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245. The Trial of WILLIAM IRELAND, THOMAS PICKERING,
and John Grove, at the Old Bailey, for High Treason :
30 CHARLES II. A. D. 1678.* On Tuesday the 17th day of December, 1678, did. Tbomas Pickering, hold up thy hand Thomas White alias Wbitebread, Wm. Ireland, which he did. John Gruve, bold up thy hand: John Fenwick, Thomas Pickering and John Which he did. Grove, were brought from his majesty's gaol of You stand indicted by the names of Thomas Newgate to the Sessions-house at Justice-Hall White alias Whitebread, lace of the parish of in the Old Bailey, being there indicted for High St. Giles in the fields, in the county of MiddleTreason, for contriving and conspiring to mur- sex, clerk: William Ireland, late of the same der the king, to receive their trial, and the parishi and county, clerk: John Fenwick, late Court proceeded thereupon as followeth: of the same parish and county, clerk : Thomas
The Court being sat, proclamation was made Pickering, late of the same parish and county, for attendance, thus :
clerk : and John Grove, late of the same parish Clerk of Crown. Crier, make proclamation. and county, gent. For that you five, as false
Çrier. O yes, O yes, yes! All manner of traitors, &c. against the peace of our sovereign persons that have any thing to do at this gene- lord the king, his crown and dignity, and ral sessions of the peace, sessions of Oyer and against the form of the statute in that case Terminer holden for the city of London, and made and provided. How sayest thou, Thomas gaol-delivery of Newgate, holden for the city of White alias Whicebread, art ihou Guilty of this London and county of Middlesex, draw near High Treason whereof ihou standest indicted, and give your attendance, for now the Court or Not Guilty? will proceed to the pleas of the crown for the Whilebread. Not Guilty. same city and county. God save the king. Cl. of Cr. Culprit, how wilt thou be tried ?
Cl. of Cr. Crier, make proclamation. Whilebread. By God and my Country.
Crier. O yes! All manner of persons are Cl. of Cr. God send thee a good delirercommanded to keep silence upon pain of impri- ancé. How sayest thou, William Ireland, art sonment. Peace about the Court.
thou Guilty of the same High Treason, or Not Çl. of Cr. Crier, make proclamation, Guilty ?
Crier. O yes ! You good men of the county Ireland. Not Guilty. of Middlesex that are summoned to appear Cl. of Cr. Culprit, hou wilt obou be tried ? here this day, to enquire between our sovereign Trelund. By God and my Country: lord the king and the prisoners that are and Cl. of Cr. God send thee a good delivershall be at the bar, answer to your names as you ance. How sayest thou, John Fenwick, art shall be called, every one at the first call, and thou Guilty of the same High Treason, or Not save your issues.
Guilty? The Jurors being called and the defaulters Fenwick. Not Guilty. recorded, the Clerk of the Crown called for the Cl. of Cr. Culprit, how wilt thou be tried ? prisoners to the har, viz. Thomas White alias Fenwick. By God and my Country. Whitebread, William Irelanıl, John Fenwick, Cl. of Cr. God send thee a good deliver. Tho. Pickering and John Grove, and arraigned ance. How sayest thou, Thomas Pickering, art them thus :
thou Guilty of the same High Treason, or Not Cl. of Cr. Thomas White alias White-Guilty? bread, hold up thy hand : Which he did. Wil- Pickering. Not Guilty. liam Ireland, hold up thy hand : Which he did. Cl. of Cr. Culprit, how wilt thou be tried ? Johạ Fenwick, hold up thy hand : Which he Pickering. By God and my Country.
Cl. of Cr. God send thee a good deliverFrom a pamphlet, intitled :
The Trials ance.
How sayest thou, John Grove, art of William Ireland, Thomas Pickering, and thou Guilty of the same High Treason, or Not John Grove; for conspiring to Murder the Guilty? King: who upon full evidence were found Grove. Not Guilty. Guilty of High Treason, at the Sessions-House Cl. of Cr. Culprit, bow wilt thou be tried ? in the Old Bailey, December 17, 1678. And Grove. By God and my Country. received Sentence accordingly. London, print- Cl. of Cr. God send thee a good delivered for Robert Pawlet at the Bible in Chancery- ance. You the prisoners at the bar, those men lane, near Fleet-street, 1678. December 17, that you shall hear called and do personally • 1678. I do appoint Robert Pawlet to print appear, are to pass between our sovereign lord
the Trials of William Ireland, Thomas Picker- the king and you, upon trial of your several • ing, and John Grove: And that no other lives and deaths; if therefore you or any of person presume to print the same. WILLIAM you will challenge them or any of them, your SCROGOS.'!
time is to speak unto them as they come to the See the Introduction to the Trials for the book to be sworn, before they be sworn. Sir Popish Plot, ante, vol. 6, p. 1420.
Philip Matthews to the book.
Sir Philip Matthews. I desire sir" William weighing, but being moved and seduced by Roberts may be called first, Which was the instigation of the devil, the cordial love, granted.
and true, due, and natural obedience, which Ch. of Cr. Sir William Roberts to the true and faithful subjects of our said sovereign book. Look upon the prisoners. You shall lord the king towards our said sovereign lord well and truly try, and true deliverance make the king should and of right ought to bear, alhetween our sovereign lord the king and the together withdrawing, and endeavouring, and prisoners at the bar, whom you shall have in with their whole strength intending, the peace yoar charge, according to your evideace. So and common tranquillity of this kingdom of help you Gud.
England to disturb, and the true worship of The same oath was administered to the rest, God within this kingdom of England used, and the prisoners challenging none, and their names by law established, to overthrow; and to nove, in order were thus : Sir William Roberts, br.; stir up, and procure rebellion within this kingsir Philip Matthews, bt.; sir Charles Lee, kt.; dom of England, and the cordial love, and true Edward Wilford, esq.; John Foster, esq. ; and due obedience, which true and faithful Joshua Galliard, esq. ; John Byfield, esq.; subjects of our said sovereign lord the king Thomas Eglesfield, esq.; Tho. Johnson, esq. ; toward our said sovereign lord the king should Jobo Pulford, esq.; Thomas Earnesby, esq.; and of right ought to bear, wholly to withdraw, Richard Wheeler, gent.
vanquish, and extinguish, and our said soveCl. of Cr. Crier, count these. Sir William reign lord the king to death and final destrucRoberts.
tion to bring and put, the 24th day of April, in Crier. One, &c.
the year of the reign of our said sovereign lord Cl. of Cr. Richard Wheeler.
Charles 2, by the grace of God of England, ScutCricr. Twelve good men and true, stand land, France, and Ireland, king, defender of the together and hear your evidence.
Faith, &c. the 30th, at the parish of St. Giles Cl. of Cr. Crier, make proclamation. in the Fields aforesaid, in the county of Mid
Crier. O yes! If any one can inform my dlesex aforesaid, falsely, maliciously, deceitLords the king's Justices, the king's Serjeant, fully, advisedly, and traitorously, they did the king's Attorney, or this Inquest now to be propose, compass, imagine, and intend to stir taken between our sovereign lord the king and up, move, and procure sedition and rebellion the prisoners at the bar, let them cone forth within this kingdom of England, and to procure and they shall be heard, for now the prisoners and cause a miserable slaughter among the substand at the bar upon their deliverance : andjects of our said sovereign lord the king, and all others that are bound by recognizance to wholly to deprive, depose, throw down, and gire evidence against any of the prisoners at disinberit our said sovereign lord the king from the bar, let them come forth and give their his royal state, title, power, and government evidence, or else they forfeit their recogniz- of this his kingdom of England, and him our ance. And all jurymen of Middlesex that said sovereign lord the king to put to death, and have been summoned and have appeared, and utterly to destroy, and the government of this are not sworn, may depart the court and take kingdom of England, and the sincere religion their ease.
and worship of God in the same kingdom, Cl. of Cr. Make proclamation of silence. rightly and by the laws of the same kingdom
Crier. O yes! All manner of persons are established, for their will and pleasure to commanded to keep silence, upon pain of im- change and alter, and wholly to subvert and prisonment.
destroy the state of the whole kingiom, being Cl. of Cr. Thomas White alias Whitebread, in all parts thereof well instituted and ordered, hold up thy hand: Which he did, and so of the and to levy war against our said sovereign lord rest. You that are sworn, look upon the pri- the king within this his realm of England: And supers, and hearken to their cause.
and bring to pass these their most wickYou shall understand, that they stand in-ed treasons and traitorous designs and pardicted by the names of Thomas White other poses aforesaid, they the said Thomas White wise Whitebread, late of the parish of St. Otherwise Whitebread, William Ireland, John Giles in the fields in the county of Middlesex, Fenwick, Thomas Pickering, and John Grove, clerk; William Ireland, late of the same pa- and other false traitors unknown, the said 24th rish in the county aforesaid, clerk; John day of April, in the said 30th year of the reign Fenwick, late of the same parish in the coun- of our said lord the king, with force and arms, ty aforesaid, clerk; Thomas Pickering, late of &c. at the parish of St. Giles in the Fields the same parish in the county aforesaid, clerk ;, aforesaid, in the county of Middlesex aforeand John Grove, late of the same parish in the said, falsiy, maliciously, deceitfully, advisedly, county aforesaid, gentleman : For that they as devilishly, and traitorously did assemble, unite, false traitors of the most illustrious, serene, and and gather themselves together, and then and most excellent prince, our sovereign lord there falsly, maliciously, deceitfully, advisedly, Charles 2, by the grace of God of England, devilishly, and traitorously they did consult and Scotland, France, and Ireland, king, defender agree to put and bring our said sovereign lord of the faith, &c. their supreme and natural the king to death and final destruction, and to lord, not having the fear of God in their hearts, alter and change the religion rightly and by the sor the duty of their allegiance any ways laws of the same kingdum established, to the
superstition of the church of Rome ;, and the and times afterwards at the said parish of St. sooner to bring to pass and accomplish the Giles in the fields and in the said county of same their most wicked (reasons and traitorous Middlesex, falsely, deceitfully, advisedly, ma. imaginations and purposes aforesaid, they the liciously, devilishly, and traitorously, they did said Thomas White otherwise Whitebread, prepare and obtain to themselves, and bad and William Ireland, John Fenwick, Thomas did keep musquets, pistols, swords, daggers, Pickering, John Grove, and other false trai- and other offensive and cruel weapons and intors of our said sovereign lord the king un struinents, to kill and murder our said sovereign known, afterwards (to wit) the said 2 4th day of lord the king : And that they the said Thomas April, in the said 30th year of the reign of our Pickering and John Grove afterwards, to wit, said sovereign lord the king, at the said parish the said 24th day of April, in the said 30th of St. Giles in the Fields, in the county of Mid year of the reign of our said sovereign Jord the dlesex aforesaid, falsely, deceitfully, advisedly, king, and divers days and times afterwards with maliciously, devilishly, and traitorously they did force and arms, &c. at the said parish of St. consult and agree, that they the said Thomas Giles in the Fields in the county of Middlesex Pickering and John Grove should kill and inur aforesaid, and in other places within the said der our said sovereign lord the king : And that county of Middlesex, falsely, deceitfully, adthey the said Thomas White otherwise White-visedly, maliciously, and traicorously, did lie bread, William Ireland, John Fenwick, and in wait, and endeavour to kill and murder our other' false traitors unknown, should therefore said sovereign lord the king; and further, that say, celebrate, and perform a certain number they the said Thomas White otherwise Whiteof massęs (then and there agreed on among bread, William Ireland, John Fenwick, and them) for the good of the soul of the said Tho other false traitors unknown, afterwards, to wit, mas Pickering, and should therefore pay to the the said 24th day of April
, in the said souh said John Grove a certain sum of money (then year of the reign of our said sovereign lord the and there also agreed on among them): And king, at the said parish of St. Giles in the Fields, further, that the said Thomas Pickering and in the county of Middlesex aforesaid, falsely, John Grove upon the agreement aforesaid, then deceitfully, advisedly, maliciously, devilishly, and there falsely, deceitfully, advisedly, mali- and traitorously, did prepare, persuade, excite, ciously, devilishly, and traitorously did under-abet, comfort and counsel four other persons take, and to the said Thomas White otherwise unknown, and subjects of our said sovereign Whitebread, William Ireland, John Fenwick, lord the king, traitorously to kill and murder and other false traitors of our said sovereign our said sovereign lord' the king, against the lord the king unknown, then and there falsely, duty of their allegiance, against the peace of our deceitfully, advisedly, maliciously, devilishly, said sovereign lord the king, bis crown and dig. and traiturously they did then and there pro- nity, and against the form of the statute in that mise, that they the said Thomas Pickering and behalf made and provided. John Grove our said sovereign lord the king Upon this Indictment they have been arraignwould kill and murder : And further, that ed, and thrreunto have severally pleaded, Not they the said Thomas Wbite otherwise Guilty, and for their trial have put themselves Whitebread, William. Ireland, John Fenwick, upon God and their country, which country Thomas Pickering, and John Grove, and other you are. falsetraitors of our said sovereign lord the king un- Your charge therefore is to enquire, whether known, afterwards to wit the said 24th day of they or any of then be Guilty of the HighApril, in the said 30th year of the reign of our said Treason whereof they stand indicted, or Not sovereign lord the king, at the said parish of Guilty. If you find them or any of them St. Giles in the fields in the county of Middle-Guilty, you are to enquire what goods or chatsex aforesaid, falsely, deceitfallý, advisedly, tels, lands or tenements, those you find guilty maliciously, devilishly, and traitorously, did had at the time of the High-Treason commit. severally plight their faith every one to ted, or at any time since. If you find them or other of them, and did then and there swear any of them Not Guilty, you are to enquire and promise upon the Sacrament, to conceal wherber they did fly for it: If you find that and not to divulge their said most wicked trea- they or any of them fled for it, you are to ene sons, and traitorous compassings, consultatious, quire of their goods and chattels, as if you had and purposes aforesaid, so among them had, found them Guilty. If you find them or any Traitorously co kill and murder our said so- of them Not Guilty, nor that they nor any of vereign lord the king, and to introduce the them Aed for it; say so), and no more, and hear. Roinan religion, to be used within this king- your evidence. dom of England, and to alter and change the Make Proclamation of Silence on both sides.' true reformed religion, rightly and by the laws which was done. of this kingdom of Englaod in this same kingdom of England established; And further, that they learned counsel in the law, opened the Indict
Then sir Creswell Levinz, one of the king's the said Thomas Pickering and Johu Grove, in execution of their said traitorous agreement,
ment thus : afterwards, to wit, the said 24th day of April, Sir Creswell Levinz. May it please your in the said 30th year of be reign of our said lordship, and you gentlemen of the jury: sovereign lord the king, and divers other days These prisoners at the bar, Thomas White alias
Whitebread, William Ireland, John Fenwick, then severe against them), to destroy the queen Thomas Pickering, and John Grove, do all and alter the religion established here io Engstand indicted of High-Treason; for that land, and so introduce Popery and the superwhereas they, as false traitors, meaning and stition of the Church of Rome. desigoing to disturb the peace of the kingdom, But the conspirators from time to time, durto levy war within the kingdom, to make mi- ing all the queen's reigo were disappointed, as serable slaughter against the king's subjects, to Edmond Campion, and several other Jesuits, sabeert the religion established by the law of who came over in that time, and were executed, the land, to introduce the superstition of the and did suffer for their treasons according to church of Rome, and to bring to death and law : At length, about the latter end of the final destruction, and to murder and assassinate queen's time, a Seminary for the English Jeour sovereign lord the king, they did, to effect suits was founded at Valladolid in Spain, and these things, the 24th of April last assemble sou know the einployment such persons have. themselves together, with many o her false And soon after the queen's death, in the betraitors yet unknown, in the parish of St. ginning of the reign of king James several perGiles in tbe Fields in the county of Middlesex, sons came over into England from this very seand there, being so assembled, the better 10 minary, who together with one Henry Garnet, t etect these designs did make agreements and Superior of the Jesuits then in England, and conspire together ; first, that Pickering and divers others English papists, batched that helGrose should kill the king, and that White and lish Gunpowder-Plot; whereby what was dethe rest of the persons that stand indicted, with signed you all know; but as it fell out, these many other traitors, should say a great num- persons, as well as those in queen Elizabeth's her of Masses for the soul of the said Picker- time, were likewise disappointed, and for their ing, I think 30,000 ; and they did further agree execrable treasons in the 3d year of king James there, that Grove slould have a great sum of were executed at Tyburo and other places. money; and upon this agreement Grove and This is evident by the very act of parliament Piesering did undertake and promise they in 3 Jacobi, in the preamble whereof mention would do this fact, and did then and there take is made that Creswell and Tesmond, Jesuits, the Sacrament and an oath to one another upon came from Valladolid in Spain to execute this the Sacrament, that they would conceal these Gunpowder-Treason with the popish party here their treasons, that they might the better effect in England. them; and that in pursuance of this, Grove And, gentlemen, after this treason, so miraand Pickering did divers times lie in wait to culously discovered, was punished, one would murder the king, and did provide arms to do it : not have thought that any future age would And the Indictment further sets forth, that have been guilty of the like conspiracy, ; but it White and Ireland, and Fenwick, and many so falls out, that the mystery of Iniquity and other traitors yet unknown, did procure four Jesuitism still worketh, for there hath of late other persons yet also unk noun, for to kill the been a sort of crueland bloody-minded persons king, against the peace of our sorereigu lord wbo, in hopes to have better success than they the king, his crown and dignity, and against the bad in former times, during the reigns of queen form of the statute. These are the heads of Elizabeth and king James, have set on foot as those facts for which they stand iodicted. They horrid a design as that of the Gunpowder-treahave all pleaded Not Guilty : If we prove son; I can resemble it to no other Plot, or them or any of them Guilty of these or any of design, or treason in any other time, and truly these facts, according to the evidence you shall it does reseinble that in many particulars : I hare, we hope you will find it.
may say, it doth at the least equal it, if not ex
ceed it. Sir Samuel Baldwin, one of his majesty's
I shall mention two or three particulars Serjeants at law, opened the Charge as fol
in which this Plot doth resemble that. loveth:
1. That borrid design was to take away the Sir Samuel Baldwin. Nay it please your life of the then king, to subvert the government, bordship, and you gentlemen of the jury, the to introduce the popish religion, and to destroy persons here before you stand indicted of High- the established Protestant religion in England; Treason ; they are five in number, three of them and so gentlemen, we think our proofs wili are Jesuits, one is a priest, the ifth is a lay- make it out that in each of these particulars man, persons filly prepared for the work in this design is the same that that was.
2. The great actors in that design were Gentlemen, it is not unknown to must per Priests and Jesuits that came from Valladolid sons, nay to every one amongst us that hath | in Spain, and other places beyond the seas. the least observed the former times, how that And the great actors in this Plot are priests and ever since the reformation there bath been a Jesuits, that are come from St. Omers and design carried on to subvert the government, other places beyond the seas nearer hoine than and destroy the Protestant religion established Spain. here in England; for during all the reign of 3. That plot was chiefly guided and managed queen Elizabeth several attempts were made by several Priests and Jesuits, that came * See rol. 1, p. 1049, of this Collection. from beyond ibe seas (though the laws were + See vol. 2, p. 218.
by Henry Garnet superior and provincial of pointed, to be at Mr. Whitebread's lodging, and the Jesuits then in England; and the great ihat was in Wild-Street, at one Mr .Sanders's actor in this design is Mr. Whitebread, superior house; others were appointed to go to Mr. Ireand provincial of the Jesuits now in England ; lands's lodging, which was in Russel-Street (and so that I say in these several particulars it does this Mr. Ireland was treasurer of the Society): resemble the Gunpowder-Plot.
and others were to meet at Mr. Fenwick's Gentlemen, In this plot, of which the pri- chamber in Drury-Lane; and he was at that soners now stand indicted, several persons have time Procurator and Agent for that Society. several parts : Some of these persons are em- Others were appointed to meet at Harcourt's ployed to keep correspondence beyond the lodging; and others at other places. seas (of which more hath been said in another When they came there, they all agreed to the place, and so I shall not speak of it here): others general design of the first meeting, which was were to procure and prepare aid and asistance 1'o kill the king. Then there was a Paper, or here in England who were to be ready when some instrument to be subscribed. This was there should be occasion to use it. But the done, and the Sacrament was taken for the congreat part that these persons (the prisoners at cealment of it. After that, Whitebread, Irethe bar) were to act in this conspiracy, was, to land, Fenwick, and others did agree that Mr. take away the life of our sovereigo lord the Grove and Mr. Pickering should be employed King, on whose preservation the safety and to assassinate the king. One of them (Mr. welfare of three nations (and millions of men) Grove) being a lay brother, was to have 1,500l. doth depend. Now the facts for which the five a great sum; the other, as a more suitable reprisoners stand indicted, I shall open thus e ward for his pains, was to have 30,000 masses
1. They are here iudicted for cupspiring the said for his soul. Mr. Whitebread, Mr. Iredeath of his sacred majesty : they did agree land, and Mr. Fenwick, werc all privy to this to take away the king's life ; and entering into design ; and this was the 24th of April. In such an agreement, they hired some persons August after they being appointed to kill the amongst them to do it ; and this agreement was king, but it not taking effect, either their hearts made the 24th of April last 1678.
misgave them, or they wanted opportunity) 2. There is another fact they likewise stand there was another meeting at the Savoy, where indicted for : • That tbey did endeavour and the witnesses will tell you, four Irish persons contrive to change and alter the religion esta- Were hired for to kill the king. And this was blished in the nation, and introduce popery in ordered, in case the other design took not effect, the room of it. The manner how to effect this. There was fourscore pounds sent down to them was thus, if my information be right; you shall to Windsor, where they were to have done the hear that from the evidence. Mr. Whitebread fact. After this, other persons were appointed being resident here iv England, and Superior of to do the execution, and they were to take the Jesuits, did in February last think fit (being the king at his morning walk at New-Market. impowered by authority from Rome) to give These persons were all disappointed in their summons to the Jesuits abroad, at St. Omers, design. But you shalt hear what was the and other places beyond the seas, that they Agreement how it was carried on, and what should come over here into England, to be ready rewards were given to carry it on. We shall at London, on the 24th of April, the day laid acquaint you likewise, that for the bottom of in the Indictment, and which is the day after this design (when so many Jesuits should come St. George's day; and their design was (as will over, when they should have so many consulta appear by the proof) to contrive how they may tions, and when they should resolve to kill the take away the life of the king : for if that were king) there could be no less than the altering once done, they thought, in all other things, of Religion, and introduction of Popery here their design would easily be accomplished in England. And that time, at the first meetAfter the Summons were out, they were so offi- ing, they had ordered, That Mr. Cary a Jesuit, cious for the accomplishing of this great end, as their procurator and agent, should go to that between 40 and 50 Jesuits did appear here Rome, to act their concerns there. All which at London at the time (for thither they were things and more will be made out to you by summoned), and there the meeting was ap- witnesses produced. There are likewise some pointed to be. At the White Horse Tavern in other circumstances that will be material to the Strand they were to meet first; but being confirm those witnesses. We shall produce to so great a number that they were likely to be you a Letter written in February last, about taken notice of, if they came all together, it that time that Mr. Whitebread sent over his was su ordered, they should come but a few suinmons for the Jesuits to appear here. This at a time and go off in small numbers and Letter was wriiten by one Mr. Peters, a Jesuit others should succeed them, till the whole now in custody; and now it is written to one number had been there. And there were Tunstal, a Jesuit, to give himn notice, That he directions given, and a course taken, that shouid be in London about the 21st of April, there should be some person to tell them whi- and be ready on the 24th of April: That he ther they should go from thence. After they knew what the business was; but he did advise had met there at several times in the same day, him, that he should conceal himself, lest the they were appointed, and adjourned to be at Plot (by observation) should be discovered. several other places; some of them were ap- We shall likewise produce several other evi