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United States or congress, and that La Fayette had promised his best endeavours to obtain satisfaction for him. The belief is that Cazeau eventually returned to Canada, his claim against the United States unsatisfied ; but that some allowance was made to his children.*

Early in the spring of 1782, a force, described as composed principally of Virginians, attacked Sandusky on lake Erie. The organization had been made at fort Pitt. The settlement consisted of Moravians, and, according to the accounts which have come down, all who had settled on the upper

Sandusky were killed, with the women and children, ninety-six in number. The design was to take Sandusky and hold it in possession. From the importance attached to this position, it was determined by the British authorities to defeat the attempt. Held in connection with fort Pitt, with a large force from Virginia, Sandusky would have furnished a most dangerous base of operations against the posts. An expedition was accordingly organized for its defence. The column, consisting of the Rangers and Indians, was placed under the command of captain Caldwell. This force came upon the congress troops threatening Sandusky, about four o'clock. They retreated to a higher position, where a stand was made. The action was fought until night, both sides holding their ground. At daybreak the contest was renewed. An attempt by the congress troops to sally from the copse held by them was repulsed. At twelve o'clock, Caldwell, being reinforced by 140 Shawnees, made a movement to surround the copse. One passage, by some unexplained cause, was left open, and at midnight the congress troops retreated through it. At daybreak they were pursued by the Rangers for two miles. The Rangers lost one killed and two wounded.

I am indebted to Mr. Sulte for the reference to Cazeau's MS. letters. One published letter is to be found in Mr. Sulte's “Mélange d'Histoire et de Littéra. ture,” (pp. 289-290]. No copy is known to exist of the mémoire. It may be inferred, however, that it dealt principally with his claim against the United States and France, and thus furnishes the proof of the justice of his imprisonment. The last known copy of this memoir, originally in the library of Mr. Jacques Viger, was burned at the fire of the Quebec legislative buildings.


Caldwell was himself wounded in both legs. The Indians had four killed and eight wounded, and Levellier, an officer, killed. The total casualties were seventeen. Caldwell reported the congress loss at 250 killed and wounded, including major McClellan, killed.

After the action happened one of those tragedies incident to warfare, when barbarous races take part in it. Caldwell was wounded and unable to proceed to Sandusky. The command accordingly fell upon Turney, who reported the affair. On the third day after the action, the Delawares took as prisoners some of the fugitives, among them colonel Crawford and four captains, whom, they carried to Pipestown. Uncontrolled by any representative of British authority, they resolved to retaliate the massacre of the Moravians, with whom they had been intimately connected, upon these unfortunate men. Colonel Crawford and two captains were most cruelly burned. The fact was made known by Girty, who became cognizant of it. Crawford, although subjected to fearful torture, died with great firmness. He was first scalped and hot ashes thrown upon his head, afterwards to suffer a death of agony at a slow fire. Two captains were also burned. Powell, in command at Niagara, reported the occurrence with the greatest indignation. De Peyster wrote to McKee, instructing him to insist on the practice being stopped, otherwise the troops would be withdrawn.

Great activity was shewn by congress in the west against the tribes known to be favourable to the British, in the hope that by the exercise of intimidation they would be deterred from continuing their support to the British cause. The contrary effect was experienced. The destruction of Clark's party on the Ohio had greatly encouraged the spirit of the Indians; while their feeling of revenge, excited by the massacre of the Moravians, and by Crawford's defeat and cruel death, had added to their determination to oppose more vigorously the attacks by which they were threatened.

Caldwell's force was now considerably increased, and he prepared to take the initiative. He advanced towards




Wheeling, on the Ohio, at which place information had been received that an expedition was being organized. He had not gone far on his march when he heard that the congress troops were preparing to march against the Shawnese towns. The reports proving to be generally incorrect, Caldwell proceeded to Bryant's station in the hope of drawing out the garrison to dispute his further advance. Those composing it did not feel equal to meeting Caldwell's force in the field, so the Indians were sent forward to destroy the outbuildings. The fire directed against the fort proved of no avail ; some few on both sides were killed and wounded. Caldwell therefore abandoned the attempt, and on the 20th reached Bluelicks. He was followed by the congress troops, who must have been reinforced, for they immediately attacked him. There were present 300 picked men from Kentucky, numbers of whom fell in the action, 140 being killed. The congress troops were completely defeated. Caldwell again crossed the Ohio. Skirmishes with small parties took place from time to time. At the end of September, Caldwell was forced to proceed to Detroit, broken down with fever. Several of his men also suffered from the same cause.

Thus the attempt to obtain possession of the western country in 1782 entirely failed. On the eastern seaboard, in the summer 'of; this


Percé was attacked by two privateers; a party landed, plundered the craft lying in the bay of everything of value, and afterwards burned every vessel they could seize. The 12-pdr. in position was spiked and dismounted ; two 4-pdrs. were carried away. O'Hara, the commandant, was hurried on board one of the vessels, and, as he describes it," being acquitted of the crime of being rich, was ordered ashore with every mark of disrespect." The raid accomplished, the privateers sailed away.

In February, 1783, an abortive attempt was made against Oswego. Colonel Willett with 600 congress troops travelled in sleighs from Saratoga, ascending the valley of the Mohawk. As they approached the fort, a deserter was taken by a picket

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which had been sent out; from him it was learned that Willett had been misled by the guides. The force advanced to within two miles of the place, and there laid down nine scaling ladders. What made the attempt more ridiculous was, that it was the period of full moon and a surprise was impossible. Willett, judging from the absence of the deserter, that his purpose would be made known to the garrison, and learning the strength of Ross's command, having moreover had experience of his capacity in the field, held that he would be unwise to persevere in his attempt. Ross, informed of Willett's advance, made preparations to receive the attack. When the retreat of the congress troops was known he was not able to intercept it. There were few Indians under his command, as they had been discouraged from continuing at Oswego. Ross, in reporting the attempt to Haldimand, stated, that if at the time he had had Indians under his command scarcely a man of Willett's force would have escaped. Two of the congress force deserted, two were taken prisoners and one was found dead in the woods.

During the years of Haldimand's government, Canada was afflicted with a contagious disease which passed throughout the province. It became so serious as to demand the attention of the authorities ; its duration extended to ten years, at least. After that date we hear no more of its prevalence. Having first appeared in the bay of Saint Paul, below Quebec, it is mentioned in the records of the time as "la maladie de la Baie de Saint Paul.” As early as 1775 it had made such progress that Carleton sent a surgeon's mate of the 7th regiment to administer relief to those suffering from it. It was the year of the invasion by the troops of congress, and as shortly afterwards the services of this surgeon were required with his regiment, he was recalled. After the congress troops had been driven out of Canada in 1776, Carleton detailed a M. Badelard, who had been a surgeon in a French regiment, to minister to those afflicted. Haldimand, on his arrival in the country in June, 1778, persevered in the attempt to 1783]

* (Can. Arch., B. 57.2, p. 517. B. 125, p. 93.]



combat the disease, and medical assistance was sent to the parishes to which the disease had penetrated. The malady, however, remained unchecked, and gave rise to serious apprehensions. The population of Canada was then 112,000 souls, and it was no slight matter that from 3,000 to 4,000 of the population were affected by this contagious disorder. *

If the list of parishes can be accepted as an indication of the passage of the disease, it crossed Saint Paul's Bay to Saint Thomas de Montmagny on the south shore, and made its way by the parishes above Quebec to Saint Joseph de Lévis, finally reaching Saint Francis and Yamaska south of lake Saint Peter. Sorel escaped, but the disease reappeared on the Richelieu at Saint Ours and Saint Charles. There is no mention of either Chambly or Saint John's, but we read of the malady at Blairfindie, south-west of Chambly, passing to the parishes south of Laprairie, of which place no mention is made. Thence it reached Vaudreuil, to pass over to Saint Anne's, to Lachine, to some of the parishes on the island of Montreal, thence along the north shore of the Saint Lawrence to Deschambault. As no report is made of Quebec or Montreal, it cannot be stated to what extent these towns suffered from the malady. It was doubtless greatly controlled by the medical men present.

In 1785 the disease was reported to have extended to Saint Rochs, then a suburb of Quebec apart from the city, and thirteen cases were also credited to Three Rivers. So much anxiety was felt on the subject that in 1782 the council addressed the governor with the request that by means of the clergy a list of those infected might be obtained from the different parishes, the council giving a pledge to support any measures taken to arrest the evil.

In consequence bishop Briand, on the 9th of February,

* The precise number recorded in the parishes in 1785, according to the reports of the curés, was 3,390. No mention is here made of Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers. “Notes on the measures adopted by government between 1775 and 1786 to check the St. Paul's Bay disease," by A. W. Cochrane, D.C.L., 6th March, 1854. [Trans. Lit. and Hist. Society, Quebec, March, 1854, vol. iv., p. 139.) This carefully prepared paper gives much information on the subject.

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