened to

tober. they murdered our people, where- deltroy at once all the ever they met them dispersed from effects of their indullry and couthe army; and even perpetrated rage. A deluge of rain poured the same cruelty on an English of- down, accompanied by a mighty ficer, employed under the protec- form of wind. The squadron was tion of a flag of truce, and of an in the greatest danger; all com44 of generofity to an e..omny, in mnunicarioa with it was entirely cut


off. A ftoreship, which had latelylish from the storm; for the roase arrived, and contained the greatest ing of the waves prevented the part of the tools and necessaries, Spaniards from hearing the noise of which they were now in the of our workmen in the night. greatest want for compleating their Every circumstance of the storm, works, was driven on fore. The by a fortunate turn, or by a judicigovernor of the place added to the ous management, became favouradvantage of these appearances in able to the attack, and they prohis favour, by calling in the aid ceeded with so much conftancy and of his ecclefiaftical character. To resolution, that in the midst of this raise the spirits of the inhabitants, violent tempeft, and deluged as funk by the progress of the be- they were with the heavy tropical fiegers, he gave out that an angel rains, they compleated one large from the Lord was gone forth to battery for heavy cannon, and an. destroy the English like the host of other for mortars, made good their Sennacherib.

parallels and communications, feBy an extraordinary species of cured their moft material pofts, good fortune, these menacing cir. and put themselves in a condition, cumstances were attended with their immediately on the ceasing of the particular advantages, and rather form, to batter the place in facilitated than obftructed the pro- breach. gress of the fiege. The storeships, Twelve pieces of cannon, on that 'by being driven afhore, without face of the bastion which they ai. any confiderable damage, gave an tacked, were silenced in a few easy and ready access to all the mi- hours, and so vigorous a fire was litary fores and provisions the kept up from the cannon and morcontained, and which, if it had not tars upon all the parts, whence the been for this accident, could not Spaniards could annoy our troops, have been supplied by boats in that in less than two days all their many days, as the wind continued defences were destroyed. The Spato blow for a long time after, and niards, seeing their fortifications no that a violent surt broke high upon longer tenable, determined to make the beach. Beldes, in the situa a conclusive effort, and to avail tion, in which this vessel lay on themselves of the strength of the fhore, her cannon became, in a garrison, which their free commugreat degree, a protection to the nication with the country had rear of the English camp. At the made as numerous as they could same time, the confidence, which the wish. For that purpose they proenemy reposed in the natural helps jected a sally, disposed in two atderived from the storm, and in tacks upon the two most important those supernatural ones added by posts of the English. The first was their superftition, rendered them to be made upon a cantonment of more reniss and languid in their the seamen, in which they judged, defence; and during that time if they could fucceed, they must they gave less obftrution to the lay the English under unsurprogress of our troops, than in any mountable difficulties, because the other period of the fiege. Another feamen were known to have had aủvantage also arole to the Eng- the moit confiderable part in the

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