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any harborough, anchor, nor go a shore, without the admiral doth it first, or with my special leave, upon pain of punishment hereof.

The colonels of the field, captains, lieutenants, ensigns and officers, must have particular care, that the soldiers have always their armour clean, ready, and in order, for time of necessity, causing them to make them clean, twice every week, and using themselves with them in such sort, that they may be expert at the time of need.

And for that, in the way, order shall be given, in what forın every man shall put himself, if we do fight, I do command, that particular care be had, advising the gunners to have half butts with water and vinegar, as is accustomed, with

bonnets, and old sails, and wet mantles to defend fire, that as often is thrown, as to have the like care to have shot made in good quantity, and that powder and match be ready for ship and soldiers of the store, by weight, measure, and length; according to the order, that every ship hath to deliver unto him, that hath the charge thereof, according to use and custom.

Also I order and command, that there be a care, that all soldiers have their room clean, and unpestered of chests, and other things, without consenting in any case to have cards; and, if there be any, to be taken away presently: Neither permit them to the mariners; and, if the soldiers have any, let me be advertised, that I may command them to be taken away.

And, for that the mariners must resort unto their work, tackle, and navigation, it is convenient, that their lodgings be in the upper works of the poop, and fore-castle, otherwise the soldiers will trouble thein in the voyage.

The artillery must stand in very good order, and reparted amongst the gunners, being all charged with their balls, and nigh unto every piece his locker, wherein to put his shot and necessaries, and to have great care to the cartridges of every piece, for not changing, or not taking fire; and that the ladies and sponges be ready at hand.

Every ship shall carry two boats lading of stones, to throw to profit, in the time of fight, on the deck, fore-castle, or tops, according to his burden; and shall carry two half pipes, to fill them with water in the day of battle, and repart them amongst the ordnance or other places, as shall be thought necessary and nigh unto them, old clothes, or coverings which with wetting may destroy any kind of fire.

That the wild-fire be reparted to the people most expert, that we have for the use thereof, at due time; for that, if it be not overseen, giving charge thereof to those that do understand it, and such, as we know, can tell how to use it, otherwise it may happen to great danger.

By the commandment that no ship shall go a head the admiral, at the least in the night, none shall tarry a stern the vice-admiral, and every one to have a care to the trimming of his sails, according to the charge he hath, and the sailing of his ship; for the much that it importeth that all our navy do go close as possible as they may, and in this the captains, masters, and pilots must have such great care, as of them is hoped. These

my instructions are delivered unto every ship, and have their copy, firmed by my hand, and registered by my secretary, the which shall be read by every purser of every ship publickly, to come to the note of all soldiers and mariners, whereby they may not pretend ignorance: And to the said pursers I ordain and command, that, thrice in the week, they be bound to read these my instructions publickly, and that they take witness of the fulfilling hereof, upon pain of him, that doth the contrary, shall receive punishment to the example of others.

All the above said, we command to be manifested, and be kept without any breach for the service of his Majesty, none to break them, or any part thereof, in no manner, upon pain they shall be severely punished, every one according to his estate and offence; all others reserved to our discretion. Made in the gallion Saint Marten, at the road of Belline, the twenty-eighth of May, 1588.

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THE SPANISH NAVY, UPON THE WEST COASTS OF IRELAND, In their Voyage intended from the Northern Isles beyond Scotlandf, toward

Spain §.

Imprinted at London, by J. Vautrollier, for Richard Field, 1588.

By the foregoing accounts, it is visible, that the whole power of Spain, and its Popish allies, was sent against us. But as the greatness of any armament does appear more intrinsically, by the certain proofs of its losses; I shall, for the greater satisfaction of the reader, subjoin the following testimonjes. Yet, before I conclude this wonderful history, let me observe, that this invincible Armada, which had been some years a preparing, with immense labour and cost, was, by God's arm, overthrown within a month, and chaсed away with the loss of many, both men and ships; whereas the English lost but one ship,

and about one hundred men only. In this distress, they were past all hopes of returning by the way they had en

tered the Channel, and forced to secure a retreat through the dangerous and unknown coasts of Scotland, Orcades, and Ireland, which cumpleated their utter ruin. This is not only testified by the ensuing informations, but confirmed

by very late discoveries made of their wrecks on those coasts. Upon this occasion, a universal joy overspread every true-born English countenance; and, after publick thanks to God, the state endeavoured to perpetuate

* A village, three miles below Lisbon. + Where some were killed by the Wild Irish, and others by the Deputy's command ; lest, coming on shore, they should join with the rebels against the state ; and the remainder, taking to their wracks and boats, were mostly drowned. Seven hundred men were saved alive wrecked on this coast, whom the King of Scotland, by the Queen's consent, sent, at the Duke of Parma's request, after one year's imprisonment, into Flanders. & Without glory.

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its happiness to posterity, by a medal, representing a navy flying away, with the inscription, 'venit, vidit, fugit ;' and by another, bearing ships on fire, and a navy routed, with this inscription, 'dux fæmina facti'; ascribing the first inveution of fire-ships to the Queen herself. For, as my Historian expressly avoucheth, “ By ber commandment, the Admiral took eight of the worst ships, « and dressed them with wild-fire, pitch, and rosiu, and filled them full of “ brimstoué, and some other matter fit for fire ; and these, being set on fire

were, secretly in the night, by the help of the wind, set full upon the Spanish 6. fleet, as they lay at anchor. Which so surprised the enemy, that each ship, “ striving to secure itself from the danger, broke loose, and threw them all iuto “ confusion, and so separated the whole fleet, that they never more united to “ any purpose And certainly, bad not that gracious Queen been fired with divine zeal, she could never have so effectually provided a means to destroy that part of the enemies fleet by fire, of which God was determined to destroy the other part by water. Well then may we say, This was the Lord's doing, and it was marvellous in our eyes. Ps. cxviii.

, , peril of wreck in the bay of Trayley, of between forty and fifty tons, did render themselves, in which there were twenty-four men, whereof two were the Duke's own servants, and two little boys.

On Tuesday the tenth of this September, there was a frigate cast off, as it seemeth, by this name, which, as Sir William Herbert saith, wrecked upon the coast of Desmond.

On the same Tuesday, there wrecked, in the sound of the Bleskeys, a ship, called Our Lady of Rosary, of one-thousand tons. In this ship was drowned the Prince of Ascule, the King's base son, one Don Pedro, Don Diego, and Don Francisco, with seven other gentlemen of account, that accompanied the Prince. There was drowned in her also Michael Oquendo, a principal sea-man, chief governor of the ship; Ville Franca, of Saint Sebastians, captain of the same ship; Matuta, captain of the infantry of that ship; Captain Suares, a Portuguese; Garrionerie, Ropecho de la Vega, Montenese, and one Francisco Castilian, captains; one John Ryse, an Irish captain, Francis Roch, an Irishman, and about five-hundred persons, whereof one-hundred were gentlemen, but not of that reckoning as the former were ; and only one John Anthonio de Monona, a Genoese, being the pilot's sou of that ship, saved.

The same Tuesday, it was advertised to the vice-president of Munster, that there were lost, upon the coast of Thomond, two great ships, out of which there were drowned about seven-hundred persons, and taken prisoners about one hundred and fifty.

About that Tuesday also, as appeareth by a letter written to Stephen White, of Limerick, the twelfth of this September, there was cast, upon the sands of Ballicrahihy, a ship of nine-hundred tons; thirteen of the gentlemen of that ship, as he writeth, are taken ; and so writeth, that he heard the rest of that ship, being above four-bundred, have fought, for their defence, being much distressed, to intrench themselves.

He writeth, also, of another ship which was cast away at the isle of Clare in Irrise, and that seventy-eight of the men of that ship are drowned and slain.

He writeth also, that there was, about the same time, another great ship cast away in Tirawley, and that there are three noblemen, a bishop, and a friar, and sixty-nine other men taken by William Bourk, of Ardnerie, and all the residue of that ship are slain and drowned ; insomuch, as he writeth, that one Melughlen Mac Cabb, a Galloglass, killed eighty of them with his Galloglass ax. Wednesday the eleventh of this September, seven of those ships, that then remained within the Shannon, departed out of that road with an easterly wind, and, before their going forth, they set on fire one other very great ship of their company, which was one-thousand tons at least.

It was informed from the vice-president at Cork, upon this seventeenth of September last, that two other great ships of that fleet should be lost upon the coast of Connaught.

The admiral, called John Martin de Ricalde, came into the sound of Bleskeys, with one other great ship, and a bark, about the sixth day of this September, and remaineth there with one other ship, of four-hundred tons, and a bark which came in since that time, if they be not dispersed or lost, by the great tempest that was the seventeenth and cighteenth of this month: for the state of the admiral, at his coming in, was thus: the ship had been shot through fourteen or fifteen times, her main-mast so beaten with shot, as she durst not bear her full sail, and now not sixty mariners left in her, and many of them so sick, that they lie down, and the residue so weak, that they were not able to do any good service; and there are daily cast over the board, out of that ship, five or six of the company.

After this was printed thus far, as every day bringeth more certainty in

particulars of the luss of the Spaniards in Ireland, those reports, which follow, came from Ireland, being the examinations of several persons

there taken and saved.

John Anthonio de Monona, an Italian, son to Francisco de Monona, pilot

of the ship, called, Sancta Marie de la Ruse, of a thousand tons, cast away in the sound of Bleskey, September 2, 1588.

EXAMINED, the eleventh of September, saith, that he, and the rest, parted from the English feet, as he thinkeih, about the coast of Scotland, and at that time they wanted, of their while ficet, four gallies, seven ships, and one galliass, which was the captain galliass; and there were then dead by fight, and by sickness, eight-thousand men, at the least. Where he left the Duke*, he knoweth not; but it was in the north seas, about eightern days sithence; he saw then no land, and therefore can name no place; but they severed by tempest, the Duke kept his course to the sea : we drew towards land to find Cape Clare, so did divers other ships, which, he thinks, to amount to

• Of Medina Sidonia, the Chief Commander.



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the number of forty ships: with the Duke there went twenty-five ships.

Hither he came round about Scotland; he thinks the Duke is, by this time, near Spain; the Duke's desire was, after his stay before Calais, to go to Flanders, but by reason of the contrariety of the winds, the shallowness of the water (his ships being great) he could not arrive there.

Besides the ships beforementioned, he remembereth, that two ships were sunk upon the coast of Scotland, by reason of shots received from the English ships; the one called Saint Matthew, of five-hundred tons, wherein were drowned four-hundred and fifty men; the other ship, a Biscayan of Saint Sebastians, of four-hundred tons, wherein were drowned three-hundred and fifty men; and the ship wherein he was, called Saint Mary Rose, of one-thousand tons, wherein, of fivehundred, there escaped but himself; in which ship, of principal men, there were drowned these principal men following: the Prince of Ascule, base son to the King of Spain, Captain Matuta, Captain Convalle, a Portuguese, Rupecho de la Vego, of Castile, Suryvero of Castile, Montanese of Castile, Villa Franca, of Saint Sebastians, captain of the said ship: the general of all the fleet of Guipusque, called Don Michael d'Oquendo, twenty other knights and adventurers upon their own charges.

He saith, that the ficet was in great want of fresh water; and being examined, what ordnance, wines, or other matters of moment were in the ship here cast away, saith, there were fifty great brass pieces, all cannons for the field, twenty-five pieces of brass and cast iron belonging to the ship; there are also in her fifty tons of sack. In silver, there are in her fifty-thousand ducats; in gold, as much more, much rich apparel and plate, and cups of gold.

He saith also, that the Duke of Medina appointed all the fect to resort and meet at the Groyne, and none of them, upon pain of death, not to depart therc hence, afore they should know his farther pleasure.

The Examination of Emanual Fremosa, a Purtuguese, September 12,


HE saith he was in the ship, called St. John, of the port of Portugal, of one thousand one-hundred tons. In which, Don John Martin de Ricalde is, who is admiral of the whole fleet, and is next under the doke, who is general; in which ship, at their coming forth, there were eighthundred soldiers, and, for mariners, sixty Portuguese, and forty Biscayans; this is the greatest ship of the whole navy.

He saith, they were in all, at their coming forth, a hundred and thirty-five sail, whereof four were galliasses, four gallics, and nine of tbem were victuallers.

They came froin the Groyne, on the fifteenth day, next after Midsummer last past, by their account.

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