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CHANDLER'S

ENCYCLOPEDIA

AN EPITOME

OF

UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE

IN THREE VOLUMES

EDITED BY
WILLIAM HENRY CHANDLER, PH.D., F.C.S.

OF THE LEHIGH UNIVERSITY

WITH CONTRIBUTIONS FROM A LARGE NUMBER OF EMINENT SCIENTISTS

ILLUSTRATED BY COLORED MAPS AND ENGRAVINGS

VOLUME TWO

NEW YORK

PETER FENELON COLLIER

MDCCCXCVIII

KG 428

HARVARD
UNIVERSITY

LIBRARY
MAR 5 1941

COPYRIGHT, 1898

BY

WILLIAM HENRY CHANDLER

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Faber, CECILIA BÖHL VON. See CABALLERO, FERNAN.

Fabricius, JOHANN ALBERT, 1668–1736. Prof. at Hamburg Faber, FREDERICK WILLIAM, D.D., 1814–1863. English poet from 1699. His Bibliothecce and Codices are storehouses of and theologian, who went from the Anglican to the Roman learning, especially that on Greek authors, 14 vols., 1705–28. Ch. 1845. His devotional and controversial works in prose are valued by Catholics, and many of his hymns, 1848–62, are in general use.

Faber, GEORGE STANLEY, D.D., 1773–1854. Theologian, uncle of F. W. His Horæ Mosaico, 1801, writings on Prophecy, 1807–9, and other works have been highly valued.

Faber, JACOBUS STAPULENSIS, orig. JACQUES LEFÈVRE D'ETAPLES, ab. 1450–1536. French reformer, condemned 1525, and protected at the court of Navarre. His version of the Bible, 1525-28, promoted the Protestant cause, which he never formally espoused.

Faber, or Heigerlin, JOHANNES, 1478–1541. Bp. of Vienna 1530; called “Hammer of Heretics," from his book Malleus in Hæresim, 1524.

Fabius Maximus, QUINTUS, d. ab. 203 B.C. Five times Consul of Rome between 233 and 209 B.C., Dictator 217; famous for his policy of defensive warfare against Hannibal.

Fabius Pictor, QUINTUS, ab. 216 B.C. First Roman historian. Considerable fragments in Greek are extant. Fables. Brief fictitious tales, especially those in which the

Johann Albert Fabricius lower animals are endowed with human attributes and language. Sce BEAST FABLES.

The others deal with Latin classics, 1697, mediæval works, 5 Fabliaux. Short verse stories of Old France 1150-1400,

vols., 1734-36, and the O. and N. T. Apocrypba, 1703-13. ridiculing various classes, especially the priests and nobles.

Fabricius, JOHANN CHRISTIAN, 1775–1808. Prof. at Kiel: They came from the East, and are opposed to the legends and entomologist. romances of chivalry.

Fabrizio, GIROLAMO, 1537-1619. Prof. of Anatomy at Fabre, MARIE JOSEPH VICTORIN, 1785–1831. Author of

Padua from 1562. Harvey was his pupil. Opera Chirurgica, eulogies on Corneille and Montaigne, 1808–12. Literary History

1617. of France, 1810.

Fabroni, ANGELO, 1732-1803. Biographer of Lorenzo and Fabretti, RAFFAELE, 1618–1700. Writer on Roman aque

Cosmo de Medici, 1784-89, and of Learned Italians, 20 vols., ducts, inscriptions, and other antiquities.

1778–1805. Fabriano, GENTILE DA, ab. 1350–1428. Italian painter,

Fabroni, GIOVANNI VALENTINO MATHIAS, 1752-1822. Flornative of the March of Ancona. His best known picture is the entine engineer, savant, and diplomatist; Prof. Pisa 1815. Adoration of the Magi in the Florence Academy.

Fabulæ Atellanæ. Early form of Latin comic drama.

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Fabyan, ROBERT, d. ab. 1513. English chronicler.

electricity, massage and strychnine, and is often successful.

2. Somewhat similar condition, but not so marked and without Façade. Front of a church or other building.

inability to close the eye, caused by disease of the brain, and Façade. In Architecture, front of a building, used only in usually accompanied by paralysis of the opposite side of the reference to exteusive and pretentious works, and in general body. restricted to civil architecture.

Faciend. Multiplicand in the higher algebra, where mulFaccio, FRANCO, 1841-1891. Italian composer; Prof. at tiplication is non-commutative: term introduced by Hamilton Milan 1868.

and adopted by B. Pierce. Facciolati, JACOPO, 1682–1769. Prof. Padua from 1722.

Facient. Multiplier in higher algebra. With his pupil, Forcellini, he compiled the Totius Latinitatis

Facing Switch. One whose movable rails point or face Lexicon, 4 vols., 1771.

toward the direction of the traffic, as distinguished from a

trailing switch, which has the opposite direction. Face. Portion of the head below the line of the hair and in front of the ears; sometimes limited, but incorrectly, to the

Fac-Simile. Exact reproduction, especially of MS. or portion of the above below the eyebrows.

drawing.

Factor. Commission merchant or agent for the sale of Face. In Mining, surface of ore or coal exposed to view at

goods consigned to him. One residing in a different country a working-place.

from that of his principal is often liable as principal to third Face-Cover. Interior glacis or mound of earth, formerly parties; he has a lien on the goods to the extent of his advances used in wide and shallow ditches to protect the masonry of the and charges, and may pledge them for the lien; his commisscarp wall from the destructive fire of distant artillery.

sions on particular goods are not earned until his services are

finished, and are forfeited by gross negligence. Faces. Plane surfaces bounding a solid; planes limiting a dihedral or polyhedral angle.

Factorial. Continued product of natural numbers from

unity to a given limit; indicated by placing the limit within a Facet. Small plane surface, usually of a crystal or cut gem.

right angle, as L 9, or by placing an exclamation mark after it, Faceted Eyes. See COMPOUND EYE OF INSECTS.

as 9! Either of these is read Factorial Nine. Facetiæ. Collection of jests or witticisms, usually inde

Factors. Quantities combined by multiplication. The cent; known almost exclusively in modern literature.

combination is a product. The number of like factors in any

product is indicated by an exponent. Unlike factors are comFace Wall. Built to protect a natural slope of earth; or

bined algebraically by writing them consecutively, or separated retaining wall against which the earth is not filled in from

only by a dot. A negative factor changes the sign of the combehind.

bination. Facial Angle. That included between a line drawn from

Factor's Acts. Statutes in Great Britain and in many of the opening of the ear to the base of the nose and one drawn

the U.S., protecting bona fide pledgers and purchasers of goods from the most prominent point of the forehead to the most

from factors who are in possession of the goods or of documentary titles thereto.

Factors of Production. Things required for making any commodity or product. Such elements are separated for purposes of economic discussion, that the expenses of production or the real supply price may be calculated.

Factors of Safety. Ratio of the ultimate strength of a material to the actual or allowable stress. They in practice usually range from 4 to 15 for wrought iron and steel, and from 8 to 30 for timber and stone. They should be higher for variable stresses than for steady stresses.

Factory Laws. Laws regulating the length of hours of daily labor for women and children, the sanitary condition of factories, holidays, provisions for safety, to compel the payment of wages in money only, and other arrangements. They

were earliest and most highly developed in England, but all PEARSOV, SEST advanced countries have now entered on a course of such

legislation. Some of these laws have been declared unconstiFacial Angle (Australian Savage and Gorilla).

tutional by State courts, as in excess of the police power limit. projecting point of the upper jaw. Sometimes the foramen

Factum. Product in the non-commutative multiplication magnum is used instead of the ear. See CRANIOMETRY.

of higher algebras. Facial Atrophy. Disease in which the skin, muscles,

Faculæ, SOLAR. Brilliant elevations or ridges seen on the and other structures of the face slowly atrophy or waste away. White patches are often observed, and the hair of the affected

sun's surface; most conspicuous near its limbs. part bleaches and may fall out. Usually affects one side, the Facultative Anerobics. Bacteria that grow either with left most often; rarely involves vital parts, and is practically or without the presence of free air or of oxygen. incurable.

Facultative Conjugation. That which is optional, as Facial Nerve, Supplies motor impulses to the muscles of when, among Protozoa, conjugation would normally occur but the scalp, external ear, face, eyelids (in part), tympanum, soft is prevented, in the instance of certain individual zoöids, owing palate (in part), and certain of those of the neck; sometimes the to absence of zoöids of opposite sex, etc. They then resume name is applied to the trifacial nerves which impart sensibility their self-multiplication method of reproduction. to the face, etc., and motion to the muscles of mastication.

Faculty. Iu the old psychology, an elementary function Facial Neuralgia. Pain in the sensory branches of the of the mind. The extreme theory of faculties regarded the trifacial nerve. May be located in any portion of the face, mind as made up of distinct and ultimate units, as will, judgusually on one side, and be due to decayed teeth, pressure upon ment, memory, imagination, etc., each playing its part in the nerve, rheumatism, malaria, disordered stomach, etc. (see mental operations independently of the others. This view of NEURALGIA), and is best treated by hot applications, abundant our mental life has been given up as unsound. supply of nourishing food, quinine, and attention to decayed

Faculty. In Law, indulgence to do something not usually teeth, and in aggravated cases, to gain temporary relief, by

permissible; confined to the ecclesiastical courts. In colleges anodynes; when accompanied by painful twitching and spasm of the muscles is denominated Tic Douloureux.

and universities the professors and heads of each department

form a separate faculty. In the U. S., the term usually comFacial Paralysis. 1. Loss of motion in che parts sup. prises all the professors of a university taken collectively. plied by the facial nerve, usually of one side. Inability to close

Fæces. The undigested parts of the food together with the eye of the affected side is the most prominent symptom;

some of the waste products of the body which is expelled from the entire side of the face is flat and expressionless, saliva dribbles from the corner of the mouth, and the food collects

the body through the anus. They consist three-fourths of between the cheek and gums. It is due to injury or disease of

water, the rest organic matter mostly. See MANURE. the nerve in its course; exposure to cold, rheumatism, gout, or

Faed, JOHN, b. 1820. Scottish painter in London 1864-80.syphilis are the most common causes. Treatment consists in His brother, THOMAS, b. 1826, became R.A. 1864.

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Faenza. City of Italy 31 m. s.e. of Bologna; pop. 36,100; or sale. Formerly, especially in Great Britain, these gather

noted for its manufactures of glazed | ings were wholly for purposes of sale, but this feature has
earthenware painted with designs,
hence called Faience, invented here
1299. The term was extended to in-
clude all wares between porcelain and
common pottery.

Faerie Queen, Allegorical poem
by Edmund Spenser, modeled some-
what on Ariosto and Tasso. As pro-
jected it was to consist of 24 books:
only 6 were written and pub. 1590–
96. Book 1, The Red-Cross Knight,
or Holiness; 2, Sir Guyon, or Tem-
perance; 3, Britomartis, or Chastity;
4, Cambel and Triamand, or Friend-
ship; 5, Sir Artegall, or Justice; 6,
Sir Calidore, or Courtesy.

Faeroe. See FAROE.
Fagaceæ. Natural family of
flowering plants, of the class Angio-
spermce, and sub-class Dicotyledons;
trees or shrubs, including the Beech-

es, Oaks and Chestnuts.
Delft Faience Jar.
Fagging. Custom in English

Southwark Fair, by Hogarth. public schools, by which a younger boy was made in effect always been kept largely in the background in fairs in the U.S., servant to one in an upper form; now abolished or modified.

and has now completely disappeared.

and has now com Fagots, SAP. Short fascines placed between the gabions of Fair, JAMES GRAHAM, 1831–1894. U. S. Senator from Nea sap to serve as a temporary protection to the sapper; each 3 | vada 1881–87. ft. long and 9 in. in diameter, made of stout picket material.

Fairbairn, ANDREW MARTIN, D.D., b. 1838. Scottish theoWhen the parapet of the trench is sufficiently thick to protect

logian. City of God, 1882; Christ in Theology, 1892. the sapper from musketry fire, they are removed and used

Fairbairn, PATRICK, D.D., 1805–1874. Prof. at Aberdeen again at the head of the sap.

1853, and Glasgow 1856. Typology of Scripture, 1845–47; ProphFagotto. BASSOON (q.v.). So-called in Italy because ecy, 1856; Pastoral Theology, 1875. when not in use it is taken to pieces and bundled up like Fairbairn, ROBERT BRINCKERHOFF, D.D., LL.D., b. 1818. a fagot.

Warden of St. Stephen's Coll., Annandale, N.Y., since 1863. Fagrskinna. MS. chronicle of the kings of Norway, dat Doctrine of Morality, 1887. ing from ab. 1200; burned at Copenhagen 1728; extant in Fairbairn, SIR WILLIAM, LL.D., F.R.S., 1789–1874. Scotcopies.

tish engineer, eminent as a builder of iron ships, bridges, and Fahlband. Scandinavian term for certain belts of schis

mills; Baronet 1869; author of sundry technical works. tose rock impregnated with metallic ores, chiefly pyrites and

Fairbanks, ERASTUS, 1792-1864. Gov. of Vt. 1852 and 1861. blende.

-His brother, THADDEUS, 1796–1886, invented the platform

scale, patented 1831. Fahlcrantz, CHRISTIAN ERIK, 1790–1866. Swedish poet,

Fairchild, CHARLES STEBBINS, LL.D. b. 1842. Atty.-gen. of Prof. at Upsala 1835, Bp. of Vesteras 1849. He wrote a

N.Y. 1877–78; U. S. Sec. Treasury 1887–89. humorous piece, Noah's Ark, 1825, and an epic, Ansgarius, 1835–46.

Fairchild, HERMAN LE ROY, b. 1850. Prof. Univ. Roches

ter; sec. Geological Society. Hist. N.Y. Academy of Sciences, Fahlerz. Cu,Sb,Sg. Tetrahedrite or gray copper ore. It

1887. contains variable amounts of sulphur, antimony, and copper,

Fairchild, JAMES HARRIS, D.D., b. 1817. Prof. Oberlin and is frequently rich in silver.

Coll., O., from 1842, its pres. 1866–89, and its historian 1883. Fahlunite. One of the many products of the natural alter Moral Philosophy, 1869; Theology, 1892. ation of the mineral iolite.

Fairchild, LUCIUS, LL.D., b. 1831. Gov. of Wis. 1866–72; Fahrenheit, GABRIEL DANIEL, F.R.S., 1686–1736. German

U. S. Consul at Liverpool 1872–78; U. S. Minister to Spain physicist, inventor (1714-21) of the thermometer named from

1880–82. hin. In 1714 his zero was temperature of ice and salt and 24° Fairfax, EDWARD, ab. 1580-1635. English poet. Tr. Tasso's

ly, the freezing point of water was 8°; | Jerusalem Delivered, 1600. these degrees were later divided by 4, placing the freezing Fairfax, THOMAS, LORD, 1611-1671. English general of the point at 32°. In 1721 he made a mercury thermometer. After parliamentary army; commissioned gen. of cavalry by Parliahis death the boiling point of water was placed at 212°. These points are determined at a barometrical pressure of 30 in.

Faidherbe, LOUIS LÉON CÉSAR, 1818–1889. French general and author; Gov. of Senegal 1852; commander of the Army of the North Dec. 1870; defeated at St. Quentin Jan. 19, 1871. Numidian Inscriptions, 1870-72; Soudan, 1884; Senegal, 1889.

Faience. See FAENZA.

Faillon, MICHEL ÉTIENNE, 1799–1870. Historian of the French in Canada, 1865–66.

Failly, CHARLES ACHILLE DE, b. 1810. French general, prominent at Solferino 1859, at Mentana 1867, and in 1870, when he was relieved from command of the 5th corps.

Fainéants, Rois. Frankish kings, who were sovereigns only in name. The last Merovingian, Childeric III., was dethroned by Pepin 730.

Fainting. Sudden loss of consciousness, usually of slight duration. It may be due to pain, sudden fright, fear, loss of blood, injuries, or any violent mental shock, and is best treated by placing the patient on the back, with the head on the same level as the body, and by mild stimulation.

Lord Fairfax. Fair. Collection of farm products, stock, machinery, etc., | ment 1642; distinguished at Marston Moor, July 2, 1644; combrought together periodically for exhibition and competition mander-in-chief 1645; victor at Naseby, June 14; member of

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