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in honour of the Emperor Valentinian, a part of the province was, for a time, called Valentia. Not long after, one Valentinian, a Pannonian, entered into a conspiracy there; which being discovered, before it was ripe, the peril like to have ensued was easily avoided.

Then Gratianus, succeeding Valentinian, elected Valentinian the Second, his brother, and Theodosius, the son of Theodosius aforenamed, to be his associates in the empire; but Clemens Maximus, governing the army in Britain, upon emulation and envy of Theodosius's glory, usurped the empire there; and, having transported the strength of the province into Belgia, the German arıny being also revolted to him, he placed his imperial seat among the Treviri, from whence Gratianus intended by force to have expelled him, but that, as he marched through Italy with his army, the most part of his soldiers forsaking him, he filed to Lyons in Gallia, where he was intrapped by a device, and afterwards slain by Andragathius, one of Maximus's captains. Maximus, having his mind lifted up with his fortune, created his son Victor a Cæsar, and used great cruelty against those that had served under Gratianus: whereupon, Valentinian, doubting his own estate, sent St. Ambrose, unto him, as an ambassador, to desire peace, which, in the end, was granted upon condition. But Maximus, ambitiously affecting the sole government, did soon after break the peace, invading Italy, and attempting to have taken Valentinian himself, who, to prevent that danger, fled with his mother unto Theodosius his associate, then ruling the East Empire, imploring his aid against Maximus, that usurped Italy and other parts of his government. Hereupon Theodosius prepared an army to encounter Maximus, who, in Pannonia, being overthrown, -fled to Aquileia, where, by the treason of his own soldiers, he was delivered to Theodosius, and presently put to death. This end had Max. imus, after he had usurped the empire. five years. The like calamities also befel his friends and followers; for Victor his son was afterwards slain in Gallia by Arbogustes. Andragathius, the murderer of Gratian, drowned himself, and divers of Maximus's captains, being taken, were put to the sword: how beit, the Britons, by whose power Maximus had raised himself to that greatness, as men desiring rather to try new fortune abroad, than to return home, resolved to stay in Armorica, where some of their countrymen had remained, as divers writers affirm, since the conquest of Gallia by Constantine the Great. By this means, in process of time, partly by force, and partly by policy, they grew so strong, that they left the possession of a great part of that country to their posterity; who, being rooted therein by many descents, did afterwards enjoy it intirely as their own, the name of Britain continuing there among them, even to this day. This victory of Theodosius was so much esteemed, that the senate appointed by decree, that yearly feasts should be celebrated in remembrance thereof.

Now the Roman monarchy was drawing on to its fatal period, when Honorius, succeeding Theodosius, his father, in the Western Empire, sent Stilico into Britain, to defend the province against the Picts and Saxons, who assailed the Britons in most parts of the island, working upon the weakness of the province, in which (the most choice and able men having been from time to time transported and wasted in the Ro

man wars with other nations) there remained not then sufficient strength to defend itself. The common soldiers there, seeing the state in com. bustion, took upon them to elect and depose emperors, first proclaiming Gratianus, a free citizen of Rome; but, not long contented with his government, they murdered him, and elected one Constantine, for the name's sake only, supposing the same to be auspicious. Constantine, transporting the flower and strength of all Britain into Gallia, made many dishonourable leagues, to the prejudice of the empire, with the barbarous nations that then invaded it, and sent his son Constans, whom of a monk he had made a Cæsar, into Spain; where Constans, having put to death some principal men, whom he suspected to favour Honorius, committed the government of the country to Gerontius, his chief captain, who afterwards slew him at Vienna in Gallia; and Constantine, his father, having run through many fortunes, was, in the end, besieged at Arles, where he was taken and slain by the soldiers of Honorius, the Emperor, who then recovered Britain. Chrysanthus, the son of Martianus, a bishop, a man of consular degree, was then deputy of Britain, where he was in so great reputation for his virtue and integrity shewed in the government both of the church (which was then tainted with the graceless heresy of Pelagius, the Briton) and also of the public weal of the province, that he was afterwards, though against his will, preferred to the bishoprick of Constantinople.

Now the Romans, about four hundred and seventy years after their first entrance into the island, gave over the government of Britain, and the Britons, that had been many times assailed by their uncivil neighbours, consorted with strangers of divers nations, perceived themselves unable to make resistance, as in former times; whereupon they sent ambassadors to Rome, requiring aid, and promising fealty, if the Romans would rescue them from the oppression of their enemies. Then was there a legion sent over into the island, to expel the barbarous people out of the province: which being with good success effected, the Romans counselled the Britons, for their better defence, to make a stone wall between Glota and Bodotria, the two arms of the sea that ran into the land, and so departed thence. But this wall was made only of turves, and not of stone, as they were directed, the Britons having not then any skill in such kind of buildings; by which means it served to little purpose; for the Scots and Picts, understanding that the Romans were gone, passed over the water in boats at both ends of the wall, invaded the borders of the province, and with main force bore down all before them. Whereupon ambassadors were sent again out of Britain, to declare the miserable state of the province, which, without speedy succour, was likely to be lost.

Then was there another legion sent over by Ætius, the president of Gallia, under the conduct of Gallio, of Ravenna, to aid the distressed Britons; and the Romans, having reduced the province to its former state, told the Britons, that it was not for their ease to take any more such long, costly, and painful journies, themselves also heing then assailed by strangers, and that from thenceforth they should provide for their own safety, learn to use armour and weapons, and to trust to their own valour. Howbeit the Romans, in regard of the good service done by the British nation in former times, built a wall of stone, from east to west, in the self-same place where Severus the Emperor hadcast his trench, the labour and charges of the work being borne partly by the Romans, and partly by the Britons themselves. This wall contained about eight feet in breadth, and twelve in height, some reliques thereof remaining to be seen at this day. Upon the sea-coasts towards the south they raised bulwarks, one somewhat distant from another, to impede the enemics landing in those parts; and, this done, they took their last farewell: transporting their legions into Gallia, as men resolved to return hither no more. As soon as they were gone, the barbarous people, having intelligence thereof, presumed, that, without any great resistance, they might now enter the province. And thereupon accounting, as their own, whatsoever was without the wall, they gave an assault to the wall itself, which, with grapples, and such-like engines, they pulled down to the ground, while the Britons, their wonted courage failing them, ran away, each man laying aside the care of the publick, and providing for himself, as the present necessity would permit. The barbarous enemy in the mean time pursued, and killed such as resisted.

Some of the Britons, being driven out of their own houses and possessions, fell to robbing one of another: increasing their ontward troubles with inward tumults, and civil dissension; by which means a great number of the inhabitants had nothing left to sustain them, but what they got hy hunting, and killing of wild beasts. Others, burying their treasure under ground, whereof great store hath been found in this age, did fly, themselves, either into the countries of the Silures and Ordovices, or into the west part of the island, where the Dammonians then inhabited, or else to their own countrymen in Armorica; the rest, being hemmed in with the sea on one side, and their enemies on the other, sent to the Emperor for aid : which they could not obtain, for that, the Goths and Huns invading Gallia and Italy, the greatest part of the Emperor's forces were drawn thither, for defence of those parts; by which means, the state of Britain now declining with the empire, and shrinking under the burden of a barbarous oppression, the Britons sent ambassadors again to Ætius, the president in Gallia, desiring him to relieve their necessities: Declaring withal, that themselves were the small remnant, which survived after the slaughter of so many thousands, whom either the sword or the sea had comsumed; for the barbarous cnemy drove them upon the sea, the sea again upon the enemy: between both which, they suffered two kinds of death, as being either killed or drowned: that it imported the Majesty of the Roman empire to protect them, who had so many hundred years lived under their obedience, and were now plunged into the depth of intolerable miseries ; for, besides the calamities of war both civil and foreign, at one instant they were afflicted with dearth and famine, which forced them to yield themselves to the merciless enemy.' But the poor Britons complained in vain : for the Romans either would not, or could not help them, without their own hindrances; howbeit, as extremities are not of long continuance, so some of the Britons, ta king courage, and resolving rather to die with their country than to abandon it, resisted their enemies, and constrained them to return whence they came; by which means the rest of the Britons, many years after, lived in peace, and without any annoyance, save that the Picts sometimes in small numbers made incursions into the land, foraging the borders, and taking booties of cattle there.

After this peace in Britain, there ensued exceeding great plenty of grain, and other fruits of the earth, which the Britons abused, mispending them riotously in gluttony and drunkenness, Thus dissolute living, cruelty, pride, and all kinds of vices, the true causes of the change and ruin of kingdoms and commonwealths, reigned as well among the clergy as the laity, both whom God severely punished, by sending among them a grievous plague, which, in a short time, wasted so many of them, that the living were scarce sufficient in number to bury the dead. Howbeit, the infection once ceasing, the Britons fell to their old disorders, drawing thereby a greater plague upon them, even to the utter subversion, and, in a manner, routing out of their name and nation, as it afterwards happened. For the Scots and Picts, knowing how small a number of the Britons remained to withstand their aitempts, the greater and better part being already destroyed, either by the sea, the sword, famine, or pestilence, entered boldly into the heart of the island, spoiled the people of their wealth, burnt their cities, made themselves slaves, and in a short time over-ran a great part of the land,

Thus, about five hundred years after the Romans first entrance, and four hundred and forty-six after the birth of our Saviour Christ, the island of Britain, which had been, not only a principal member of the empire, but, also, the seat of the empire itself, and the seminary of soldiers sent out into most parts of the world, was now, in the time of Theodosius, the younger, bereaved of the greatest part of its ancient inhabitants, and left as a prey to barbarous nations,

Vox REGIS, See Vol. I. p. 13.

[N. B. The date of the following Direction having been accidentally overlooked, it is here added at the end of her Reign.]

THE

SUMMARIE OF CERTAINE REASONS,

WHICH HAVE

MOVED QUENE ELIZABETH

TO PROCEDE IN

REFORMATIONS OF HER BASE AND COURSE MONIES,

And to reduce them to their Values, in sorte, as they may be turned

to fine Monies.

Appointed to be declared by her Majestie, by Order of ber Proclamation, in her

Citie of London. Black Letter, (Ictavo, centaining six Pages.

IRST of all it is knowen, that the honour and reputation of the

singuler wealth, that this realm was wont to have above all other realms, was partely in that it had no currant monies but golde and silver; whereas contrary all other countreys, as Almayn, Fraunce, Spaine, Flaunders, Scotland, and the rest of Christendom have hadde, and still have certain base monies now of late dayes, by turning of fine monies into base, muche decayed, and dayly growen into infamie and reproche, and therfore is thought necessary to be recovered; wherin, lyke as her Majestie, for her part, meaneth to be at great charges, so every good Englishe subiecte ought to be content, though it seme some smal losse at the first.

Also, by continuing of the base monies, divers persons, both in forreine partes, and within the realm, have counterfaicted, from tyme 10 tyme, no'small quantitie, and brought to porte-townes, and uttered the same at the fyrste after the rate of xii pence a teston, and after that for vi pence, where the same was not in dede worth above two-pence; and caried out of the realm, for those base monies, the riche commodities of the same, as wolle, cloth, lead, tinne, leather, tallowe: yea, and all kinde of victual, as corne, malt, beere, butter, cheese, and such lyke, so as counterfaicters, and such like, have, for smal summe of monies counterfaicted, caried out six' times the value in commo. dities of the realm.

By the means also that these base monies were currant, divers subtyll people have chaunged the same for the golde and fine sylver monies of this realm, and have transported and caryed out the same golde and

sylver, so as although there hath ben coyned both in the later end of the raigne of Kyng Edward, and in the tyme of Quene Mary, and now also şence the Quenes Maiesties raigne, great quantities of golde and sylver, yet no part thereof is sene commonly currant; but, as it may be thought, some part thereof is caryed hence, and some, percase,

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