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friendship, and it is not for you, nor even for others, but

to relieve a heart which has not elsewhere, or lately, been · so much accustomed to the encounter of good-will as to with

stand the shock firmly, that I thus attempt to commemorate your good qualities, or rather the advantages which I have derived from their exertion. Even the recurrence of the date of this letter, the anniversary of the most unfortunate day of my past existence, but which cannot poison my future while I retain the resourse of your friendship, and of my own faculties , will henceforth have a more agreeable recollection for both, inasmuch as it will remind us of this my attempt to thank you for an indefatigable regard , such as few men have experienced, and no one could experience without thinking better of his species and of himself,

· It has been our fortune to traverse together, at arious periods the countries of chivalry , history, and fable--Spain, Greece , Asia Minor , and Italy: and what Athens and Constantinople were to us a few years ago, Venice and Rome have been more recently. The poem also , or the pilgrim, or both, have accompanied me froin first to last ; and perhaps it may be a pardonable vanity which induces me to reflect with complacency on a composition which in some degree connects me with the spot where it was produced, and the objects it would fain describe; and however unworthy it may be deemed of those magical and memorable abodes, however short it may fall of our distant conceptions and immediate impressions , yet as a mark of respect for

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what is venerable, and of feeling for what is glorious, it has been to me a source of pleasure in the production , and I part with it with a kind of regret, which I hardly suspected that events could have left me for imaginary objects.

With regard to the conduct of the last canto, there will be found less of the pilgrim than in any of the preceding, and that little slightly, if at all, speaking in his own person. The fact is, that I had become weary of drawing a line which every one seemed determined not to perceive: like the Chinese in Goldsmith's i Citizen of the World , » whom nobody would believe to be a Chinese, it was in vain that I asserted, and imagined, that I had drawn, a distinction between the author and the pilgrim; and the very anxiety to preserve this difference, and disappointment at finding it unavailing, so far crushed my efforts in the composition, that I determined to abandon it altogether-and have done so. The opinions which have been , or may be formed on that subject, are now a matter of indifference; the work is to depend on itself, and not on the writer , and the author, who has no resources in his own mind beyond tlie reputation, transient or permanent, which is to arise from his literary efforts, deserves the fate of authors.

In the course of the following Canto it was my intention, either in the text or in the notes, to have touched upon the present state of Italian literature, and perhaps of manners.. But the text , within the limits I proposed , I soon found hardly sufficient for the labyrinth of external objects and the con

sequent reflections ; and for the whole of the notes, excepting a few of the shortest , I am indebted to yourself, and these were necessarily limited to the elucidation of the text.

It is also a delicate, and no very grateful task, to dissert upon the literature and manners of a nation so dissimilar, and requires an attention and impartiality which would induce us ,--though perhaps no inattentive observers, nor ignorant of the language or customs of the people amongst whom we have recently abode ,--to distrust, or at least defer our judgment, and more narrowly examine our information. The state of literary, as well as political party, appears to run, or to have run, so high, that for a stranger to steer impartially between them is next to impossible. It may be enough then, at least for my purpose, to quote from their own beautiful language.« Mi pare che in un paese tutto poetico, che vanta la lingua più nobile ed insieme la più dolce, tutte tutte le vie diverse si possono tentare, e che sinchè la patria di Alfieri e di Monti non ha perduto l'antico valore, in tutte essa dovrebbe essere la prima. » Italy has great names still—Canova, Monti, Ugo Foscolo, Pindemonti, Visconti, Morelli, Cicognara , Albrizzi, Mezzofanti, Mai, Mustoxidi, Aglietti, and Vacca, will secure to the present generation an honourable place in most of the departments of Art, Science, and Belles Lettres; and in some the very highest-Europe the World—has but one Canova.

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It has been somewhere said by Alfieri thať « La piantaatomo nasce più robusta in Italia che in qualunque altra terra e che gli stessi atroci delitti che vi si commettono ne sono una prova, » With out subscribing to the latter part of his proposition, a dangerous doctrine, the truth of which may be disputed on better grounds, namely, that the Italim ans are in no respect more ferocious than their neighbours, that man must be wilfully blind, or ignorantly heedless, who is not struck with the extraordinary capacity of this people, or, if such a word be admissible, their capabilities, the facility of their acquisitions , the rapidity of their conceptions, and the fire of their genius , their sense of beauty, and amidst all the disadvantages of repeated revolutions , the desolation of battles and the despair of ages, their still unquenched « longing after immortality , »--the immortality of independence, And when we ourselves , in riding round the walls of Rome, heard the simple lament of the labourers' chorus , « Roma ! Roma ! Roma ! Roma non è più come era prima , » it was difficult not to contrast this melancholy dirge with the bacchanal roar of the songs of exultation still yelled from the London taverns, over the .carnage of Mont St. Jean , and the betrayal of Genoa , of Italy, of France, and of the world , by men whose conduct you yourself have exposed in a work worthy of the better days of our history, For me,

« Non moverò mai corda

Ove la turba di sue ciance assorda. »

What Italy has gained by the late transfer of nations, it were useless for Englishmen to enquire, till it becomes ascertained that England has acquired something more than a permanent army and a suspended Corpus ; it is enough for them to look at home. For what they have done abroad and especially in the South , « Verily they will have their reward , » and at no very distant period.

wishing you, my dear Hobhouse, a safe and agreeable return to that country whose real welfare can be dearer to none than to yourself, I dedicate to you this poem in its completed state ; and repeat once more how truly I am ever

Your obliged

And affectionate friend,

BYRON.

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