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or at least intelligence, with those that would willingly embrace the
Truly not so much at the Turk and Morocco, but at some time they may serve your Majesty to great purpose; but from Florence, Ferrara, and especially Venice, I think your Majesty might reap great assurance and service, for undoubtedly they abhor his frauds, and fear his greatness.
And for the Dutch, and Northern Princes, being in effect of your Majesty's religion, I cannot think but their alliance may be firm, and their power not to be contemned : even the countenance of united powers doth much in matters of state.
For the weakening of him, I would, I must confess from my heart, wish that your Majesty did not spare thoroughly and manifestly to make war upon him both in the Indies, and the Low Countries, which would give themselves unto you; and that you would rather take him, while he hath one hand at liberty, than both of them sharply weaponed.
But, if this seem foolish hardiness to your Majesty's wisdom, yet, I dare not presume to counsel, but beseech your Majesty that what stay and support your Majesty, without war, can give to the Low Countries, you would vouchsafe to do it, since, as king of Spain, without the Low Countries he may trouble our skirts of Ireland, but never come to grasp with you ; but, if he once reduce the Low Countries to an absolute subjection, I know not what limits any man of judgment can set unto his greatness. Divers ways are to be tried ; among the rest one, not the worst in my opinion, might be to seek either the winning of the prince of Parma from the King of Spain, or at the least to have the matter so handled, as that the jealousy thereof may arise betwixt them; as Pope Clement did by the noble Marquiss of Pescara, for he practised with him, for offering the kingdom of Naples, not so much with hope to win him, as to make his master suspect him. And when I consider that Parma is a Roman by blood, a Prince born, placed in the place he hath, by Don John, and maintained in it by the malecontents, whereunto the king hath rather yielded of necessity than any other way ; lastly, when I remember the city of Pierousa kept by the Spaniards, and the apparent title of his son Remutio to the crown of Portugal, things hardly to be digested by an Italian stomach, I cannot see how such a mind in such a fortune can sell its self to a foreign servitude,
The manner of dealing with him should be by some man of spirit, with the Venetian ambassadors at Paris, and afterwards with his own father in Italy; both which are in their hearts mortal enemies to the greatness of Spain.
But these sheets of paper bear witness against me, of having offered too tedious a discourse to your Majesty, divers of which points yet, as of mitigating the oath, the school hostages, the hearteming of tenants, and the dealing with the prince of Parma, would require a more ample handling; but it is first reason to know whether your Majesty like of the stuff, before it be otherwise trimmed.
For myself, as I will then only love my opinions, when your Majesty liketh them ; so will I daily pray, that all opinions may be guided with as much faith, as I have zeal to your Majesty's service, and that they may be followed with infinite success.
BRIEFE AND TRVE DECLARATION
SICKNESSE, LAST WORDES, AND DEATH
KING OF SPAINE,
PHILIP, THE SECOND OF THAT NAME,
Who died in his Abbey of S. Laurence at Escuriall, seuen miles from
Madrill, the Thirteenth of September, 1598.
Written from Madrill, in a Spanish Leter, and translated into English
according to the true Copie. Printed at London, by Edm. Bollifant, 1599, Quarto, containing a Sheet and
This is the King of Spain, whose cruelties iu the Indies and the Netherlands have recorded him among the most bloody tyrants, and his continual attempts to poison, assassinate, or dethrone Queen Elisabeth, and to invade and conqner England, have rendered his name vdions to every true Englishman: and whose universal character is a compound of pride, ambition, injustice, oppression, treachery, and bloodshed : for all which, by the short account following, you will perceive, tbat God called him to judgment; and, by the plague of Lice, declar. ed his detestation of that sinful prince, before he departed this life. Yet, in this same account, it is remarkable, ihat he was arrived to that state of hypocritical insensibility, and delasion, that he thought all his barbarities, treachery, and treasons were doing God service, and that himself was ready to depart this life iņ the favour of God.
To satisfie my promise, and to giuc
ansurere to your letters,
requirunderstand, that this yecre, 1598, the Royal Majestie of our Lord, Don Philip the Third, being then but prince, was upon S. Iohn's day,
in the market place at Madrill*, to beholde the bullbaytingst, and other pastymes which were there, at which sports the King his father (which is now in heauen) was not present by reason of the paine of the gout which sore troubled him. His Highnes, being returned from the foresaid place, discoursed vnto his father all that he had seene, whereupon his Maiestie answered: I am right glad to see thee so pleasant, for thou shalt neuer, so long as I liue, see me haue eåse or comfort in this my painfull disease. And thereupon commaunded preparation to be made for his remouing to Escuriall. Doctor Marcado, one of his ordinarie phisitions, tolde him, he ought not to stirre, least the extremitie of his pai e should increase.
The King answered, seeing I must be carried thither, when I am dead, I had rather be carried thither being aliue. So that in the end, to satisfy his desire, his footmen took him vp vpon their shoulders, and spent sixe daies in going those seauen miles ; where, after that he came; he was better for some fewe daies, though he was not able to stand, but was forced either to sit or to lie. But presently the goute reseasing him, accompanied with a feuer, made him far sicker than before ; his phisitions shewed all the skil they could to giue him some ease, but the extremitie of paine so increased, that presently he entred into consideration of his soule, by shrining or confessing himselfe, and receiuing the sacrament, at which instant he commaunded Garcin de Loyaza to be consecrated Archbishop of Toledo, which was performed by the Popes nuncio, with all the solemnities and rites' accustomed. There happened also to this good King, vpon his right knee, a bile, so angrie and swellinge, that he could take no rest; his phisitions being amazed thereat, one Elias, a phisition of Toledo, by whose aduice and direction of others, one Vergara, a licentiate surgeon, hauing applied all fit meanes to ripen the sore, opened it, and let foorth all the bad matter therein contained; soone after the which, there arose fower other biles vpon his brest, which likewise were ripened, opened, and cleansed ; this corrupt matter bred a great companie of lice, which were very hard to be killed, he remaining in this mean time so weake, that he was. faine to be turned in sheetes, and lift vp with fower men, whilest two other made all things plaine, soft, and clean vnder him. Ten daies before he died, he fell into so great a traunce (lasting fiue howers) that it was easily perceiued, that his life and vital powers began to faile, which caused diuers lords in Madrill to prouide mourning garments. Being returned to himselfe, he said to the Archbishop and to those of the chamber there present: My friends and subiects, your sorrowes are of no force to recover my health, for no humane remedie can profit me. The chiefe matter of your care ought to be to prouide, in time, all necessaries for my funerals; and, in the meane time I commaunde you to call hither your prince, which shall be your future King, and fetch hither' vnto mé my coffin that I shall be laide in, and place here, vpon this little cupboord I, a dead man's skull crowned • al. Madrid..
+ Bull-feasts, which are a sport different from the English bull-baitings; in as niach as these are performed by dogs; but the Spanish are the Recreation of men on horseback, who, attended with running footmen, to supply them with lances, attack a mad bull at full liberty, and never guit him till they have killed hiru. $al, Cabinet.
with my imperial crowne; all which was forthwith done. The prince and the infanta, his sister, being in presence, the King called for lohn Ruyz de Valasco, putting him in minde of a cofer *, which he had committed to his custodie, willing him to fetch it; the cofer was very little, yet, when it was brought, he caused it to be opened, and, taking foorth a pretious stone of an intinite value, caused it to be deliuered to his daughter, speaking thvs vnto hir: My daughter Izabella Eugenia Clara, receiue this iewell, brought unto me by your mother, the which I bestowe vpon you for my last farewell. And then, turning him to the prince, said, are you contented with this that I giue unto your sister? Who answered, yea, sir, although you gaue her all that I haue. This answere lyking the king very wel, he willed them to looke in the cofer for another paper, and, .giuing it to the Prince, he told him, that therein he should see the forme how to gouern bis kingdome. Then they tooke out of the said cofer a whip with bloudie knots, which the King holding vp, said, this bloud is mine owne, and yet not mine but my fathers, who is in heauen, who made use of this kind of exercise; and therefore to make known the value of it, and the trueth of it, i thought good to reueale it vnto you. After this he commaunded a paper to be taken from vnder his pillow, which, being read by lohn Ruyz, contained these wordes : We, Philip, by the grace of God, King of Castile and Lion, &c. hauing gouerned this realme forty yeeres in the seuenty-first yeere of mine age, giue over this kingdome vnto my God to whom it belongeth, and commend my soule into his blessed hands, to performe therewith whatsoeuer it shall please his diuine Maiestie. Commaunding that this my bodie, so soone as euer my soule shall be separated from the same, he embalmed; then apparelled with a royall robe, and su placed in this brazen shrine heere present, and that the howers † be kept, with all rites and ceremonies as the lawe requireth, and I commaund my funerall to be solemnised in this manner: before shall be borne the archbishops banner, then the crosse; the monkes and the clergie presentlie shall followe, all in mourning garments. The Adelantado I shall beare the royall standard, trailing it vpon the ground. The duke of Nayara shall carrie the crowne ynder a canopie. The marquesse of Aguillar shall carrie the sword. My body shall be borne by eight of my chiefest seruants, all in mourning weedes, with burning torches in their handes. The Archbishop shall follow the nobles, and our vniuersal heir shall follow on the one side all in dewle II. When they come to the church, my body shall be placed in the herse there of
purpose crected. All the praiers and deuotions ended, the prelate shall place me in the vault, my last habitation, which shall be giuen to me for euer. All this performed, your prince ş, and third king of that name, shall go to S. Ierosmes at Madrill, there to keep the holy ceremonies of the ninth daie yeerely, and my daughter, with my sister, her aunt, shall go to the gray nunnes barefoote. Then, speaking to the prince, he saide, besides all that which I haue heertofore spoken to you, I pray you haue a great care and regard to your sister, because shee was my looking-glasse and the light of mine eies. Keepe the commonwealth in peace, placing there good gouernors to rewarde the good and punish the bad. Let the marquesse of Mondeiar be defiuered out of prison, on this condition that he come not to the court. Let the wife of Antonio Perez also be set at libertie, so that from hencefoorth shee liue in a monasterie, and let her daughters inherite the patrimonie which shee brought. Forgiue those which are prisoners for hunting, with all such as are condemned to die (the Kings pardon wanting) and so I giue my last farewell to my children, commending them to all peace and safetie. Then the Prince asked Don Christofer de Mora, for the royall key, commaunding him to deliuer it to him, who craued pardon of his Highnes, because it was the key of all trust and confidence, which hee could in no wise deliuer, without the leave of his lord the King. Well, said the prince, it is ynough; and so went into his chamber, whilst Don Christofer, returning to the King, whome he found a little cheered, said vnto him, Sir, his Highness asked of me the royall key, which I haue denied him, as hauing no leave from your Maiestie. But the King told him he had done ill. Not long after he fell into another fit, wherevpon he called for the extreme vnction *, which was giuen vnto him by the Archbishop. Then he called for a crucifixe which had beene kept safely in a chest, which was the very same his father held betweene his hands, when he died, with the which he desired likewise to die. Hereupon his Highness returned to his father, at whose comming Don Christofer, vpon his knees, presented to him the royall key, which the prince receiued, and gaue it to the Marquesse of Denia; whereupon the King said to him, Remember I commende vnto you Don Christofer for the most faithfull seruant which I euer had, and so haue care of all the rest, which I commende vnto you. And so he took his leaue of him againe, imbracing him, at which instant his speech failed; and in this sort he continued two daies, and died vpon Sunday, the thirteenth of September, about three of the clocke in the morning. The body was buried vpon Munday the fourteenth of that moneth, about nine of the clocke in the morning, the Archbishop saying the masse. The new King came from Escuriall, the sixteenth of that instant, leuuing his sister at the grey nunnes, and so went to S. Ierosmes, the court remaining in great mourning and lamentation, making preparation for the great funerall.
al. A small box or trunk,
+ i.e. The office of the dead shall be performed, * Adelantado is the Admirall of the gallies.
Hi.e. Mourning. | Philip
TA convent of Jeronimite friars.