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to the said Cape, where they shall have my order what to do; or else they shall sail to the Groyne, where they shall have it.

In departing from the Groyne, they shall set their course for Silley, and procure to make the southerside of it, having great care of their sounding: And if by chance in this course any ship, or ships, do lose the fleet, they shall not return into Spain, in any manner, upon pain of death, and the loss of goods, and taken for traytors, but follow the course, and make to the southward of the said island. And if any such do think the wavy to be a-stern of him, he shall detain himself in the same height, playing up and down, and not to depart from his course.

And if it be thought, that the navy is a-head, then shall you seek them in Mont's-bay, which is betwixt the Land's end and the Lizard, there shall you have the whole navy, or intelligence what he shall do; and yet for all this, if he do not meet with the navy, yet shall he find pinnaces, with order what shall be done.

In the night, there shall be great vigilance for the admiral, to see if he change her course, or make about. Before he goeth about, he will shoot off a piece; and, being about, will put forth another light, upon the poop a-part from the lanthorn; who that doth see it, shall answer with another light.

When he doth take away bonnets, or shorten the sails, he shall shew lights, one in the poop, and other two shrowed high.

When that for any occasion he shall strike all sails, he shall shew three lights, one in the top, another in the shrouds, and the third in the forecastle; and the rest shall shew it, with putting forth a light, each upon

If any ship have any occasion to strike all her sails in the night, he shall shoot off a great piece, and put out a lanthorn all night, and those that are nighest unto him shall shew lights, for that other may procure it, and shall take in the sails till day: And, if necessity be great, shall shoot off another piece, and those, that do see it, shall answer with other two lights, making the like board.

When the admiral will have any communication, he will make a sign, putting a flag in the after misen near the lanthorn, and so they shall repair unto him to know what he would have. If (which God for his mercy permit not) there happen any ship to take fire, the next unto her shall make from her, sending first their boats and skiffs, to succour and help, and so shall all the rest.

They shall have particular care, to put forth their fire in every ship, before the sun go

down. In taking of their allowance of victuals, the soldiers shall let them that have the charge thereof, to deliver it, so that the said soldiers shall not gu down to take it, nor choose it perforce, as in times they have done; and, for this cause, shall be present the serjeant, or corporal, of the company or companies, where they are, for avoiding disorder, and that timely they have their portions; so that before night every body may have supped.

That no ship, nor other vessel of this navy, nor of any of those, that goeth subject under my jurisdiction, shall not be so bold to enter into

his poop:

any harborough, anchor, nor go a shore, without the admiral doth it first, or with my special leave, upon pain of punishment hereof.

The colonels of the field, captains, lieutenants, ensigns and officers, must have particular care, that the soldiers have always their armour clean, ready, and in order, for time of necessity, causing them to make them clean, twice every week, and using themselves with them in such sort, that they may be expert at the time of need.

And for that, in the way, order shall be given, in what forın every man shall put himself, if we do fight, I do command, that particular care be had, advising the gunners to have half butts with water and vinegar, as is accustomed, with

bonnets, and old sails, and wet mantles to defend fire, that as often is thrown, as to have the like care to have shot made in good quantity, and that powder and match be ready for ship and soldiers of the store, by weight, measure, and length; according to the order, that every ship hath to deliver unto him, that hath the charge thereof, according to use and custom.

Also I order and command, that there be a care, that all soldiers have their room clean, and unpestered of chests, and other things, without consenting in any case to have cards; and, if there be any, to be taken away presently: Neither permit them to the mariners; and, if the soldiers have any, let me be advertised, that I may command them to be taken away.

And, for that the mariners must resort unto their work, tackle, and navigation, it is convenient, that their lodgings be in the upper works of the poop, and fore-castle, otherwise the soldiers will trouble thein in the voyage.

The artillery must stand in very good order, and reparted amongst the gunners, being all charged with their balls, and nigh unto every piece his locker, wherein to put his shot and necessaries, and to have great care to the cartridges of every piece, for not changing, or not taking fire; and that the ladies and sponges be ready at hand.

Every ship shall carry two boats lading of stones, to throw to profit, in the time of fight, on the deck, fore-castle, or tops, according to his burden; and shall carry two half pipes, to fill them with water in the day of battle, and repart them amongst the ordnance or other places, as shall be thought necessary and nigh unto them, old clothes, or coverings which with wetting may destroy any kind of fire.

That the wild-fire be reparted to the people most expert, that we have for the use thereof, at due time; for that, if it be not overseen, giving charge thereof to those that do understand it, and such, as we know, can tell how to use it, otherwise it may happen to great danger.

By the commandment that no ship shall go a head the admiral, at the least in the night, none shall tarry a stern the vice-admiral, and every one to have a care to the trimming of his sails, according to the charge he hath, and the sailing of his ship; for the much that it importeth that all our navy do go close as possible as they may, and in this the captains, masters, and pilots must have such great care, as of them is hoped. These

my instructions are delivered unto every ship, and have their copy, firmed by my hand, and registered by my secretary, the which shall be read by every purser of every ship publickly, to come to the note of all soldiers and mariners, whereby they may not pretend ignorance : And to the said pursèrs I ordain and command, that, thrice in the week, they be bound to read these my instructions publickly, and that they take witness of the fulfilling hereof, upon pain of him, that doth the contrary, shall receive punishment to the example of others.

All the above said, we command to be manifested, and be kept without any breach for the service of his Majesty, none to break them, or any part thereof, in no manner, upon pain they shall be severely punished, every one according to his estate and offence; all others reserved to our discretion. Made in the gallion Saint Marten, at the road of Belline*, the twenty-eighth of May, 1588.





THE SPANISH NAVY, UPON THE WEST COASTS OF IRELAND+, In their Voyage intended from the Northern Isles beyond Scotlandf, toward

Spain §.

Imprinted at Londou, by J. Vautrollier, for Richard Field, 1588.

By the foregoing accounts, it is visible, that the whole power of Spain, and its Popish allies, was sent against us. But as the greatness of any armament does appear more intrinsically, by the certain proofs of its losses ; I sball, for the greater satisfaction of the reader, subjoin the following lestimonies. Yet, before I conclude this wonderful history, let me observe, that this invincible Armada, which had been some years a preparing, with immense labour and cust, was, by God's arm, overthrown within a month, and chaсed away with the loss of many, both men and ships ; whereas the English lost but one ship,

and about one hundred men only. In this distress, they were past all hopes of returning by the way they had en

tered the Channel, and forced to secure a retreat through the dangerous and unknown coasts of Scotland, Orcades, and Ireland, which compleated their utter ruin. This is not only testified by the ensuing informations, but confirmed

by very late discoveries made of their wrecks on those coasts. Upon 1 bis occasion, a universal joy overspread every true-born English countenance; and, after publick thanks to God, the state endeavoured to perpetuate

• A village, three miles below Lisbon. + Where some were killed by the wid Irish, and others by the Deputy's command ; lest, com. ing on shore, they should join with the rebels against the state ; and the remainder, taking to their wracks and boats, were mostly drowned. Seven hundred men were saved alive Wrecked on this coast, whom the King of Scotland, by the Queen's consent, sent, at the Duke of Parma's request, after one year's imprisonment, into Flanders. ¿ Without glory.

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its happiness to posterity, by a medal, representing a navy Aying away, with the inscription, 'venit, vidit, fugit;' and by another, bearing ships on fire, and a navy routed, with this inscription, dux fæmina facti'; ascribing the first invention of fire-ships to the Queen herself. For, as my Historian expressly avoucheth, “ By ber commandment, the Admiral took eight of the worst ships, “and dressed them with wild-fire, pitch, and rosiu, and filled them full of “ brimstoue, and some other matter fit for fire ; and these, being set on fire

were, secretly in the night, by the help of the wind, set full upon the Spanish “ feet, as they lay at anchor. Which so surprised the enemy, that each ship, “ striving to secure itself from the danger, broke loose, and threw them all iuto “ confusion, and so separated the whole fleet, that they never more united to

any purpose And certainly, bad not that gracious Queen been fired with divine zeal, she could never have so effectually provided a means to destroy that part of the enemies Aeet by fire, of which God was determined to destroy the other part by water. Well then may we say, This was the Lord's doing, and it was marvellous in our eyes. Ps. cxviii.


UPON Saturday, the seventh

of September, the bark which was in peril of wreck in the bay of Trayley, of between forty and fifty tons, did render themselves, in which there were twenty-four men, whereof two were the Duke's own servants, and two little boys.

On Tuesday the tenth of this September, there was a frigate cast off, as it seemeth, by this name, which, as Sir William Herbert saith, wrecked upon the coast of Desmond.

On the same Tuesday, there wrecked, in the sound of the Bleskeys, a ship, called Our Lady of Rosary, of one-thousand tons. In this ship was drowned the Prince of Ascule, the King's base son, one Don Pedro, Don Diego, and Don Francisco, with seven other gentlemen of account, that accompanied the Prince. There was drowned in her also Michael Oquendo, a principal sea-man, chief governor of the ship; Ville Franca, of Saint Sebastians, captain of the same ship; Matuta, captain of the infantry of that ship; Captain Suares, a Portuguese; Garrionerie, Ropecho de la Vega, Montenese, and one Francisco Castilian, captains; one John Ryse, an Irish captain, Francis Roch, an Irishman, and about five-hundred persons, whereof one-hundred were gentlemen, but not of that reckoning as the former were ; and only one John Anthonio de Monona, a Genoese, being the pilot's sou of that ship, saved.

The same Tuesday, it was advertised to the vice-president of Munster, that there were lost, upon the coast of Thomond, two great ships, out of which there were drowned about seven-hundred persons, and taken prisoners about one-hundred and fifty.

About that Tuesday also, as appeareth by a letter written to Stephen White, of Limerick, the twelfth of this September, there was cast, upon the sands of Ballicrahihy, a ship of nine-bundred tons; thirteen of the gentlemen of that ship, as he writeth, are taken ; and so writeth, that he heard the rest of that ship, being above four-bundred, have fought, for their defence, being much distressed, to intrench themselves.

He writeth, also, of another ship which was cast away at the isle of

Clare in Irrise, and that seventy-eight of the men of that ship are drowned and slain.

He writeth also, that there was, about the same time, another great ship cast away in Tirawley, and that there are three noblemen, a bishop, and a friar, and sixty-nine other men taken by William Bourk, of Ardnerie, and all the residue of that ship are slain and drowned ; insomuch, as he writeth, that one Melughlen Mac Cabb, a Galloglass, killed eighty of them with his Galloglass ax. Wednesday the eleventh of this September, seven of those ships, that then remained within the Shannon, departed out of that road with an easterly wind, and, before their going forth, they set on fire one other very great ship of their company, which was one-thousand tons at least.

It was informed from the vice-president at Cork, upon this seventeenth of September last, that two other great ships of that fleet should be lost upon the coast of Connaught.

The admiral, called John Martin de Ricalde, came into the sound of Bleskeys, with one other great ship, and a bark, about the sixth day of this September, and remaineth there with one other ship, of four-hundred tons, and a bark which came in since that time, if they be not dispersed or lost, by the great tempest that was the seventeenth and cighteenth of this month: for the state of the admiral, at his coming in, was thus: the ship had been shot through fourteen or fifteen times, her main-mast so beaten with shot, as she durst not bear her full sail, and now not sixty mariners left in her, and many of them so sick, that they lie down, and the residue so weak, that they were not able to do any good service; and there are daily cast over the board, out of that ship, five or six of the company.

After this was printed thus far, as every day bringeth more certainty in

particulars of the luss of the Spaniards in Ireland, those reports, which follow, came from Ireland, being the examinations of several persons

there taken and saved.

John Anthonio de Monona, an Italian, son to Francisco de Monona, pilot

of the ship, called, Sancta Marie de la Ruse, of a thousand tons, cast away in the sound of Bleskey, September 2, 1588.

EXAMINED, the eleventh of September, saith, that he, and the rest, parted from the English feet, as he thinkeih, about the coast of Scotland, and at that time they wanted, of their while ficet, four gallies, seven ships, and one galliass, which was the captain galliass; and there were then dead by fight, and by sickness, eight-thousand men, at the least. Where he left the Duke*, he knoweth not; but it was in the north seas, about eightern days sithence; he saw then no land, and therefore can name no place; but they severed by tempest, the Duke kept his course to the sea : we drew towards land to find Cape Clare, so did divers other ships, which, he thinks, to amount to

• Of Medina Sidonia, the Chief Commander.



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