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high, and led captiuitie captiue. Their reason of their separation, drawen from our example, is like their religion. We dare not ioync with the assemblies of the land, notwithstanding that we know many the truthes of Iesus Christ to be professed therin, because in the offices, and many of the workes remayning in them, we should have communion with the religion of the Roman Antichrist, in many of the workes and inuentions therof: They, on the other side, wil not ioyne with the publick worship of the land, because therby they should haue ouer-much communion with the doctrine of Christ, and ouer-little with the poisoned inuentions ordeined by Satan in the Romish synagogue, and who moved them to their treason and disobedience, before we took this course. Is their reason any thing tolerable, that, because we indevour to worship the Lord purely, they should take example therby, to giue themselues wholy to the worship of Satan?
Fan. But why refuse yow conference, that yow may be reformed in those things wherin yow crre?
Pen. I refuse none: I am most willing readily to yeeld unto any, as Mr. Young hath it to testify vnder my hand; onely my desire and request is, that I may haue some equal conditions graunted vnto me and my poore brethren in it, the which yet, if I cannot obteine, I am ready to yeeld unto any conference, though neuer so vnequal; yea, I am desirous of any conference that her Maiesty, and their honors, may be truly informed of that which I and my brethren do hold, and of the warrant that we haue therof from the word of the Lord. Onely I craue, that niy iudgement, my reasons, my answers, may be reported in my owne words, and herof I beseech your worships to beare witnes with me. Lastly, I beseech yow to consider, that it is to no purpose that her Majesties sub-iects should bestowe ther time in learning, in the study and meditation of the word of God, in the reading of the writings and doinges of the learned men, and holy martyrs that haue bene in former ages, especialy the writings published by her Maiesties authoritie, if they may not, without danger, professe and hold those truthes which they learne out of them; and that in such sort, as they are able to conuince al the world that wil stand against them by no other weapons then by the word of God. Consider also, I pray you, what a lamentable case it is, that we may ioyne with the Romish church in the inuentions therof, without al danger, and cannot, but with extreme peril, be permitted in iudgement and practise to dissent from the same, wher it swarveth from the true way. And, as yow finde these considerations to carry some weight with them, so I beseech yow be a meanes unto her Maiestie, and their honors, that my case nay be weighed in euen ballance. Imprisonments, inditements, -yea, death itself, are no meet weapons to convince mens consciences.
SET DOWN BY
THE DUKE OF MEDINA,
Lord General of the King's Fleet,
OBSERVED IN THE VOYAGE TOWARDS ENGLAND.
BY T. P.
Imprinted at London by Thomas Orwin, for Thomas Gilbert, dwelling in Fleet
Street, near to the Sign of the Castle, 1588.
The wonderful deliverance, which England commemorates on the following occa
sion, is still more remarkable, from the due consideration of the following pamphlet; where the reader may observe, that not only the strength, and exceeding great warlike preparations, but the political and military orders, to preserve good harmony among the soldiers and sailors, and due obedience from both to their respective commanders; and to avoid all confusion, in case of a storm, or other disastrous accident, shew that our enemies had taken all the precautions that buinan prudeuce could conceive, to accomplish their iutrigues, and to ruin our establishment in church and state. Therefore, I have inserted these orders, thereby to encourage us in the like dangers, and to shew, that, wheu God is on our side, neither the power, nor the policy of man, is able to do us harm.
Don Alonso Peres de Guzman, the good Duke of Medina Sidonia, Count
of Nebla, Marquis of Casheshe in Africa, Lord of the City Saint Lucar, Captain General of the Ocean Sea, of the Coast of Andalusia, and of this Army of his Majesty, and Knight of the honourable Order of the Golden Fleece.
DO ordain and command, that the general masters of the field, all
captains, officers of the camp, and of the sea, pilots, masters, soldiers, mariners, and officers, and whatsoever other people for the land or sea service cometh in this army, all the time that it endureth, shall 'be thus governed, as hereafter followeth, viz.
First, and before all things, it is to be understood by all the abovenamed, from the highest to the lowest; That the principal foundation and cause, that have moved the King his Majesty to make and continue this journey, hath been, and is, to serve God, and to return unto his church a great many of contrite souls, that are oppressed by the hereticks, enemies to our holy catholick faith, which have them subjects to their sects, and unhappiness : And for that every one may put his eyes upon this mark, as we are bound, I do command, and much desire every
one, to give charge unto the inferiors, and those under their charge, to embark themselves, being shriven *, and having received the sacrament with competent contrition for their sins: By the which contrition, and zeal to do God such great service, he will carry and guide us to his great glory: Which is, that which particularly and principally is pretended.
In like manner, I do charge and command you, to have particular care, that no soldier, mariner, or other, that serveth in this army, do blaspheme, or rage against God, or our Lady t, or any of the saints, upon pain that he shall therefor sharply be corrected, and very well chastened, as it shall seem best unto us: And for other oaths of less quality, the governors, in the same ships they go in, shall procure to remedy all: They shall punish them in taking away their allowance of wine, or otherwise, as they shall think good. And for that the most occasions come by play, you shall publickly prohibit it, especially the games that are forbidden : And, that none do play in the night, by no means.
And to avoid inconveniences that might ensue in this army and force of his Majesty, if that the here written were not put for remedy, by these presents, I do command, that, particularly and generally, all quarrels, angers, defiances, and injuries, that are, and have been, before this day, and until the publication hereof, of all persons, as well by sca as land, of greater or less qualities, be suppressed and suspended, so that none goeth in this army for the time that this voyage continueth and lasteth, although they be old quarrels: Yet, for my express commandment, shall break this truce and forbearance of arms, directly, or indirectly, upon pain of disobedience, and incurring into high treason, and die therefor.
In like manner I do give charge, that aboard the ships there be not any one thing offered to the disgrace of any man.
Declaring herewithal, that there cannot be any disgrace imputed to any man for any thing that shall be offered, nor yet be a reproach, whatsoever happeneth a-board any ship.
And for that it is known, that great inconveniences and offence groweth unto God, by consenting that common women, and such like, go in like armies;
I do ordain and command, that there be none embarked nor carried in the army: And if that any will carry them, I do command the captains, and masters of the ships, not to consent thereto: Who so doth, or dissembleth therewith, shall be grievously punished.
The company of every ship, one every morning, at the break of every day, according to the custom, shall give the Good Morrow by the mainmast, and at night the Ave Maria.t: And some days the Salve Reginai: Or, at least, the Saturdays with a Littany.
And forasmuch as it importeth for the preservation and good success of this army, that there be between the soldiers and mariners much con: firmed friendship, and such amity, that there be not any difference, nor other occasions of murmuring, I command it to be published, that no body do carry any dagger, nor thwart one another, or give any occa
• Confessed his sins to a priest. + The Virgin Mary.
A custom still observed in Spain, and some other Popish countries, by tolling a beil three strokes thrice, in all, nine strokes,
sions, but that all do obey the superior officers : And if any scandal or offence
come, he that was the beginner, shall straightly be punished. When the galleon Saint Marten, wherein myself go, admiral of this fleet, doth make a sign with a piece of ordnance, it shall be a sign of departure for the whole fleet, that, sounding their trumpets, shall follow without losing time, and without coming foul of each other, and cutting sail, shall do the like: Having great care of the sands and catchops, carrying their boats and skiffs ready for any thing that may happen.
Being from the land a sea-board, every ship shall come to leeward, saluting the admiral, to know what he will command: And demand the word, without going a-head the admiral, cither in the day or in the night, but to have great care to his sailing.
Every afternoon, they shall repair to their admirals, to take the word, and to know if there be any thing to do,
And for that so many great ships, and so great may be, cannot come every day without boarding one another: To avoid the danger that may follow, the general of each squadron shall have particular care, to take the word in time, to give it unto the ships under their charge.
The admiral shall be saluted with trumpets, of them that have them: If not, with their whistles: Aud the people to hallow one after another, and, answering them, shall salute again: And, if it be towards night, to demand the word, and, taking it, shall salute one another in time, and depart, to give room to others that follow.
If it happeneth some days, that the wind will not suffer to take the word of the admiral, or admirals, they shall have, for every day in the week, the words following: Sunday,
The holy Ghost.
The holy Trinity.
Our Lady. And for that it importeth, that all the armies do go close together, I do command, that the general, and wings, with great care, do procure tu carry the squadrons, as nigh, and in as good order, as is possible: And the ship and pinnaces, of the charge of Don Antonio de Hartado de Mendosa, keep next unto the admiral, except six: Whereof, two shall follow the admiral Don Pedro de Valdezi, and two the admiral of Martin Bretendona; the other two, the admiral of Joan Gomes de Medina : The which shall be appointed presently, and have great care to repart themselves, without the one thwarting the other: And the squadron of the hulks shall go always in the midst.
That no ship of the navy, nor any that goeth with them, shall depart, without my license: And I do cominand upon pain of death, and loss of goods, that if by chance, with a storm, any be driven to depart* before they come to the Cape Finister, that then they follow their course
• Between Lisbon and Cape Finister.
to the said Cape, where they shall have my order what to do; or else they shall sail to the Groyne, where they shall have it.
In departing from the Groyne, they shall set their course for Silley, and procure to make the southerside of it, having great care of their sounding: And if by chance in this course any ship, or ships, do lose the fleet, they shall not return into Spain, in any manner, upon pain of death, and the loss of goods, and taken for traytors, but follow the course, and make to the southward of the said island. And if
such do think the navy to be a-stern of him, he shall detain himself in the same height, playing up and down, and not to depart from his course.
And if it be thought, that the navy is a-head, then shall you seek them in Mont's-bay, which is betwixt the Land's end and the Lizard, there shall you have the whole navy, or intelligence what he shall do; and yet for all this, if he do not meet with the navy, yet shall he find pinnaces, with order what shall be done.
In the night, there shall be great vigilance for the admiral, to see if he change her course, or make about. Before he goeth about, he will shoot off a piece; and, being about, will put forth another light, upon the poop a-part from the lanthorn ; who that doth see it, shall answer with another light.
When he doth take away bonnets, or shorten the sails, he shall shew lights, one in the poop, and other two shrowed high.
When that for any occasion he shall strike all sails, he shall shew three lights, one in the top, another in the shrouds, and the third in the forecastle; and the rest shall shew it, with putting forth a light, each upon
If any ship have any occasion to strike all her sails in the night, he shall shoot off a great piece, and put out a lanthorn all night, and those that are nighest unto him shall shew lights, for that other may procure it, and shall take in the sails till day: And, if necessity be great, sball shoot off another piece, and those, that do see it, shall answer with other two lights, making the like board.
When the admiral will have any communication, he will make a sign, putting a flag in the after misen near the lanthurn, and so they shall repair unto him to know what he would have. If (which God for his mercy permit not) there happen any ship to take fire, the next unto her shall make from her, sending first their boats and skiffs, to succour and help, and so shall all the rest.
They shall have particular care, to put forth their fire in every ship, before the sun go down.
In taking of their allowance of victuals, the soldiers shall let them that have the charge thereof, to deliver it, so that the said soldiers shall not gu down to take it, nor choose it perforce, as in times they have done; and, for this cause, shall be present the serjeant, or corporal, of the company or companies, where they are, for avoiding disorder, and that timely they have their portions; so that before night every body may have supped.
That no ship, nor other vessel of this navy, nor of any of those, that goeth subject under my jurisdiction, shall not be so bold to enter into