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Plan of the year's history. Invasion of the Philippines designed. Descripe

tion of those islands, and of the city of Manila. Preparations at Madrass. Part of the squadron sent before the rest. The fleet unites at Malacca. They arrive at Manila.

I

N our last volume we were most other nations, lie at a great obliged to conclude our ac distance from the head, expedi

count of the peace, before we tions of the utmost moment were had fully related all the tranfactions to be undertaken in the remotelt of the war. When Great Britain part of the globe. came to a rupture with Spain, the The nature of our plan, in which theatre of hoftility was infinitely en- the narrative, perhaps, presses too larged : As that war was in a great close upon the facts, conftrains us measure a war upon commerce, it to relate things, not in the order of naturally became as extensive as its time in which they happen, but in object. And as the vital parts of that in which we come to the Spain, contrary to the condition of knowledge of them. In this in

Itance,

ftance, that plan has not been at 1521, by the famous navigator tended with any material inconve. Ferdinand Magellan : they were nience. The fortune of the expe- added to the Spanish monarchy by ditions, depending during the ne- Don Lewis de Velasco, in 15642 gotiation of the peace, was not, in the reign of Philip the second, by the mutual consent of parties, under whom the Spanish doininion to have any influence on the terms was greatly augmented, and its of it. The places taken were to real strength, at the same time, so be reciprocally restored.

We, impaired, that almost two centu. therefore, thought it more pru ries have not restored it to its fordent to present to the reader a nar mer vigour. The Philippines are rative of that important transaction, scarce inferior to any of the other entire and unbroken, rather than islands of Asia, in all the natural postpone any part of it, until we productions of that happy climate ; had gathered in all the scattered and they are by far the best fitu. events of the war. However, there ated for an extended and advantawere events, and some of them so geous commerce. By their posiconsiderable, to the knowledge of tion they form the center of interwhich we have arrived since the course with China, Japan, and the conclusion of our last year's labour, Spice Islands; and whilft they are that they ought by no means to be under the dominion of Spain, they omitted. They will furnish fome- connect the Asiatic and American thing to the entertainment we pro- commerce, and become the gene pose for the public in the present; ral entrepôt for the rich manufacand they are such, as not unwor tures and products of the one, and thily close that great scene of na. for the treasures of the othe. Be. tional glory, which Great Britain fides, they are well situated for a had displayed to the world, during supply of European goods, both the five lait campaigns. The chief from the side of Acapulco, and by of these was the expedition against the way of the Cape of Good the Manilas. Its importance will Hope. justify that detail, in which we In fa&, they formerly enjoyed a propose to consider it.

traffic in some degree proportioned The Manilas, or Philippines, to the peculiar felicity of their fituform a principal division of that ation, but the Spanish dominion immenfe Indian Archipelago, which is too vaft and unconnected to be confifts of many hundred islands, improved to the best advantage. fome of them the largest, and many The spirit of commerce is not of them by nature the richest in the powerful in that people. The world; and which lie in the torrid trade of the Philippines is thought zone, extending from the 19th de- to have declined : its great branch grec of north latitude, almost in a is now reduced to twa ships, which continued chain, to New Guinea, annually país between these islands and to the neighbouring shores of and Acapulco in America, and ta the great fouthern continent. a fingle port, that of Manila, in

The Philippines form the nor an island of the same name. thernmost cluiter of these islands, But though declined, this trade They were discovered in the year is stil a vait object of protection

to Spain, and of hoftility to what. all these islands, and, indeed, the ever nation is engaged in war with only respectable place in them, is her. In the war, which began Manila, situated to the south-east in 1739, and which was not dir- of the island, and lying upon a tinguished by such a series of won- very fair and spacious harbour. derful successes as the last, the tak- The buildings, both public and ing of the galleon, which carries private, being mostly of wood, on the trade between Manila and have as much magnificence as such America, was considered as one of materials are capable of; and the the most brilliant advantages which churches, in particular, are very we obtained ; and it has, accord- splendidly adorned. The Spaniingly, been much infifted upon in ards are discoaraged from building all the histories of that period. with more durable materials by This galleon is generally worth the terrible earthquakes, to which more than 600,000 pounds sterling. the island is extremely liable. By

The principal island of the Phi- them the city has been more than lippines is called Manila, or Luco once shaken to the ground. This nia; it is in length something more calamity is so frequent and dreadthan 300 miles ; its breadth

is ex- ful, as, in a great meafure, to countremely unequal ; at a medium it terbaliance all the advantages of may be about 80 or 90. The Spa- so rich a foil, and so defirable a pih inhabitants, who are not nu- climate. merous, have the government and The Spanish inhabitants, withthe best part of the commerce ; in the city, are about three thouthe Chinese are the artisans; and fand. Ten thousand Chinese occupy the soil is chiefly cultivated by the a large suburb called the Parian. natives. These latter are of vari, On the conqueft of China by ous origins, and of different de- the Tartars, in the last century, grees of savageness, according as great numbers Aed their country, they have been more or less lub- filling all the confiderable towns, dued by religion, or refined by not only of the Philippines, but of intercourse with strangers. For to the Moluccas and Sanda iflands, large and fertile an ifland the with an ingenious and industrious number of inhabitants are but people, who brought with them, small, and the whole, perhaps, not and diffused into all

these countries, amounting to half a million; and the skin of manufacture and the of those not a third are in subjec. fpirit of commerce. The conquest tion to the Spaniards.

of China bad nearly the fame effect The rest of the Philippine islands, in this part of the world, which the so far as the Spanish power pre- revocation of the edi&t of Nantes vails in them, are under the go- produced in ours. Besides the Pavernor of Luconia; but there are rian, there are several other suburbs many of them, in which thąt na- of great extent contiguous to this tion has little authority, or even city, inhabited by forty thousand of influence. There are in all about the native Indians, or by that mixed fourteen of them which deserve breed so common in all the Spanith patice.

colonies, resulting from that great The capital of Laconia, and of variety of races of men, who oria

ginally

(B) 3

ginally inhabited, or came as ad- with Spain, lord Anson and lord Venturers, or were brought as faves, Egremont were made acquainted itno their extensive dominions. with these observations concerning

From this short account it is vi the state of the Philippine islands; fible, that the acquisition of such a they gave that attention to the inplace must have proved of very formation, which the importance of great advantage towards carrying it juftly merited. They ordered on the war with Spain effectually, colonel Draper to give his ideas in and could not, therefore, fail of writing; assuring him, that, if the having an advantageous influence war should become unavoidable on the terms of pacification. Ac- by the Spaniards joining with cord ingly it was resolved to make France, they would recommend an attempt upon the Manilas, from the undertaking to his majesty. a plan of operations delivered to The memorial upon the subject the ministry by colonel Draper; was greatly improved by the naval and, perhaps, the reader will be experience and judgment of capt. glad to know how this plan came Howe, who possesses a!l the noble to be formed.

qualities of his illustrious family. After the memorable defence of The motives for the undertakMadrass in 1759, colonel Draper's ing (exclusive of the popular and bad state of health obliged him to dazzling notions of booty and leave that country. Heembarked, in plunder) were very serious and incompany with the honourable capt. teresting, both in a commercial Howe, then commander of the Win- and political light. For Manila, chelsea, for Canton in China, a city in the possession of an enterprising with which the inhabitants of Ma- people, is capable of ruining the nila carry on a considerable trade. whole China trade of any other, Here they wisely spent that time as the port of Cavite can build, fit of relaxation from military opera-' out, and man very large ships of tions, in attaining such knowledge war, which, if properly stationed, of the Philippine islands, as might no vessels could possibly escape, afterwards be serviceable to their unless protected by a squadron. country, giving a lesson to all men Besides, with Manila in our hands, in public employment, that, at we might at all times depend on times when they cannot perform the proper respect being sewn to an active fervice, they may fill do a our flag in the ports of that extenmat rial one by wife attention and five empire. On the other hand, the fenfible observation. They disa objections to the enterprize were not covered, that the Spaniards of the inconsiderable. It was impossible to Philippine islands, confiding in spare either ships or troops from their remote distance from Europe, England for the conquest, as the adfupposed an attack upon them im- ditional weight of Spain in the scale practicable, and were by that fatal of France demanded the utmost ex, fecurity, which is always the con- ertion of our power nearer home. Sequence of an ill-founded confi- The vast distance of the object, and dence, lulled into a total inatten- the uncertainty of the time, in which sion to a regular military firength. the expedition could be undertaken, Upon thic frit rumour of a war were, besides, no small dificulties:

but

but they were soon obviated. No- tillery, and a body of seamen and thing was demanded but a light marines, were appointed to act frigate to carry colonel Draper to with them. Some companies of Madrass, where alone suitable pre- seapoys (Indian soldiers who serve parations could be made for this after the European manner) were important enterprise.

added. In the whole, the force The colonel arrived at Madrass for the land operations amounted the latter end of June, 1762, to two thousand three hundred and on his arrival was appoint. men. The naval force confitted ed brigadier general and com- of nine men of war and frigates, mander in chief of the expedi. besides fome store-ships. tion, which was to be undertaken The command of the land solely by the troops and squa- forces in this expedition was given, dron then in India. No doubt, as as before mentioned, to brigadier we were become arbiters of the general Draper. Nobody was great peninsula of India, by the more perfectly acquainted with total expulsion of the French, and the service in that part of the by the humiliation of the Dutch, world ; and nobody had thewn this attempt became more feasible. greater zeal to forward it. It was However, as this dominion was impossible to forget the merit he new, and rather entered upon, had in the preservation of Madrass, than firmly established, something and in giving the East India war, was to be dreaded even from the against Mr. Lally, the first turn in natives ; and, therefore, from this our favour. Admiral Cornish compeninsula (the only place from manded the marinc; a brave and which such an attempt could be able officer, and worthy to comade with any prospect of fuc- operate with such a general, in cess) so great a force could not such an important service. In be employed, as the difficulty three weeks the preparations for and importance of the enterprise forming this body, and getting seemed to require. But the spirit ready all the stores, were begun, of the troops, and the celerity and compleated, and the whole shipped judgment with which the prepara- through a raging and perpetual tions were made, compensated surf, which in those climates is one cvery deficiency.

of the greatest difficulties in any The 79th regiment was the only expedition, extremely embarralling regular corps that could be spared. the embarkation, and rendering But this corps was, by reputation, still more hazardous the debarkaby service, and by being long in- tion, of troops, especially in the ured to the climate, almost equal to face of an enemy, who knows an army. By this regiment the pro- how to profit of this advantage. gress of the French in India had The celerity of those preparabeen firft lopped. They had con- tions was necessary. In the East tributed not a little to the happy Indies, they are obliged to reguturn and decision of that war, un- late all their motions by the der colonel Coote; and they were

course of the monfuns. Th: now chosen to extend the glory of season for the expedition was far the English arms to the utmost advanced, when the pian and verge

of Afia. A company of ar- orders arrived; and, if the north

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