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Nota magis nulli domus est sua quam mihi lucus
Martis, et Aeoliis vicinum rupibus antrum
Vulcani. Quid agant Venti, quas torqueat umbras
Aeacus, unde alius furtivae devehat aurum

10
Pelliculae, quantas jaculetur Monychus ornos,
Frontonis platani convulsaque marmora clamant
Semper et assiduo ruptae lectore columnae.

Exspectes eadem a summo minimoque poeta. Martial has this epigram on one Picens, a nor of the winds. Strabo says it was Stron. bad poet:

8yle (Stromboli), ενταύθα δε τον Αίολον “ Scribit in aversa Picens epigrammata oixigai paoi (vi

. p. 424, B.). See Pliny, charta,

H. N. iii. 9; Heyn. Exc. i. on Aen. i. Et dolet averso quod facit illa deo.”.

10. unde alius]

Jason from Colchis. (viii. 62.)

Horace uses the form “pellicula'(S. ii. 5. 38);

and Persius (v. 116). It has no diminutive Such writings were called •Opisthographi.' force, and is only used for convenience. • Liber' properly belongs only to books of 11. jaculetur Monychus ornos,] In Ovid papyrus ("chartae'); but it was not contined (Met. xii. 510, sqq.) Nestor relates how to those (see Dict.Ant.‘Liber'). It was usual Nonychus and the other centaurs tore up to have a wide margin ; and the larger the the trees from Othrys and Pelion, and hurled book the wider the margin. Priscian (vi. 3. them upon Caeneus at the marriage of his 16, p. 684) quotes this passage to show that friend Peirithous.

margo' is sometimes of the feminine gen 12. Frontonis platani] The gardens and der. The Scholiast makes the same remark, corridors of private persons were lent, it and quotes Ov. Met. i. 13 for the mascu appears, for this purpose. Fronto is a line.

name which occurs often under the empire. 7. lucus Martis,] These are such subjects The most distinguished was M. Cornelius as Horace speaks of, A. P. 16. sq. : “lucus the orator, who was tutor to M. Aurelius, et ara Dianae, Et properantis aquae per amoe. The man in the text may be anybody. The nosambitus agros,"&c. TheScholiast refers to exaggeration of the speaker's powers and a grove of Mars on the Appian Way,to another the applause of his friends are amusing, and in which Ilia brought forth Romulus and the verses very forcible. In the peristylia Remus, and that in Colchis where the golden of large houses trees of considerable size fleece was kept. Any grove of Nars will were grown. “Inter varias nutritur silva codo, and there were many. Of the group of lumnas (Hor. Epp. i. 10. 22). The plane islands north of Sicily called Aeoliae, Vul. tree was much cultivated by the Romans. caniae, or Liparaeae Insulae, the most sou. Compare Hor. C. ii. 15. 4: “platanus. therly is that now called Volcano, by the que caelebs Evincet ulmos." "Convulsa' and Romans Hiera or Vulcani Insula, and by the “ruptae’ Grangaeus says are medical words, Greeks 'Izpå 'Hpaiorov. Virgil describes as if the pillars were in a state of convulsion it in language which leaves little doubt that and bursting blood vessels: “Rupti convulsithis is the place Juvenal refers to (Aen. viii. que dicuntur qui nervorum affectione et 416—422). Ruperti thinks Aetna must be spasmo laborant; sed et eadem ratione sic meant, because the cave is said to be near' appellantur qui nimio clamore venis tumesthe Aeolian rocks, whereas Hiera is one of centes offenderunt.” As to the construction them; which is not worth considering. This "ruptae lectore,' see Hor. i. 6. 2, n. Servius island was in early times a very active vol. quotes this verse on Virgil: "Et cantu quecano (see Smith's Dict. Geog.,'Aeoliae Ins.'). rulae rumpent arbusta cicadae” (Georg. iji. Heinrich says that in lucus Martis,' and 328). the cave of Vulcan, and Quid agant Venti,' 11. Erspectes eadem] “You may lock for Juvenal had his eye upon Valerius Flaccus, the same stuff from all sorts of poets, from whose Argonautica were written about this the greatest to the least; I then (ergo) must time. See lib. i. 573, 599.; v. 252, sq. write, for I too have been to school and been

9. Quid agant l'enti,) What the winds whipped and declaimed ; and since paper are about.' The winds follow naturally the must be spoilt, merey would he thrown away: mention of the Acoliae Insulae, one of which I may as well spoil it as others.” Schoolboys is said to have been the abode of the gover will not want to be told whatómanum feru

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Et nos ergo manum ferulae subduximus, et nos
Consilium dedimus Sullae privatus ut altum
Dormiret. Stulta est clementia, quum tot ubique
Vatibus occurras, periturae parcere chartae.

Cur tamen hoc potius libeat decurrere campo
Per quem magnus equos Auruncae flexit alumnus,
Si vacat et placidi rationem admittitis, edam.
Quum tener uxorem ducat spado; Maevia Tuscum
Figat aprum et nuda teneat venabula mamma;
Patricios omnes opibus quum provocet unus,
Quo tondente gravis juveni mihi barba sonabat;

20

25

lae subducere' means; but it appears the Of these many were free men and voluncommentators are not agreed. It corres. teers fighting for pay, and among them were ponds to Horace's "didicit prius extimuitque sometimes fou even women (see ii. 53), magistrum” (A. P. 415). Grangaeus quotes which seems to have happened first in the several authorities for the expression, which year A.D. 63, in the reign of Nero, “Specpassed into a proverb.

tacula gladiatorum idem annus habuit pari 16. Consilium dedimus Sullae] Jahn on · magniticentia ac priora : sed faeminarum the authority of many of the MSS. writes illustrium senatorumque plures per arenam “Syllae;' but all inscriptions where the name foedati sunt.” (Tac. Ann. xv. 32.) Suetooccurs have “Sula' or “Sulla.' The Greek nius mentions the magnificent games of Do. form is Lúllas. The theme on wbich he mitian : “Spectacula magnifica assidue et professes to have declaimed belongs to the sumptuosa edidit-venationes gladiatoresorder called "suasoriae orationes," of which que--nec virorum modo pugnas sed et faemi. a book was written by the elder Seneca. It narum.” Juvenal refers to them again (S. vi. appears to have been a favourite subject. 246, sq.), and his contemporary, Statius, Quintilian says (Inst. iii. 8), " neque enim does the same, Silv. i. 6. 53, sqq.: ignoro plerumque exercitationis gratia poni

“ Stat sexus rudis insciusque ferri, et poëticas et historicas, ut Priami verba

Et pugnas capit improbus viriles. apud Achillem, aut Sullae dictaturam depo.

Credas ad Tanain ferumve Phasin nentis in contione." The advice is, that

Thermodontiacas calere turmas." Sulla should purchase sleep by laying down his power. He did so A.U.c. 675, and The practice was put down more than a died next year in retirement and sensuality. century later by a senatusconsultum, in the . Suasoriae' were distinguished from con- reign of Sept. Severus. The boars of Etrutroversiae,' and belonged rather to boys' ria were particularly large. Lucania and schools. See note on Pers. iii. 45.

Umbria were also famous for these beasts 20. Auruncae flexit alumnus,] Suessa, in (see Hor. S. ii. 3. 231, n.). The women are Campania, the late capital of the Aurunci, said to hunt with their breast bare like the whose original town Aurunca (five miles Amazons, to whom they are likened by Sta. from Suessa) was destroyed by the Sidicini tius in the above extract.

M. and many (Livy viii. 15), was called Suessa Aurunca, other MSS. have Nevia for Maevia. Martial to distinguish it from Suessa Pometia, an has the former name. Alban colony in Latium, from which the 25. Quu tondente] There was a barber, Pomtine marshes were named. Suessa Au. Licinus, mentioned by Horace (A. P. 301), runca was the birth-place of Lucilius. of whom the Scholiast there says that he was

21. Si vacat et] On the authority of made a senator by Julius Caesar. There P. which has . si placat ac,' Jahn has adop- appears to have been some such story con. ted.ac.' All other MSS. and editions have nected with a low man of this name, for it

passed into a proverb. It may or may not 22. Maevia Tuscum Figat aprum] This have been the man spoken of below, S. i. refers to the 'venationes,' or fights with wild 109; xiv. 306; Persius ji. 36. See my note beasts at the circus and ampbitheatres. The on the above passage of Horace. The verse beasts fought with each other, or with men is repeated below, x. 226. With the prece. trained for the purpose and called “bestiarii.' ding it is wanting in some MSS.

. et.'

Quum pars Niliacae plebis, quum verna Canopi
Crispinus, Tyrias humero revocante lacernas,
Ventilet aestivum digitis sudantibus aurum,
Nec sufferre queat majoris pondera gemmae :
Difficile est satiram non scribere. Nam quis iniquae 30
Tam patiens Urbis, tam ferreus, ut teneat se,
Causidici nova quum veniat lectica Mathonis
Plena ipso; post hunc magni delator amici,

26. verna Canopi Crispinus,] Canopus, 32. lectica Mathonis] This man is menor Canobus, which gave its name to one of tioned below (vii. 129) as a bankrupt, and the branches of the Nile, was about fifteen (xi. 34) as a blustering fellow. Martial miles from Alexandria, and a town of disso. mentions him repeatedly as a profligate (vii. lute morals, as seaports are wont to be. It 10), a beggar (viii. 42; xi. 68), a ranter (iv. is for this reason that Juvenal makes his 81), a coxcombical speaker (x. 46). He was upstart Crispinus a native of Canopus. How so fat as to fill his litter, which was new as he commended himself to Domitian, and his fortunes were, and short-lived. As to rose to be an eques, does not appear. One the ‘lectica,' or palankeen, see Becker's of the Scholiasts says he was a paper-seller Gallus, Exc. on the Carriages, and Dict. Ant. of Alexandria. Juvenal attacks him again, Also Hor. S. ii. 3. 214, n.; and Cic. in Verr. in the fourth Satire, in the vilest terms. ji. 6. 11, Long. See also the note on ver. 65 • Verna' was a slave born in his master's below. Causidicus' is a title that Cicero house: this man was therefore a “libertinus.' only uses with more or less contempt. The

27. Tyrias humero revocante lacernas,] proper words for what we call an advocate, The lacerna' was a loose cloak, worn over or counsel, are orator' and 'patronus ;' a the 'toga.' It was usually of costly dye and causidicus' was one of these of a lower material, being worn chiefly by the rich. sort. So Juvenal says below : “nec causi. Stapylton translates the words humero re dicus nec praeco loquatur” (vi. 438),“nec unvocante' which falling off his shoulders quam Sanguine causidici maduerunt rostra still revoke;' and some commentators take pusilli” (x. 120), “nutricula causidicorum it in this way. Gifford has

Africa” (vii. 148). Forcellini quotes Cic. de “Crispinus, while he gathers now, now flings Orat. i. 46: “Non enim causidicum nescio His purple open, fans his summer rings." quem neque proclamatorem aut rabulam hoc

sermone nostro conquirimus." Also QuinHe means that the man is showing off the tilian xii. 1. fine texture of his cloak; and he quotes 33. magni delator amici,] This may be Ammianus Marcellinus : “ Alii summum any low informer who betrayed his patron. decus in ambitioso vestium cultu ponentes The informer's trade, of which two members, sudant sub ponderibus lacernarum, quas col- Sulcius and Caprius, are mentioned by Holis insertas cingulis ipsis adnectunt, nimia race (S. i. 4. 66), reached its height under subteminum tenuitate perflabiles, expectan- Tiberius, and throve under his successors. tes crebris agitationibus, maximeque sinistra, A famous one of the reign of Domitian was ut longiores fimbriae tunicaeque perspicere M. Aquilius Regulus, who under Nero got luceant.” The words describe the way in promotion and hatred by informing against which the cloak was worn, hitched up on the M. Crassus (Tac. Hist. iv. 42). Baebius left shoulder by a brooch or something of Massa was another of the same tribe, a that sort, and floating in the wind, so that the freedman probably of some person of the shoulder seems to pull it back. Graevius takes Baebia

gens. Tacitus says he betrayed ' lacernas' with • ventilet,' and conjectures Piso, and was universally hated then (Hist. aestivo auro.' This man appears to have had iv. 50). This was in the reign of Vespa ian, light rings for summer, and heavierfor winter. A. D. 70. He was then “e procuratoribus That he wore a gold ring does not prove Africae.” He became governor of the prothat he was an eques, for by the emperors vince of Bactica, and for his oppression of after Tiberius the privilege was given to the that province was brought to trial, under lowest of the people (see llor. S. ii. 7.9, n.). Domitian, A. D. 93 (Tac. Agr. 15); and

30. iniquae Tam patiens Urbis,] • So though condemned contrived to escape, and tolerant of the town's iniquities.'

lived to become one of the most notorious

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Et cito rapturus de nobilitate comesa
Quod superest; quem Massa timet, quem munere palpat 35
• Carus et a trepido Thymele summissa Latino;
Quum tę summoveant qui testamenta merentur
Noctibus, in caelum quos evehit optima summi
Nunc via processus, vetulae vesica beatae ?
Unciolam Proculeius habet, sed Gillo deuncem, 40
Partes quisque suas ad mensuram inguinis heres.
Accipiat sane mercedem sanguinis, et sic
Palleat ut nudis pressit qui calcibus anguem,
Aut Lugdunensem rhetor dicturus ad aram.

informers in Domitian's time. Carus Met men elbow you out of the way who have tius was another of the same sort, of whom got rich by scandalous means.' Tacitus says, that at the time of Agricola's 38. summi Nunc via processus,] Prodeath (A.D. 93), una adhuc victoria Carus cessus' means advancement; and 'summi Mettius,” he had only signalized himself by processus'

advancement to the highest place. one great victory in his profession; which So Ovid (Trist iv. 5. 25): “Haec tua promeans that he afterwards became highly cessus habeat fortuna perennes.” Rigault distinguished. . Martial mentions him pro- quotes an inscription, “OB SPEM PROCES. verbially (xii. 25). The words • delator ami. SUS EJUS." It was by these means that ci' are so like S. iii. 116, that it might be Otho got into favour with Nero (Sueton. supposed Egnatius Celer was meant, as the Otho, c. 2): "libertinam aulicam gratiosam Scholiast suggests; but he was dead. See quo efficacius coleret etiam diligere simula. note on that place. Thymele and Latinus vit, quamvis anum ac paene decrepitam : were an actress and actor, to whom Domi- per hanc insinuatus Neroni facile summum tian was partial; wherefore Martial begs him inter amicos locum tenuit." to look on his books as kindly as he looked 40. Unciolam Proculeius habet] Procu. at these two persons on the stage (i. 5). leius has a twelfth part of the estate left Latinus is often mentioned by Martial, who him, and Gillo eleven-twelfths: the first is wrote an epitaph for him, and flattered Do. heres ex uncia ;' the second heres ex mitian through him, as he did through his deunce.' The divisions of the 'as' reprefavourites generally. He is mentioned by sented the portions of the estate devised to name below, vi. 44, and alluded to in viii. each • heres' (see Hor. S. ii. 5. 53, n. fin.). 197, in conjunction with the same Thymele. The men are unknown. Unciola' does not The Scholiast here and on iv. 53, on the occur elsewhere. It does not mean, as Ru. authority of Marius Maximus, who wrote perti says, ' less than an uncia;' but a the lives of some of the emperors, says that poor uncia,' as we say. -Latinus was an influential informer. These 42. Accipiat sane] There is contempt informers were all afraid of the great man in this : “ Let him take it with all my of their craft, and did what they could to heart.” make friends with him. Latinus lent him 43. pressit qui calcibus anguem,] Hein. Thymele, who was either his mistress or his rich thinks this is an allusion to Homer wife. This is the Scholiast's explanation. (II. iii. 33): Heinrich supposes some scene is referred to, ώς ότε τίς τε δράκοντα ιδών παλίνoρσος in a farce acted by these people. He is obliged

απέστη to change et’into ut' to support this ex

άψ τ' ανεχώρησεν, ώχρός τε μιν είλε παρplanation.

ειάς. . 37. Quum te summoveant] “De heredi. tate justa tanquam de via; proprie enim 44. Aut Lugdunensem] Suetonius relates summovere' verbum lictorum. This is (Vit. Calig. c. 20) that Caligula instituted Grangaeus' note; and it is true as respects games, 'ludos miscellos' (see S. xi. 20, n.), the lictors. (Sec Hor. C. ii. 16, 10, n.) at Lugdunum (Lyon), where there was an • Summovere' is a term used in the Roman altar, dedicated to Alignstus on the day that law also. But there is nothing in the text Claudius was born in that city, Ist of Auabout an hereditas.' Juvenal means : when gust, A.u.c. 744 (Suet. Vit. Claudii, c. 2).

B4

45

Quid referam quanta siccum jecur ardeat ira,
Quum populum gregibus comitum premit hic spoliator
Pupilli prostantis ? Et hic damnatus inani
Judicio (quid enim salvis infamia nummis ?)
Exsul ab octava Marius bibit et fruitur dis
Iratis ; at tu, victrix provincia, ploras.
Haec ego non credam Venusina digna lucerna !

50

Dion Cassius relates that games were cele- tundae,' and banished from Italy. Marius brated there in the life-time of Augustus was compelled to refund a part of his bad (l. 46. c. 50). If so, it was reserved for Ca. gains, and retired with the remainder to live ligula to establish a rhetorical contest in comfortably, though not at home. The Greek and Latin, in which those who gave offence of “repetundae,' which was that of the emperor greatest offence (“ ii qui maxime a magistrate getting money by foul means displicuissent") were obliged to lick out what from the provincials under his government, they had written with their tongue, or to be was punished with different penalties at difMogged, or plunged in the nearest stream. ferent times. The latest • lex' on the subject To this two epigrams in the Anthologia, was the · lex Julia,' passed in the dictator. quoted by Scaliger on the above passage of ship of Julius Caesar, which abolished the Suetonius, are said by him to relate. punishment of exile; but it appears to have του σού γάρ πάσχω νεκρού χάριν ολα been revived under the empire. The reπάθοιεν

funding of the money proved to have been οι καταλείξαντες βιβλία και καλάμους. And in this instance it appears that 700

received was always part of the penalty ; Lib. ii. 40. 7.

sestertia (about 55001. sterling) were paid ουχ ότι τον κάλαμον λείχεις διά τούτό σε

by Marius into the treasury. An interesting μισώ,

account of the whole affair is given by the αλλ' ότι τούτο ποιείς και δίχα του καλά . μου.

Ib. 12. 8. younger Pliny, who acted for the provincials

(Epp. ii. 11). See Long's Excursus on Cic. Juvenal seems to refer to the competitors on in Verr. on Repetundae,' and Dict. Ant. these occasions who had reason to be afraid under the same head. • Infamia' (contheir speeches might offend, and who trem. cerning which see Dict. Ant.) did not rebled for the consequences. In some cases sult from the offence of 'repetundae ;' but they would probably be more serious than Juvenal uses the word loosely. “Ab octava those Suetonius mentions.

bibit' means that he sat down to dinner 46. populum gregibus comitum premit] earlier than usual; the ninth hour in sumP. and all the older and more trustworthy mer, and tenth in winter, being those at MSS. have the indicative mood : several of which industrious persons generally dined the later have premat;' and Heinrich (see Hor. C. i. 1. 20, n.). "Fruitur dis adopts it. Ruperti and Jahn have 'premit,' iratis,' he enjoys the anger of the gods ; in reliance on the MSS. and the indicatives that is, he makes himself comfortable under that follow; and that mood is, I believe, his punishment. the right one. As to 'pupillus,' see Dict. 50. victrix provincia,] Grangaeus supAnt., Art. “Tutor;' and Hor. Epp. i. 1. poses this to be a play upon the words. 21; n. This tutor' went out to the forum Even if it were (which is not likely), it would or to the walks, attended, deductus' (see be only from the similarity of sound, and Hor. S. i. 9. 59), by crowds of parasites, sup. would not support Festus’ derivation of ported by the fortune of his 'pupillus,' who provincia' from vinco.' It is a shortened was left to starve or to support himself by form of providentia,' and “properly desigthe vilest means. • Comites' is the word nated the particular functions of a magisused below, ver. 119. Ruperti thinks ‘putrate." See Long's note on Cic. in Verr. pillae’ must be the proper word, but does ii. 2. 1. • Vincere' is the legal word for not adopt it. It would be less offensive ; succeeding in a cause. On ploras' Gran. but that is not much to the purpose. gaeus adds, " tibi enim fuit victoria Cadmea,

47. Et hic damnatus inani Judicio] We in qua jocatur victus plorat victor." hare the private thief and the public brought 51. l'enusina digna lucerna ?] Horace together. Marius Priscus, proconsul of and Juvenal had not much in common; but Africa, was convicted (A.D. 100) of 'repe. Horace seems to have been looked upon by

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