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After these discourses, I asked Mr. Lange thereof, from any of their own persuasion ; lest horne, That I might pray with bim ? He an- they should confirm them in their corrupt swered me, No; yer, I desire your prayers at principles, or join wicked counsels, to diffuse home. He said, That prayer in presence, was their treasonable designs, by messages, to put an Act of Communion; but it was unfit, to Plots in execution, is a warrant to deny them join with one, who was not a member of the the assistance of their own party. Yet they Roman Church. I replied, That I thought, stick not, to grow sullen and insolent, in rethere was little or no difference in such dis- jecting the prayers of Protestant Divines. tinct praying ; however, it could not be any How careless of, and cruel to their own unlawful act. He would not admit me to pray souls, are such, who will not by all lawsul with him : therefore, to root out such a scru- helps, secure and promote their souls everple, I shall state now, more at large, what I lasting blessedness! Is not this such a breach iben spake more succinctly. Is not prayer an of charity, as to make void their own prayers universal duty, and a testification of Christian for themselves and to limit Christian Relicharity? Therefore, to limit it only to such, gion, only to the Roman Church, which is but who are adopted into any faction, is to look on a corner of the Christian world; and cannot all others, as excommunicated from Christ, and be properly Catholic, unless it embrace an the hope of salvation by him, as the only universal charity for all, Christians, who prohead; who influences the Universal Church, fess the same Christ, and the same fundamenwith the spirit of faith, unity, and concord. tals of Christianity? But Protestants have not

Can any Papist think to receive benefit by so departed from the Church of Rome, as to prayer, bimself being absent; who hath not so hate all persons of her society ; but only, their much charity, as to bear Protestants' pre-corruptions in doctrine and practice. We sence, in praying together? What proud sin- deny not to then), the duties of common chagularity is this? What inconveniency can rity; or such requisite assistances at the time bappen, from a Protestant's joining with a of extreme sickness, or death, which may safely Papist in prayer, if they do not mix their pri- consist with their not being confirmed in Popish vate opinions (which are fitter for a disputa- principles, too deeply rooted in them already; tion) in the time of praying together ? Such and the consistency of the established governimprudence would turn prayer, which is the ment, in the English Church, and state. After badge of Christian Communion, into an occa- these conferences with Mr. Langhorn, I asked sion of reproach ; and imbitter each others bim, whether he were the very person acspirits, to remain at a farther distance. To cused before the committee of parliament, in prevent such a mischief, let them consent, that 1666; for being conscious, at least, of the conthey will keep close to Scripture-matter, and fiagration of London, by treachery: because phrases in prayer; because in these, they are Mr. Richard Langhorn, counsellor at the agreed. So shall they not grieve each other, Temple, is said in a deposition upon oath, to by an uncharitable exagitating and venting of have cast out threatening words about the said their private opinions. Yet I deny not, but Conspiracy?-He answered me, That he was that they ought to desire of God, that he the person then accused; but knew no more would clear up to then his truth and ways of the firing of London, than he did of this inore fully; and chat, in whatever they dissent, Plot. But what he knew of this, is sufficiently by way of mistake about opinions foreign to demonstrated, by his being condemued, and the essential parts, and fundamentals of Chris-, executed for a well-wisher to it, and agent in tian Religion, they may come to a right under-it. I offered a second visit to him, on the standing of each other; and may recede from Thursday before his execution ; but he sent any false mixtures, super-added to Christ's me thanks, and desired to be wholly retired to pure religion. Therefore, to deny any Protes- bimself. So being in the country when he was tant Divine, to pray with Popish persons con- executed, I cannot give any further account demoed, when they cannot have the relief concerning him.

253. The Trial of Sir GEORGE WAKEMAN, * bart. WILLIAM MAR

SHAL, WILLIAM RUM Levand, JAMES CORKER,T Benedictine
Monks, at the Old Bailey, for High-Treason : 31 CHARLES II.

A. D. 1679.
UPON Friday the 18th of July, 1679, at the “ You stand indicted by the names of sir
Sessions House in the Old Bailey, London, the George Wakeman, late of the parish of St.
Court being met, and proclamation made for Giles in the Fields, in the county of Middlesex,
attendance, the trials proceeded thus :

bart. William Marshal, of the same parish and Clerk of the Crown. Set sir George Wake county, gent. and William Rumley, of the same man, William Marshal and William Rumley to parish and county, gent. : For that you as false the bar. Sir George Wakeman, hold up thy traitors against the most illustrious, serene and hand. Which he did. And so of the other two. most excellent prince, Charles the Second, by

* « Wakeman's trial came on next. Oates somewhat circumstantial to the same purpose swore he saw bim write a bill to Ashby the Je- against two of them: but that did not rise up suit, by which he knew his band : and he saw to be treason: and he had nothing to charge another letter of his writ in the same band, in the third with. They proved, that another which he directed Ashby, who was then going person had been their superior for several to the Bath, to use a milk diet and to be pump- years; and hat Oates was never once suffered ed at the Bath; and that in that letter he men- to come within their house, which all their sertioned his zeal in the design of killing the king. vants deposed. And they also proved, that He next repeated all the story he had sworn when Oates came into their house the night against the queen: Which he brought only to after he made his discovery, and look Pickermake it probable that Wakeman, who was her ing out of his bed, and saw them, he said he physician, was in it. To all this Wakeman ob-had vothing to lay to their charge. They urged jected, that at first Oates accused him only many other things to destroy the credit of the upon hear-say: and did solemnly protest he witnesses : and one of them made a long dee knew nothing against him: which was fully clamation in a high hombast strain, to shew made out. So he said, all that Oates now what credit was due to the speeches of dying swore against him must be a forgery not men. The eloquence was so forced and thought of at that time. He also proved by his childish, that this did them more hurt than own servant, and by the apothecary at the good. Scroggs summed up the evidence very Bath, that Ashby's paper was not writ, but only favourably for the prisoners, far contrary to his dictated by bim: for he happened to be very former practice. The truth is, that this was weary when he came for it, and his mian wrote looked on as the queen's trial, as well as Wakeit out : and that of the milk diet was a plain man's. The prisoners were acquitted : and indication of an ill laid forgery, since it was now the witnesses saw they were blasted. And known that nothing was held more inconsistent they were enraged upon it; which they vented with the Bath water than milk. Bedlow swore with much spite upon Scroggs. And there against him, that he saw him receive a bill of was in him matter enough to work on for such 2,000l. from Harcourt in part of a greater foul-mouthed people as they were. The queen sum; and that Wakeman told him afterwards got a man of great quality to be sent over amthat he had received the money; and that bassador from Portugal, not knowing bow much Harcourt told him for what end it was given, she might stand in need of such a protection, for they intended the king should be killed, He went next day with great state to thank either by those they sent to Windsor, or by Scroggs for his behaviour in this trial. If he Wakeman's means and if all other ways fail- meant well in this compliment, it was very uned, they would take him off at Newmarket. advisedly done: For the Chief Justice was exBedlow in the first giving his evidence deposed, posed to much censure by it. And therefore that this was said by Harcourt when Wakeman some thought it was a shew of civility done on was gone out of the room. But observing, by design to ruin bim. For bow well pleased sothe questions that were put him, that this would ever the Papists were with the success of this not affect Wakeman, he swore afterwards, that trial and with Scroggs's management, yet they he said it likewise in his bearing. Wakeman could not be supposed to be so satisfied with had nothing to set against all this, but that it him, as to forgive bis behaviour in the former seemed impossible that he could trust himself trials, which had been very indecently partial in such matters to such a person : and if Oates and violent.” Burnet. was set aside, he was but one witness. Three + In the following year, Marsbal and Corker other Benedictine priests were tried with were, ingether with others, tried and convicted Wakeman. Oates swore, that they were in the upon the stat. 27 Eliz. c. 2. See the trials of plot of killing the king; that one of them, be Anderson alias Munson and others, January ing their superior, had engaged to give 6,0001. 17, 1680: infra. See the star. in Brommick's towards the carrying it on. Bedlow swore Case, Aug. 18, 1679, infra.

the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France 4 within this kingdom of England rightly and by and Ireland, king, defender of the faith, &c. the laws of the same established, to change your supreme and natural lord; the fear of and alter to the superstition of the Church of God in your hearts not having, nor weighing Kome; and to move, procure and persuade the duty of your allegiance, hat being moved them, the said William Marshal, William Rumand seduced by the instigation of the devil; ley and other false traitors unknown, the agreeand the cordial love, true, due and natural ment aforesaid to fulfil and accomplish, you obedience, wbicb true and faithful subjects of the said sir George Wakeman, after, to wit, our said sovereign lord the king do and of right the said 30th day of August, in the parishi ought to bear towards him, our said sovereign aforesaid, in the county aforesaid, to them the lord the king, utterly withdrawing, and endea- said William Marshal, William Rumley and vouring and intending with all your strength, other false traitors unknown, did traitorously the peace and common tranquillity of this king- promise to give your assistance, the government dom of England to disturb, and the true wors of this kingdom to subvert, and the true wore ship of God within this kingdom of England ship of God, in this realm rightly and by the used, and by the laws of the same established, laws thereof established and used, to the suto overthrow, and the government of this realm perstition of the Church of Rome to alter : to subvert, and sedition and rebellion within And that you the said sir George Wakeman, this kingdom of England, to move, stir up and then and there, falsly, maliciously, subtilly, adprocure, and the cordial love, true, due and visedly, devilishly and traitorously, did undernatural obedience, which true and faithful subo take to kill and murder our said sovereign lord jects of our said sovereign lord the king, ought the king: And in further prosecution of the and of right are bound to bear towards hiin, treasons, traitorous conspiracies, intentions our said sovereign lord the king, wholly to and agreements aforesaid, you ihe said sir withdraw, put out and extinguish, and him our George Wakeman, the said Soth day of August, said sovereign lord the king, to death and final at the parish aforesaid, in the county aforesaid, destruction to bring and put, you the said sir falsly, traitorously and against the duty of your George Wakeman, William Marshal and Wil- allegiance, did receive and had (from a certain liam Rumley, the 30th day of August, in the person unknown, pretending to be provincial 30th year of the reign of our said sovereign lord of the Jesuits in England, and claiming authoking Charles the Second, at the parish of St. rity for the granting commissions in that part Giles in the Fields aforesaid, in the county from the see of Rome,) one commission to inaforesaid, falsly, maliciously, subtilly, advisedly stitute and authorise you the said sir George and traitorously did purpose, compass, imagine Wakeman to be physician-general of the army, and intend, sedition and rebellion within this to be raised for the waging war against our said kingdom of England to move, stir up and pro- sovereign lord the king within this kingdom of cure, and miserable slaughter among the sub- England, and the same commission then and jects of our said sovereign lord the king to cause there, falsly, advisedly, maliciously and traitorand procure, and our said sovereign lord the ously did inspect and read over, and traitorously king, from his royal state, title, power and go- did keep in your possession, and to the same vernment of his said kingdom of England, falsly, knowingly, advisedly and traitorously did wholly to deprive, depose, cast down and dis- consent and agree, with that intention, that you inherit, and 'him our said sovereign lord the the said sir George Wakeman should have, reking, to death and final destruction to bring ceive and exercise the place and office of phyand put, and the government of this kingdom sician-general of the army aforesaid, when you of England, and the sincere religion of God, the said sir George Wakeman, William Marwithin the same rightly and by the laws of the sbal, William Rumley and the said other false same established, at your will and pleasure to traitors unknown, should have performed and change and alter; and the state of this whole accomplished your treasons, compassings, ima. kingdom of England, through all its parts well ginations, purposes and traitorous agreemeots instituted and ordained, wholly to subvert and aforesaid. And that you the said William destroy; and war against our said sovereign Marshal and William Rumley, in further prolord the king, within this kingdom of England, secution of your treasons, traitorous conspirato levy; and to accomplish and fulfil those cies, intentions and agreements aforesaid, the your most wicked treasons and traitorous ima- said 30th day of August, in the parish aforeginations and purposes, you the said sir George said, in the county aforesaid, did falsly, subtilly Wakeman, William Marshal and William and traitorously consult, conclude, consent and Rumley, and other false traitors unknown, the agree, that you the said William Marshal, aforesaid 30th day of August, with force and William Rumley and other false traitors unarms at the parish aforesaid, in the county known, should pay the sum of 6,000l. to«ards aforesaid, maliciously, subtilly, advisedly and furthering and consummating the traitorous traitorously did assemble, unite and gather agreements aforesaid, amongst the said false yourselves together; and then and there, falsly, traitors had, our said sovereign lord the king to inaliciously, subtilly, advisedly, devilishly and kill and murder, the true worship of God withtraitorously did consult, consent and agree, our in this realın rightly and by the laws of the said sovereign lord the king, to death and final same established, to the superstition of the destruction to bring and put ; and the religion Church of Rome to alter, and the government VOL. VII.

2Q

of this kingdom of England to subvert, against , but being moved and seduced by the instigation the duty of your allegiance, against the peace of the devil

, the cordial love, true, due and naof our said sovereign lord the king, his crown tural obedience, which true and faithful subjects and dignity, and against the form of the statute of our said sovereign lord the king, towards in this case made and provided."

him should, and of right ought to bear, wholly Cl. of the Cr. How sayest thou, sir George strength, intending the peace and common

withdrawing; and advising, and with all his Wakeman, art thou guilty of this High-Treason whereof thou standest Indicted or Not Guilty ? tranquillity of this realm to disturb, and the Sir G. Wakeman. Not Guilty.

true worship of God within this kingdom of Cl. of the Cr. Culprit, how wilt thou be tried? England used, and by the law established, to Sir G. Wukeman. By God and my country overthrow, and the government of this realm to Cl. of the Cr. God

send thee a good deliver: subvert, and sedition, and rebellion within this ance. [And so the other two.]

kingdom of England to move, stir up and pro

cure, and the cordial love, and true and due Cl. of the Cr. Set James Corker to the bar, obedience which true and faithful subjects of (who was arraigned, and pleaded last sessions, our said sovereign lord the king, towards him James Corker, hold up thy hand. You the pri- should, and of right ought to bear utterly to soners at the bar, sir George Wakeman, Wil- withdraw, put out, and extinguish, and our said liam Rumley, William Marshal, and James sovereign lord the king to death and final desCorker, those men that you shall hear called truction to bring, and put, on the 24th day of and personally appear, are to pass between our April, in the 30th year of the reign of our said sovereign lord the king and you, upon trial of sovereign lord king Charles the 2nd at the parish your several lives and deaths; if therefore you of St. Giles in the fields, in the county of Midor any of you will challenge them, or any of dlesex aforesaid; he the said James Corker, them, your time is to speak unto them as they together with the said Thomas White, Jobn come to the book to be sworn, and before they Fenwick, William Harcourt, John Gavan, and be sworn. Call Ralph Hawtrey, esq. who ap- Anthony Turner, with divers other false traitors peared, and there being no challenges the twelve subjects of our said sovereign lord the king to that were sworn are as follows: Ralph Hawtrey the jurors unknown, falsly, subtilly, advisedly, of Rislipp, Henry Hawley of New-Brentford, maliciously, and traiterously, did purpose, comHenry Hodges of Hanwell, Richard Downton pass, imagine, and intend sedition and rebellion of Isleworth, Jo!ın Bathurst of Edmonton, Ro- within tbis kingdom of England, to move, stir up bert Hampton of Greenford, William Heyden and procure, and a miserable slaughter among of Greenford, John Baldwin of Hillingdon, the subjects of our said sovereign lord the king Richard Dobbins of Harvile, William Avery of to procure and cause, and our said sovereign Enfield, Esquires. William Wayte of St. Cle- lord the king, of his kingly state, title, ment Danes, gent. Richard White of Cripple power, and government of his kingdom of Enge gate, gent.

land, utterly to deprive, depose, cast down, and Cl. of the Cr. Crier, count these. Ralph disinherit, and bim our said sovereign lord Hawtrey.

the king to death and final destruction to Crier, One, &c.

bring and put, and the government of this king: Cl. of the Cr. Richard White.

dom of England, and the sincere religion of Crier. Twelve good men and true, stand to- God within the same, rightly, and by the laws gether and hear your evidence.

of the same established, at his will and pleaThen the usual Proclamation for information sure, to change and alter, and the state of was made, and the Prisoners being bid to hold this whole kingdom of England, through all its up their hands, the Clerk of the Crown charged parts well instituted and ordained, wholly to the Jury with them thus.

subvert and destroy; and war, within this

kingdom of England, against our said sovereign Cl. of the Cr. You of the Jury look upon the lord the king, to levy: and to accomplish and prisoners, and hearken to their cause. They fulfil their said most wicked treasons, and traistand indicted by the names of (prout in the In- torous imaginations and purposes, be the said dictment mutatis mutandis) and against the James Corker, together with the said Thomas form of the statute in that case made and pro- White, John Fenwick, William Harcourt, John vided : and he the said James Corker, stands Gavan, and Anthony Turner, and other false indicted by the name of James Corker of the traitors against our said sovereigo lord the king, parish of St. Giles in the fields, in the county of | to the jurors unknown, the said 24th day of Middlesex, clerk;

April, with force and arms, &c. in the parish “ For that he with Thomas White, John Fen- aforesaid, and county aforesaid, falsely, 'maliwick, William Harcourt, John Gavan, and An- ciously, subtely, advisedly, devilishly, and thony Turner, as a false traitor against the most traitorously did assemble, unite, and gather illustrious, most serene, and most excellent together, and then and there, falsely, maliciprince, Charles the 2nd, by the grace of God, of ously, subtlely, advisedly, devilishly, and traiEngland, Scotland, France, and Ireland, king, torously did consult, consent, and agree, our defender of the faith, &c. his supreme and na- said sovereign lord the king to death and final tural lord, not having the fear of God in his destruction to bring and put, and the religion heart, nor weighing the duty of bis allegiance, of this kingdom of England, rightly, and by the laws of the saine established, to the super-| lordship, and you gentlemen of the jury; sir stition of the Roman Church to change and George Wakeman, bart. William Marshal, and alter, and the government of this kingdom of William Rumley, the prisoners at the bar, England to subvert; and that one Thomas stand indicted; for that they as false traitors Pickering, and one John Grove, should kill against our sovereign lord king Charles the and murder our said sovereign lord the king; 2nd, their supreme and natural lord, not bavand that he the said James Corker, together ing the fear of God before their eyes, did traiwith tbe said Thomas White, John Fenwick, "torously endeavour and intend, with all their William Harcourt, John Gavan, and Anthony strength, the peace and tranquillity of this Turner, and other false traitors, against our said kingdom of England to disturb, and the worsovereign lord the king, to the jurors unknown, ship of God in the same rightly, and by the should therefore say, celebrate, and perform, a laws of the same established, and the governcertain number of masses, then and there ment of the kingdom in all its parts well instiamongst themselves agreed on, for the soul of tuted and ordered, to subvert and overthrow, the said Thomas Pickering, and for that cause and sedition and rebellion within the same to should pay to the said John Grove a certain move and procure, and to bring and put the sum of money, then and there amongst them- king to death and final destruction ; and to selves agreed on; and that he the said James that purpose the 30th of August, in the 30th Corker, together with the said Thomas White, year of the king that now is, they did falsely, John Fenwick, William Harcourt, John Gavan, inaliciously, subtlely, advisedly, and traitorand Anthony Turner, and other false traitors ously compass, imagine, intend, and devise, to the jurors unknown, in further prosecution those things that I have enumerated to you; of the treasons and traitorous consultations and that is, sedition and rebellion in the kingdom agreements aforesaid, afterwards, the said 24th to move, the peace and tranquillity of the same day of April, at the parish aforesaid, in the to disturb, the worship of God to overthrow, county aforesaid, falsely, subtlely, advisedly, and the king from his royal state, title, power maliciously, devilishly, and traitorously, did and government wholly to depose, and to put severally each to the other engage themselves, the king to death and final destruction, and the and upon the sacrament traitorously did swear religion at their wills and pleasures to alter, and and promise, to conceal, and not to divulge .co introduce the Romish superstition, and war the said most wicked treasons, and traitorous within the kingdom to levy against our sovecompassings, consultations, and purposes afore- reign lord the king. And io accomplish these said amongst themselves had, traitorously to treasons and purposes, they the prisoners at kill and murder our said sovereign lord the the bar, with other false traitors unknown, the king, and to introduce the Romish religion day, and year beforementioned, did assemble within this kingdom of England, and the true and meet together, and did then and there Reformed religion within this realm, rightly, consent and agree to put the king to death and by the laws of the same established, to alter and final destruction. And to persuade and change. And that be the said James Marshal and fiumley to these treasons, the Corker, together with the said Thomas White, said sir George Wakeman proinised his asJobo Fenwick, William Ilarcourt, John Gavan, sistance; first, to subvert the government, and Anthony Turner, and other false traitors to and then to alter the religion to the Romish tbe jurors unknown, in further prosecution of superstition, and traitorously undertook to kill their said treasons and traitorous intentions and the king: And he did receive for that purpose, agreement aforesaid, afterwards, the said 24th from the pretended provincial of the Jesuits in day of April, at the parish aforesaid, in the England, who claimed an authority from the county aforesaid, falsely, subtlely, advisedly, see of Rome, of granting out commissions, a maliciously, devilishly, and traitorously, did commission which constituted him Physicianprepare, persuade, excite, abet, comfort and general of the army; which army was to be counsel four other persons to the jurors un- raised for the levying of war against the king, knowo, subjects of our said sovereign lord the and the subversion of the government and reliking, traitorously our said sovereign lord the gion: That he read this commission, that he king to kill and murder, against the duty of kept it in his possession, that he consented to his allegiance, against the peace of our sove it, accepted it, and intended to execute the reign the king, his crown and dignity, and employment, when their designs were accomagainst the form of the statute in that case plished. The Indictment further sets forth, made and provided.”

that Marshal and Rumley, and other false Upon these several Indictments they have traitors agreed to pay the sum of 6,000/. for been arraigned, and thereunto have severally and this is laid, to be against the duty of their

the carrying on and effecting of this treason ; pleaded Not Guilty, and for their trial put

chemselves on God and their country, which coun

allegiance, against the king's peace, crown and try you are. Your charge is to enquire, whe- dignity, and against the form of the statute. they they be Guilty of the high-treason whereof To this indictment they have pleaded not they stand indicted, in manner and form as

guilty; if we make out these crimes against they stand indicted, or Not Guilty, &c.,

them, or any of them, you are to find them

guilty Mr. Edward IVard. May it please your There is also another indicted, that is James

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