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for believing that Histrio, and therefore all his fellows, was a member not of Pembroke's, but of the Chamberlain's, company. The identification of Frisker, who might be any jigdancer, with Kemp, is therefore unconvincing.

Conjectures as to the identity of Poluphagus, Aenobarbus, Aesop, and Mango are futile.

Polyposus. Under Nasutus we recorded Fleay's observation that the names Nasutus and Polyposus were derived from Martial, 12. 37. 2. Polyposus means literally, 'One who has a polypus in the nose.' Identification with any contemporary of Jonson's is impossible: cf. the general discussion under PLAYERS.

Propertius. Sextus Aurelius Propertius was born in Umbria, about 50 B. C. He went early to Rome, but completed his studies at Athens. His poetic talent is said to have been awakened by the charming Hostia, who, under the name Cynthia, became the subject of his verse. Hostia herself was skilled in poetry as well as in music and dancing. It appears that Propertius was at length thrown over for a richer lover, and later Hostia died, but the poet seems never to have ceased to love her. Propertius has been censurd for harshness and obscurity of style, but real poetic inspiration has seldom been denied him, some critics placing him above Ovid and Tibullus in passion and imagination. Ovid mentions Propertius in Ars Am. 3. 333 and 536. His name does not occur in Horace, but some commentators have thought he was meant by 'Callimachus,' Epist. 2. 2. 100. As Propertius died about 16 B. C., Jonson takes liberties in making him present in Rome at the time of the events of Poetaster.

Pyrgus. We have Gr. úpyos, a tower, in various senses, among which are I) a movable tower for storming towns, 2) soldiers in close order, a column; while in Latin, the word means a wooden dice box shaped like a tower. Dr. Nicholson has the following note on the Pyrgi (Ben Jonson 1. 263): 'Etymologically, engines used in sieges; hence applied to pages used by Tucca to carry out his designs.'

Albius Tibullus, a friend of Horace and Virgil, was born about 59 B. C. and seems to have died soon after the Mantuan, about 19 B. C. His Delia, whose real name was Plania, was of libertine blood. When Tibullus accompanied Messala into Aquitania, about 25 B. C., Delia seems to have been unfaithful to her poet lover. Cf. the sketch of PLAUTIA. Speaking of the elegiac poets, Ovid tells us (Trist. 4. 10) that the friendship of Tibullus was denied him because Tibullus was older. A tradition was formerly current that Ovid and Tibullus had been born on the same day, the idea having grown out of a distich, since proved spurious, in Tibullus, Eleg. 3. 5.

In connection with the Tibullus of Poetaster we have evidences of Mr. Fleay's versatility of conjecture. Hedon of Cynthia's Revels, Brisk of Every Man Out, and Hermogenes of Poetaster are identified (Chr. 1. 96-7) with Samuel Daniel. On page 368 of the same volume, however, Hermogenes is supposed to be John Daniel ; while on page 367 we read, ‘Tibullus and his Delia (Plautia) are, I suppose, Daniel and Elizabeth Carey.' In the last statement Daniel is Samuel Daniel, I take it. Now there is absolutely no proof that Tibullus and Plautia represent the poet Daniel and Elizabeth Carey. That Jonson had no love for Daniel is evident from the Conversations (p. 2): 'Samuel Daniel was a good man, had no children; but no poet.' 'Daniel was at jealousies with him' (p. 10). “Said he had written a Discourse of Poesie both against Campion and Daniel, especially this last' (pp. 1-2; cf. also p. 16). So much for Jonson's opinion of Daniel, with which contrast the respect he shows for Tibullus throughout the Poetaster. Tibullus is there the friend of Ovid, Virgil, and Horace himself, and it is Tibullus who, in act 5 sc. 3, is chiefly instrumental in confounding the poet-apes. Fleay himself would be the first to assert that if Jonson were drawing the portrait of Samuel Daniel, he would make it far less flattering than is that

For a discussion of the supposed satires of Daniel in Jonson's plays, see Fleay, Chr. 1. 86, 96, 271–2, 360 ff.; and Small, StageQuarrel 181-197. Small's work here, as elsewhere, is admirable.


of Tibullus in Poetaster. I suppose it is the occurrence of the name Delia in Poetaster 1. 3. 33 that lead Fleay to guess that Daniel and Elizabeth Carey were represented in the play. But Plautia, by which name ‘Delia' is known throughout the Poetaster, is too perfectly accounted for artistically and historically to warrant our giving her a new and merely fanciful raison d'être. And in any case, Fleay does not tell us which Elizabeth Carey he has in mind,—the elder, daughter of Sir John Spencer of Althorpe, kinswoman of Spenser the poet, wife of Sir George Carey, patroness of Spenser, Nash, and Dowland; or Elizabeth, daughter of the preceding, patroness of Nash, wife of Sir Thomas Berkeley. The dates of the mother's birth and death are not known; the daughter died in 1635. The former must have been nearer Daniel's age, and therefore it may be she to whom Fleay refers. Daniel's fifty sonnets, Delia, were entered S. R. Feb. 4, 1591–2. It is not even ascertained that Delia represented either Elizabeth Carey, for the identity of Daniel's Delia is not established (cf. Daniel's Complete Works, ed. Grosart, Intr. xvii.). Now Plautia, as we have said, is a faithful enough representative of the historical mistress of Tibullus: let us recall what that involves. As Delia, she is spoken of by Tibullus as a married woman, El. 2. 21, but again as assisted in her intrigues by a lena, El. 1. 5. 47. It is at all events clear that the Delia of Tibullus, and therefore the Plautia of Poetaster, was of a class and a character such that no English patroness of poets could have felt honored by being represented under her name—and surely Jonson was not given to insulting

I conclude that Tibullus and Plautia represent no contemporaries of Jonson.

Trebatius plays no actual part in Poetaster, and, as Gifford suggests, may never have appeared on the stage. He has therefore escaped identification and can be allowed to rest in peace.

Muio potmos, Ded. Christ's Tears, Ded. * Terrors of the Night, Ded.





One Plotius Tucca was a friend of Horace and Virgil (cf. Horace, Sat. 1. 5. 40; 1. 10. 81). It might thus seem to an auditor acquainted with the Augustans that Jonson had not been quite happy in his choice of the name for his skeldering Captain. But it will appear below that the dramatist may not have gone back to Horace for the name Tucca. As for Pantilius, that served the purpose perfectly well; for Horace (Sat. 1. 10. 78) speaks of cimex [lit., 'the bug'] Pantilius; and some one has guessed that the name may have been derived originally from πάντίλλειν, , to pluck or pull out, as hair or feathers (cf. Aristophanes, the Acharnians 31). It has been suggested by Small (Stage-Quarrel 26) that Jonson may have drawn the name Tucca from Guilpin's Skialetheia, 1598, wherein occur (see Satyre Preludium) the following lines:

A third that falls more roundly to his worke,
Meaning to moue her were she lewe or Turke,
Writes perfect Cat and fidle, wantonly,
Tickling her thoughts with masking bawdry:
Which read to Captaine Tucca, he doth sweare,
And scratch, and sweare, and scratch to heare
His owne discourse discours’d: and by the Lord
It's passing good: oh good! at euery word
When his Cock-sparrow thoughts to itch begin,

He with a shrug swearest a most sweet sinne. As this passage furnishes us 'Captain Tucca' and gives him a character as licentious as that of the Captain in Poetaster, we may well conclude that Jonson had recourse to the classics for Pantilius, but not for Tucca.

Herford remarks (Ben Jonson, Mermaid Ser., xxxi) : ‘Tucca, who, rather than Demetrius, represents the Anaides of the Revels, is the most picturesque ruffian of the Elizabethan stage, a Bobadill in condition, but, instead of his foppish melancholy, overflowing with the boisterous spirits and the rich vocabulary of his contemporary, Sir Toby Belch.' While Tucca's relationship to Anaides is scarcely such as Herford thinks, it is certain that the Captain is

quite Jonsonian; and I fear we must confess that he is the only really vitalized and individual character in Poetaster. Fleay has noticed his resemblance to Shift of Every Man Out (see the Char. of the Persons).

Fleay asserts (Chr. 1. 368) that Tucca purveys boys, the two Pyrgi, for the Pembroke's company; while on the next page he remarks: 6

Tucca's having served in the wars against Mark Antony, his being only known for a "motion" [can he be Captain Pod, and did he exhibit at Paris Garden?]' Of 'Captain Pod' we know only what Jonson tells us; cf. Epigram 97; Every Man Out 4. 4, Macilente loq.; and Barth. Fair 5. 1: 'O the motions that I Lanthorn Leatherhead have given light to, in my time, since my master Pod died.' On this we have Jonson's note, fol. 1640: ‘Pod was a master of motions before him.' Fleay concludes (Chr. I. 369) with the pious hope that 'Tucca's subornation of the poetasters and his bifronted punishment may perhaps some time lead to his identification.'

One word as to Penniman's conjecture (War of the Theatres 115): ‘Tucca and the two Pyrgi belonged to another company for which Crispinus was a writer. This company may have been the Children of Paul's, for whom Marston had been writing.' Now if Tucca were a player or member of any company, he would not be tolerated by Lupus and the elder Ovid, nor say what he does to them concerning players, nor could he bulldoze Histrio as in

Moreover, Crispinus and Tucca are not old acquaintances and fellow-workers, but meet for the first time in 3. 4.

An identification of Tucca has been made by one who may well be considered a better authority than any of the commentators or critics. In Satiromastix (To the World), Dekker says: 'A second Cat-a-mountaine mewes, and calls me Barren, because my braines could bring foorth no other Stigmaticke than Tucca whome Horace had put to making, and begot to my hand: but I wonder what language Tucca would haue spoke, if honest Capten Hannam had bin borne

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