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3. 5. 77-8. For

song. He shall be in everyone's mouth. -Flebit et insignis tota cantabitur urbe (46). 3. 5. 79. Threats

vrne. Leges minitatur et urnam. He threatens people with penalties, since into the urn were put tablets bearing names from which juries were drawn, also tablets bearing the votes of judges. 3. 5. 104. Pull

vice. Detrahere et pellem (64). The figure here is perhaps of a foul spirit in a fair body, or of an ass in a lion's skin. But a clear allusion to flaying may be intended by Jonson. Cf. King Cambises (1561?) by Thomas Preston:


King. Dispatch with swoord this judges life, extinguish fear and cares:

So doon, draw thou his cursed skin, strait over both his eares.

I will see the office doon, and that before mine eyes. (And again) :

In this wise he shall not yet be left.
Pul his skin over his eares, to make his death more vile:
A wretch he was, a cruel theef, my Commons to beguile.

[Flea him with a false skin.

The stage direction here shows what the audience might expect in those days (see Hawkins, Origin of the Eng. Drama 1. 276, 278). Cf. Satiromastix 259: 'Ile ha my Satyres coate pull’d ouer mine eares, and be turn'd out a the nine Muses Seruice.'

3. 5. 113. Sight. The folios all have sight, which Whalley, Gifford, and Nicholson have retained. But this word makes no sense in the passage, and I suggest the emendation fight. The word fight would as readily be associated with Scipio Africanus the younger, as 'the iudgement seat with his friend C. Laelius Sapiens.

3. 5. 121–2. Possibly an allusion to the fable of the viper and the file. Cf. Persius 1. 114-5.

3. 5. 130. Lewd here translates mala (83).

3. 5. 136. With the makers grace. i. e. with grace or favor to the writer of the verses.

4. I. I-12. The reply of Cytheris to Chloe's question is one of the best bits of irony in the play-particularly the words 'Defie the painter.' These flatteries, too, bear the hoped-for fruit: cf. line

43 ff.

4. I. 4. This straight-bodied city attire. Corsets were then the fashion in London. Cf. Gosson, Pleasant Quippes for Upstart Newfangled Gentlewomen, 1595:

These privie coates, by art made strong

with bones, with past, with such like ware,
Whereby their backe and sides grow long,

and now they harnest gallants are;
Were they for use against the foe
Our dames for Amazones might goe..

Cf. Cotgrave, 1632: ‘Buc: m. A buske; plaited bodie, or other quilted thing, worne to make, or keepe, the bodie straight.'

4. 1. 6. Loose sacks. 'Ladie as the most lascivious life, conges and kisses, the tyre, the hood, the rebato, the loose bodyed Gowne, the pin in the haire,' &c. Every Woman in her Humour 1. 1. Cf. the 'loose-bodied gown' in Taming of the Shrew 4. 3. 134.

Planché and C.D. assert that sacks were first introduced into England from France in the reign of Charles II. Clearly, the sack as a 'loose-bodied gown' was known in England in Jonson's time.

4. 1. 7. Ruffe. Cf. Stubbes (Anat. of Abuses 64-5): 'The women there vse great ruffes and neckerchers of holland, laune, camericke, and such clothe, as the greatest threed shall not be so big as the least hair that is; and lest they should fall downe, they are smeared and starched in the deuil's liquor, I meane starche-after that dried with great dilgence, streaked, patted, and rubbed very nicely, and so applied to their goodly necks, and, withal, vnderpropped, with supportasses (as I told you before), the stately arches of pride; beyond all this, they haue a further fetche, nothyng inferiour to the rest, as, namely, three or foure degrees of minor ruffes, placed gradatim, one beneath another, and al vnder the mayster deuilruffe; the skirtes then of these great ruffes are long and side euery way pleated, and crested full curiously, God wot. Then, last of all, they are either clogged with gold, siluer, or silke lace of stately price, wrought all ouer with needle worke, speckeled and sparkeled here and there with the sunne, the mone, the starres, and many other antiques strange to behold. Some are wrought with open worke downe to the midst of the ruffe and further; some with close woorke, some wyth purled lace so cloied, and other gewgawes so pestered, as the ruffe is the least part of it selfe. Sometimes they are pinned vpp to their eares, sometimes they are suffered to hāge ouer theyr shoulders, like winde-mill sailes fluttering in the winde, and thus euery one pleaseth her selfe in her foolish deuises; for, suus cuiusq. crepitus sibi bene olet, as the prouerbe sayth,-Euery one thinketh his owne wayes best, though they lead to destruction of body and soule, which I wish them to take heede of.'

4. 1. 14. Muffe. Planché (1. 226) gives a picture of an English lady of quality, engraved 1588, showing a muff suspended from the girdle. These early muffs seem to have been of satin or velvet, lined and trimmed with fur. Muffs made entirely of fur came into fashion before Parliament days, and upon the Restoration their use extended to men.

4. I. 17. Puffe-wings. Cf. Stubbes (Anat. of Abuses 68): “The women also there haue dublettes and ierkins, as men haue here, buttoned vp the breast, and made with winges, weltes, and pinions, on the shoulder poyntes, as mannes apparel is, for all the worlde'; &c.

On the puffs worn by men, Every Man Out 3. I, Fungoso to his tailor.

4. I. 20. Pure landresses. “This is a hit at the Puritans, many of whom followed the business of tire-women, clear-starchers, feather-makers, &c. It is not a little singular that while they declaimed most vehemently against the idol, Fashion, they should be among the most zealous in ministering to its caprice. Jonson notices this with good effect in his Bartholomew Fair; and Randolph ridicules it no less successfully in the commencement of his Muses' Looking Glass: "Enter Bird and Mrs. Flowerdale, two of the sanctified fraternity, the one having brought feathers to the playhouse to sell, the other pins and looking-glasses. (G.) 4. 1. 21–2. Fanne

masque. Planché (1. 186) says that fans appeared in England during the reign of Elizabeth, and gives a cut of the fan in the Queen's portrait by Nicholas Hilleard. “They were made of feathers, and hung to the girdle by a gold or silver chain ... The handles were composed of gold, silver, or ivory of elaborate workmanship, and were sometimes inlaid with precious stones. Silver-handled fans are mentioned in Hall's “Satires,” and in the Sidney Papers is an account of a fan presented as a New Year's gift to Queen Elizabeth, the handle of which was studded with diamonds. Some handles were very long.'

On the masque, we have Stubbes (76–7) again: 'When they vse to ride abroad, they haue visors made of veluet (or in my iudgement they may rather be called inuisories) wherewith they couer all their faces, hauing holes made in them agaynst their eies, whereout they looke. So that if a man that knew not their guise before, shoulde chaunce to meete one of them, he would thinke he mette a monster or a deuill; for face he can see none, but two broad holes agaynst their eyes, with glasses in them. Thus they prophane the name of God, and live in all kinde of voluptuousnesse and pleasure, worse thē euer did the heathen.'

4. I. 26. Slings. The reference to the assault of a city makes it probable that something other than hand-slings is meant. Of the engines used in the Middle Ages as slings for hurling arrows and large stones, the following definitions from Cotgrave (1632) inform us :

Catapulte: f. A sling, or warlike engine, whereout great arrowes, or darts were shot.

Clide: f. A woodden Engine of warre (now out of use) which holding by a counterpoise, hurld out, when it was loosed, a great number of stones.

4. I. 36. Forsooth. Gifford notes that city ladies were characterized by the dramatists by their use of the word forsooth. Cf. Jonson's Entertainment to the King and Queen, which Gifford names the Penates (1604):

Pan. I'll never fear you for being too witty,

You sip so like a forsooth of the city. Cf. the dialogue between Hotspur and his wife in i Henry IV. 3. 1; also the London citizen's language put into the mouth of Balurdo, ‘a wealthy mountebanking burgomasco's heir of Venice,' in i Ant. and Mell. 2. I.

4. I. 40. Minsitiue. On minsitiue Nicholson has a debatable note: 'Here apparently = making the users of such too small.' See Glossary. Cf. Histriomastix 4. 1. 19: 'Each odde-mincing mistresse Citty-Dame.'

4. I. 44. yen. The modern texts have lain, but the for found in folio 1616 is too suggestive of the ironies of Cytheris to be displaced without loss : let us credit Jonson with one more pun.

4. 2. 14. Often. The use of an adverb for an adjective was not uncommon. Cf. What You Will 5. 1. 267–8:

Duke. Is not this Albano, our sometimes courtier ?

Francisco. No, troth, but Francisco, your always perfumer. 4. 2. 32–3. So... haue. Note the obsolete usage of omitting the correlative as before to haue.

4. 2. 34-5. Where ... goddesses? i. e. Where is your power, or means, to make us two goddesses ? Cf. Staple of News 1. 2: Pennyboy jun. What are your present clerk's habilities? How is he qualified?' Cf. Cotgrave 1632: Habilite: f. Ablenesse, abilitie; &c.

4. 2. 60. marmaset. Monkeys were then kept for pets. Cf. C. Revels 4. 1: Moria. Go to; the gentleman (I'll undertake with him) is a man of fair living, and able to maintain a lady in her two coaches a day, besides pages, monkeys, and paraquettoes, with such attendants as she shall think meet for her turn;' &c. And again in the same play (2. I) cf. Mercury's characterization of Hedon, who probably represents Marston: 'He doth (besides me) keep a barber and a monkey: he has a rich wrought waistcoat to entertain his visitants in, with a cap almost suitable,' &c.

4. 3. 15. Tir'd on, by yond' vulture? Cf. 3 Henry VI. 1. 1. 267; also Histriomastix 5. 135–7:

Chrysoganus. O, how this vulture (vile Ambition)

Tyers on the heart of greatnesse, and devoures

Their bleeding honours. 4. 3. 17. Holy street. Referring to 3. I. Horace, Sat. 1. 9. begins: Ibam forte via Sacra. The Via Nomentana, or Via Sacra, ran to the east of Mons Sacer, a hill in the Sabine country on the right bank of the river Anio.

4. 3. 29. Wedlocke. A Latinism. Cf. Chapman, All Fools 4. 1:

And now we must expect
The resolute and ridiculous divorce

Cornelio hath sued against his wedlock. 4. 3. 31. Dressing. 'In the quarto it is, “In the velvet cap." This is judiciously altered, for the velvet cap was the ensign of a citizen's wife, which Chloe, by the advice of her hopeful tutor, Cytheris, had now laid aside.' (G.) But Jonson has twice before changed veluet cap to dressing (3. I. 48 and 57) and veluet to deintie once (3. 1. 91), so Gifford's point is not well taken. It seems quite possible that Jonson made these changes in order to placate the citizens, though conciliation was unusual with him.

4. 3. 33. For fault of a better. In 2. 2. II, Albius has used this expression of himself as a husband, and he now impartially uses it of Chloe.

4. 3. 56. Violl. To play the viola da gamba—the leg violin or violoncello—seems then to have been a fashionable accomplishment. Cf. Twelfth Night 1. 3. 22 ff.: 'Why, he has three thousand ducats a year.

He plays o' the viol-de-gamboys, and speaks three or four languages word for word without book.'

4. 3. 62. Set thee vp. This may mean either to astonish or to delight, by his skill. Wright's Provincial Dict. notes set, pp., used to mean astounded in eastern England. I find no other example anywhere that throws light on this case. The current colloquialism, 'He was greatly set up,' means 'He was delighted, gratified, proud,' but because of some merit or fortune on his own part.

4. 3. 71-2. Scant- | one. 'To make rhyme Gifford prints "scant one,” but the metres, as also the quarto and folios, show that Jonson meant to make his adversary thus err as no true poet' (N.) As this bad rhyme contributes to the ‘odoriferous musicke,' doubtless Nicholson's view is correct. It is no more than fair, however, to append a bit of metrical butchery that Jonson (Art of Poetry 20-2) perpetrated in propria persona :

A scarlet piece or two stitched in: when or
Diana's grove, or altar, with the bor.

D'ring circles of swift waters that intwine,' &c. 4. 3. 92. Canidia.

Cf. Horace, Epodes 5. 15, et passim. Also Poetaster 3. 5. 81. 4. 3. 93-5. I,

Tibvllvs. Cf. Ovid, El. 3. 9 (Tibulli mortem deflet):

The work of poets lasts: Troy's labour's fame,
And that slow web night's falsehood did unframe.
So Nemesis, so Delia famous are,
The one his first love, th'other his new care.

Marlowe's Transl. 29–32.
Cf. Introduction, under Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus.

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