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Qur wise Queen Elisabeth, therefore, having a right regard to the general good
and weal of the people, accommodated her government to the true genius of the monarchical institution, as it then stood : for she constantly courted the people, expressing her monarchy was founded in the people's affections: and by that expedient kept up herself and monarchy to that height and glory, as it first stood in its natural foundation; and this against all foreign powers.' And she thus answered all the ends of government ; for factions and parties were thus sunk, the interest of court and country were made one, and virtue, honesty, and
piety were restored and encouraged. This Speech ought to be set in letters of gold, that as well the majesty, prudence,
and virtue of her gracious Majesty, Queen Elisabeth, might in general most ex quisitely appear; as also that her religious love, and tender respect, which she particularly, and constantly, did bear to her Parliament, in unfeigned sincerity, might be nobly and truly vindicated, and proclaimed, with all grateful recognition to God for so great a blessing to his people of England, in vouchsafing them heretofore such a gracious Priucess, and magnanimous defender of the Reformed Religion, and heroick patroness of the Liberty of her Subjects, iu the Freedom and Honour of their Parliaments; which have been, under God, the continual conservators of the splendor, and wealth of this kingdom, against tyranny and oppression.
Her Majesty being set under State in the Council-chamber at White-hall,
the Speaker, accompanied with Privy-counsellors, besides Knights and Burgesses of the Lower House, to the number of eight-score, presenting themselves at her Majesty's feet, for that so graciously and speedily she had heard and yielded to her subjects desires, and proclaimed the same in their hearing, as followeth;
WE perceive your coming is to present thanks unto us : know, I ac
cept them with no less joy, than your loves can have desire to offer such a present, and do more esteem it, than any treasure of riches; for those we know how to prize, but Loyalty, Love, and Thanks, I account them invaluable : and though God hath raised Me high, yet this I account theglory of my Crown, that I have reigned with your loves. This makes that I do not so much rejoice, that God hath made Me to be a Queen, as to be a Queen over so thankful a people, and to be the mean, under God, to conserve you in safety, and to preserve you from danger; yea, to be the instrument to deliver you from dishonour, shame, and infamy; to keep you from servitude, and from slavery under our enemies, and cruel tyranny, and vile oppression, intended against Us: for the better withstanding whereof, We take very acceptably your intended helps, and chiefly in that it manifesteth your loves, and largeness of heart to your Sovereign. Of myself I must say this, I never was any greedy scraping grasper, nor a strict fast-holding Prince, nor yet a waster; my heart was never set upon any wordly goods, but only for my subjects good. What you do bestow on Me, I will not hoard up, but receive it to be
The Pope and Popish Princes, especially the King of Spain,
stow on you again ; yea, my own properties I account yours, to be exs pended for your good, and your eyes shall see the bestowing of it for
Mr. Speaker, I would wish you, and the rest to stand up, for, I shall yet trouble you' with longer Speech. Mr. Speaker, you give Me thanks, but I am more to thank you, and I charge you, thank them of the Lower House from Me, for, had I not received knowledge from you, I might have fallen into the lapse of an error, only for want of trưe information. Since I was Queen, yet did I never put my pen to any grant, but upon pretext and semblance* made Me, that it was for the good and avail of My subjects generally, though a private profit to some of My antient servants, who have deserved well; bat that My grants shall be made grievances to My people, and oppressions, to be privileged under colour of our patents, our princely dignity shall not suffer it. When I heard it, I could give no rest unto my thoughts until I had reformed it, and those varlets, lewd persons, abusers of My bounty, shall know that I will not suffer it. And, Mr. Speaker, tell the House from Me, I take it exceeding grateful that the knowledge of these things are come unto Me from them. And though, amongst them the principal members are such as are not touched in private, and therefore need' not speak from any feeling of the grief, yet We have heard, that other gentlemen also of the House, who stand as free, have spoken as freely in it; which gives Us to know, that no respects or interests have moved them, other than the minds they bear to suffer no diminution of our honour, and our subjects: love unto Us. The zeal of which affection tending to ease my people, and knit their hearts unto Us, I embrace with a princely care, far above all earthly trea
I esteem my people's love, more than which I desire not to merit; and God, thať gave Me here to sit, and placed me over you, knows that I never respected myself, but as your good was concerned in Me; yet what dangers, what practices, and what perils I have passed, some, if not alt of you know, but none of these things do move Me, or, ever made Me fear, but it is God that hath delivered Me. And, in My governing this land, I have ever set the last judgment-day before My eyes, and so to rule, as I shall be judged and answer before a higher judge, to whose judgment-seat I do appeal, in that never thought was cherished in My heart that tended not to My people's good. And if My princely bounty have been abused, and My grants turned to the hurt of My people, contrary to my will and meaning, or if any in authority under Me have neglected, or converted what I have committed unto them, I hope Gud will not lay their culpst to my charge. To be a King, and wear a crown, is a thing morc glorious to them that see it, than it is pleasant to them that bear it; for Myself, I never was so much enticed with the glorious name of a king, or the royal authority of a queen, as delighted that God hath made Me his instrument to maintain bis truth and glory, and to defend this kingdom from dishonour, damage, tyranny, and oppression. But should I ascribe any of these things into Myself, or My sexly weakness, I were not worthy to
live, and of all most unworthy of the mercies I have received at God's hands; but to God only and wholly all is given and ascribed. The cares and trouble of a Crown I cannot more fitly resemble, than to the drugs of a learned physician, perfumed with some aromatical savour, or to bitter pills gilded over, by which they are made more acceptable, or less offensive, which indeed are bitter and unpleasant to take; and, for My own part, were it not for conscience-sake, to discharge the duty that God hath laid upon Me, and to maintain his glory, and keep you in safety, in My own disposition I should be willing to resign the place I hold to any other, and glad to be freed of the glory with the labours: for it is not My desire to live ur reign longer, than My life and reign shall be for your good.” And, though you have had, and may have, many mightier and wiser princes sitting in this seat, yet you never had, nor shall have any, that will love you better.
Thus, Mr. Speaker, I commend Me to your loyal loves, and yours to My best care, and your further counsels; I pray you, Mr. Comptroller, and Mr. Secretary, and you of My council, that, before these gentlemen depart into their countries, you bring them all to kiss My hand.
After his Imprisonment in Spain, until this present Day,
Being now in Spain, at St. LUCAR DE BARRAMEDA.
There is no power but from God. Rom. xiii. London, printed by Simon Stafford and James Shaw, 160%. Quarto, containing
THIS "HIS unfortunate King, Don Sebastian, having been brought from
Florence to Naples, was put into the castle of Oeuf, into a chamber, without any other furniture in it, than a halter, and a long knife of the length of half the arm; where, for the space of three days, they neither gave him aught to drink, or to eat, nor whereon to lie; which space he spent in continual prayers, enduring his crosses with incredible
This is the 75th aumber in the Catalogue of Pamphlets in the Harleian Library
patience. On the fourth day after, the auditor-general, accompanied with two notaries, came to visit him, and found him, for his life, of good disposition, and marvelled exceedingly at him, (for all of them did verily believe, that, seeing himself so ill treated, he would, in despair, have hanged himself, or, with one of those two instruments, have ended his days; which for that purpose were prepared, and placed in that room; or, at least, incur thereby some grievous malady) and said unto him, That, if he would not deny, and cease to maintain what he had avouched and maintained, in reporting himself to be Don Sebastian, King of Portugal, he should never have either drink, meat, or lodging. To whom the King made answer:
• Do what you will, for I shall never sing any other song; and I beseech God Omnipotent, .of his infinite goodness and divine mercy, that he will stretch out his powerful hand, and assist me in these my troubles; and that he will not suffer me to commit so foul a fault, or to fall into so great a mischief, and so contrary to my own soul, that, for fear and terror of men, I should come to deny the truth, and to confess a falshood. God defend me from it. I am that self-same Don Sebase tian, King of Portugal, who, in the year 1578, passed into Africa against the Infidels; and the very same, who, to augment the name and power of the Christians, put my life in hazard; and am that unfortunate Prince, who, for the punishment of his sins, lost a battle; which loss begat so many misadventures, and occasioned so many changes in Christendom. This is the very truth, neither can I say any other.'
With this answer, the auditor, and his notaries, went their way. After this, they began to give him, for his nourishment, some bread and water; and, some few days after, he was allowed five crowns a month, and a 'man to wait upon him. The viceroy of Naples, last deceased, came to visit him, and there passed between them that which hath been published by so many hands, and set forth in so many languages. Now, as soon as it was bruited abroad, and that fame had run and told it through the world, that he remained prisoner, and that all men had leave to see him, many persons, of divers, both qualities, and nations, made a voyage unto Naples, only to see him, and to speak unto him : And, amongst the rest, many Portuguese, some out of Portugal, and some from other places of their being, past into Italy, that they might, with their own proper eyes, behold so admirable, and so rare a wonder. Many of the Portuguese, especially the elder sort, who had seen him, and knew him; and some also of Castile, and other strangers besides, having seen him, and discoursed with him, confessed and maintained, That he was Don Sebastian, the true King of Portugal. During the life of the said viceroy, his imprisonment was not so austere, nor so strict, as it was afterwards, when his son succeeded in the said government; who kept him exceeding close, and double-guarded, suffering him, notwithstanding, to go abroad on the Sundays, and other festival days, for to hear mass in a chapel within the said castle. He lived in perpetual prayers and fastings. Every Friday and Saturday, he fasted with bread and water. He did the like, sometimes, also on other days,
26 on Mondays and Wednesdays. He often frequented the sacraments, and used much confession; and, all the Lent long, fed nor eat of any thing, save only herbs and pulse.
The seventeenth of April last past, within a year after that he was delivered to the Castilians, the said viceroy, who also is Count of Lemos, son to him that was deceased, married with the daughter of the Duke of Lerma, who now, at this day, is a governor in Spain: At that time it was demanded of hins, that he should suddenly make answer, without any other proceedings, or diligence, in his cause, unto that which, on the fourth day, was proposed by the auditor-general, accompanied, as before we mentioned. To whom he replied:
• That it was no lawful, nor direct course, to take upon them to examine, and judge him, without process; but rather, that they should present him to the Portuguese, who had both nourished him,'knew him, and served him. For, on their relation, and their testimony, ought to depend the true proof and approbation of his business : Affirming, that, if it were possible for him to live a thousand years longer, he would-never answer otherwise: And, that if they should determine to do justice on him, without any other order or proof, he must take God for his only judge, who knows the truth of this matter, and that he is the proper and true King of Portugal, Don Sebastian. Wherefore, if you are so disposed, take your course in effecting that, upon which, heretofore, you purposed.
The officers, appointed for this affair, being gone from him with this answer, he went immediately, and threw himself down on his knees before the crucifix, and began to dispose and prepare himself for death. He fasted the space of three days with bread and water. He made his general confession, and received the holy sacraments. As he thus attended his latest hour, before the said month of April was ended, they sent again unto him for his final answer, To which message he made the like answer, as before. And, upon these his last words, he was judged and condemned, by the Castilians, to be led, in ignominy, through the streets of Naples, and from thence to labour in the gallies all the rest of his life,
The last day of the said month, they brought him out of the castle, and mounted him on an ass, and led him openly through the streets of the city, three trumpets marching before him, with a crier, who cried with a loud voice. This is the justice which his Catholick Majesty hath commanded to be executed. He hath commanded this man should be thus shamefully led up and down, and that he should perpetually be doomed to the gallies, for naming himself to be Don Sebastian, King of Portugal, being no other than a Calabrian. And still, before the crier began, the trumpets sounded, and so continued to the end, And, when they named King, he would cry aloud, Why, so I am, And when they said, Being no other than a Calabrian, he would answer, That is false. Yet, notwithstanding, in the repetition of these words, all the while that they were pronounced by the crier, he po wise bindered the course of justice, nor once moved himself against ito