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Tingat olus siccum muria vafer in calice empta,

Ipse sacrum irrorans patinae piper ; hic bona dente
Grandia magnanimus peragit puer. Utar ego, utar,
Nec rhombos ideo libertis ponere lautus,
Nec tenuem sollers turdarum nosse salivam.
Messe tenus propria vive, et granaria, (fas est,)
Emole. Quid metuas? occa, et seges altera in herba est.
Ast vocat officium ; trabe rupta Bruttia saxa
Prendit amicus inops, remque omnem surdaque vota


. In



used elsewhere. It is 'to run through,' as ground, and you get another crop.' we say, to come to the end of his property. herba' is in the blade.' Horace, Epp. ii. • Puer,' at the end of the sentence, is em 2. 161, has “Cum segetes occat tibi mox phatic, as in Horace (C. i. 9. 15), frumenta daturas," where see note on 'ocdulces amores Sperne puer, neque tu cho. care:' • Quid metuas' is better than me. reas," i. e., while you are young (Epp. i. 2. tuis,' which Jahn adopts, and it has more 67), “ Nunc adbibe puro Pectore verba, MSS. authority. Quid metuas' occurs in puer.”

ji. 26. 22. Utar ego, utar,] This is imitated 27. Ast vocat officium :] This is by from Horace, Epp. ii. 2. 190:

some taken to be an objection of the man, “ Utar, et ex modico quantum res poscet So Halliday translates it,

who does not like parting with his grain. Tollam, nec metuam quid de me judicet “Why, I should thus spend, heres."

But duty hinders me: for my poor friend,

His ship being split,” &c. The verb is put absolutely, but the meaning Dryden and Gifford give the same sense, is easily seen. The pronoun though emphatic is omitted, whatever others may

which is not that of Persius. He supposes do.' He says he will enjoy his fortune, a case in which a particular duty calls for which was ample, and yet he is not on

greater generosity. A friend is wrecked, that account so extravagant as to feed his his property and the vows he offered for its • liberti' upon turbot, or such an epicure safety all buried alike in the waves ; he is as to distinguish the delicate taste of a hen cast on shore, and lies grasping the rocks thrush or fieldfare. The difference of taste

with the ship's gods lying by him, and the between a cock and a hen was imaginary gulls flying over the scattered timbers as

In this case, he perhaps, but the masculine here would have they float on the waters. no force. Though the MSS. differ there. adds, you may go further, and give the poor fore, and the masculine is the vulgar read.

man a piece of your land to save him from ing, there is no doubt the feminine is right. begging. *Trabe' is used for a ship, as in This the Scholiast recognizes and explains : S. v. 141, and Horace, C. i. 1. 13, " trabe ""turdarum'abusive posuit cum 'turdorum' Cypria." By way of giving reality to the dicere debuerit." Nearly all the MSS. picture, he fixes the place of the wreck on have ‘tenues salivas,' which no editor has the south coast of Italy, where he lies like adopted that I am aware of, except Duebner, Palinurus in the Eneid. vi. 360, “ Prensanwho has introduced it into Casaubon's text. temque uncis manibus capita aspera montis." • Saliva’ is equivalent to 'sapor,' as in Pro

• Surdus' is not used elsewhere in this sense pertius (v. 8. 38, Paley), “ Et Mithymnaei exactly. It means vows to which the gods Graeca saliva meri," where it seems llertz.

are deaf. Where it means • silent,' as in Juv. berg disputes this meaning. There is no

vii. 71; xii. 194, it is as being unheard, doubt about it here. Lautus ponere,'' sols which is an analogous use.

As to Ionio, lers nosse,' is a construction noticed on Prol.

see Juv. vi. 93, n. Images of gods 11. This sense of 'lautus' is common.

were carried in the stern of a ship. Ovid, Forcellini gives examples. See Juv. xi. 1, describing a storm he encountered on his 6. Atticus eximie si coenat lautus habetur." voyage froin Rome, says,

23. Messe tenus propria rire,] We should “ Monte nec inferior prorae puppique recall this • living up to one's income.' He adds, don't hoard but grind all your grain. Insilit, et pictos verberat unda Deos." What have you to fear ? only harrow your

(Trist. i. 4. 7 sq.)



Condidit Ionio ; jacet ipse in litore et una
Ingentes de puppe Dei, jamque obvia mergis
Costa ratis lacerae. Nunc et de cespite vivo
Frange aliquid, largire inopi, ne pictus oberret
Caerulea in tabula.–Sed coenam funeris heres
Negliget iratus, quod rem curtaveris; urnae
Ossa inodora dabit, seu spirent cinnama surdum
Seu ceraso peccent casiae nescire paratus.
Tunc bona incolumis minuas? Et Bestius urget
Doctores Graios: “Ita fit, postquamı sapere urbi


'De cespite vivo frange aliquid' is only tract from the cherry-tree is no where else a way of expressing give the man a piece of mentioned. • Nescire paratus,' he is preland.' Vivus cespes’ is used by Horace pared not to know,' is a sarcastic way of twice for a turf altar, C. i. 19. 13 ; ii. 8. 4. speaking. As to the sailor and his picture, see Juv. 37. Tunc bona incolumis minuas?] These xiv. 301, sq. Pers. i. 89.

words are usually attributed to the heres,' 33. Sed coenam funeris heres] He sup- abusing the man after his death. In that poses the man to be afraid of the revenge case the reading supposed is 'tune.' Hein. his . heres' will take if he curtails his pro- rich with a few MSS. reads 'tunc,' and perty for such a purpose. • Coena funeris' says they are the words of the poet. He is a dinner given to the friends of the de. takes no notice of the metrical difficulty, ceased after the funeral. It has nothing to but I think the hiatus may be got over, as do with the silicernium,' concerning which in “male ominatis (Horace, C. ii. 14. 11). see Juv. v. 85, “ feralis coena." The friends If this is right, as I incline to think it is, met and speeches were commonly made on the poet asks ironically, 'and then would you such occasions as at wedding breakfasts with not be mad to curtail your estate?' that is, us, the chief subject being the merits of the with such a terrible prospect after your principal person concerned. The dinner death? Incolumis' is used in this sense was sometimes mentioned in the will. See of .sanus' by Horace, S. ii. 3. 132, “In. Hor. S. ii. 3. 86, n. “epulum arbitrio Arri.” columi capite es ?”. He also has “male

34. urnae Ossa inodora dabit,] There is tutae mentis” in the same satire (137). a variant inhonora,' but the other is the 37. Et Bestius urget] · And then with true word. It was usual to sprinkle odours the airs of a Bestius he (the' heres') will go on the ashes when they were put into the on to attack the Greek doctors.' Persius

Tibullus, giving directions for his has obviously borrowed this name from burial (iii. 2), hegs, that when his bones are Horace (Epp. i. 15. 37), placed in the urn, all manner of perfumes “Scilicet ut ventres lampa candente nepomay be brought,

tum “ Illuc quas mittit dives Panchaia merces, Diceret urendos, corrector Bestius." Eoique Arabes pinguis et Assyria.”

Nothing is known of this man, whose name Ovid also says (Trist. iii. 3. 65. 69), was proverbial for serere censure either in a “Ossa tamen facito parva referantur in urna,

public or private character. (See note on

Hlor. I. c.) Atque ea cum foliis et amomi pulvere

For 'et' most MSS. have

sed,' which does not give any good misce." • Surdus,' like kūçoc, has reference properly 38. Ita fit, postquam sapere urbi] “This to the failure of hearing either actively or is always the way, ever since this taste of passively. :(See note on 28.) But it came ours was imported with pepper and palms.' to be applied more generally to anything “Sapere hoc' is like nostrum vivere,' &c. dulland spiritless. (See Forcellini.) “Spirent (s. i. I, n.) Pepper and palms came from surdum means they give no scent at all,' the coast of Syria (v. 136), from whence or a flat one: “ acutum odorem non red. Juvenal's man Umbricius complains that dunt” (Schol.). The adulteration of the the Romans got so much vice (iii. 62 sq9.), olive oil with oil of casia is referred to “ Jam pridem Syrus in Tiberim defluxit above (ii. 64). That of casia with an ex- Orontes.” (See note.) The commentators





Cum pipere et palmis venit nostrum hoc maris expers,
Foenisecae crasso vitiarunt unguine pultes."
Haec cinere ulterior metuas? At tu, meus heres,
Quisquis eris, paulum a turba seductior audi.
O bone, num ignoras? missa est a Caesare laurus

are much troubled by maris expers.' Ca. thong. “Unguine' here is like 'uncto' in saubon was the first who thought of 'maris' 16. Horace has crassum unguentum' being the genitive of 'mas,' and the sense (A. P. 375); but he means perfumes. being emasculated.' Weber approves this Here coarse oil is meant for mixing with interpretation, and compares i. 103, “si the porridge; as to which see Juv. xiv. 171, testiculi vena ulla paterni Viveret in nobis ?" "grandes fumabant pultibus ollae." Our translators Halliday and Gifford so 41. Haec cinere ulterior meluas ?] The render the words. But it is manifest that poet drops his irony and asks in scorn, Are Persius, in whose mind the words of you to fear such stuff as this when you are Horace were continually running, thought dead ?' We say beyond the grave;' Persius of “Chium maris expers” (S. ii. 8. 15), and says • beyond the burning. He then by way whatever he may have taken the meaning to of shewing his own mind in this matter, be there he meant here. One of the inter. turns and addresses his . heres,' and asks pretations of maris expers' in the passage for a word in his ear. By 'meus heres' he of Horace is without salt water,' which was means his heres legitimus,' who would mixed with some Greek wines; and Hein- succeed to his property in the event of his rich supposes that Persius means “salis dying intestate, and who might probably expers,' 'insulsum.' This is an ingenious expect to be named 'heres’ if he made a will. solution of the difficulty. So it would be Persius so far identifies himself with his this witless, silly taste of ours.' The ex. subject that he assumes the speaker to have pression would be far-fetched ;- but I think no sui heredes' (Juv. x. 237), Persius though it would not have occurred to the having no children or wife himself. writer himself, it is not improbable he may 43. O bone, num ignoras ?] My good have thus applied it. Jahn, taking Horace's friend, haven't you heard ?' as the doctor meaning in the same sense, follows close says, “ Heus, bone, tu palles ” (iii. 94). upon Heinrich's interpretation. But he He goes on to say that Caesar has sent takes the sense to be corrupt,' that is, tidings of a great victory over the Germans, wanting in that salt which preserves all and arrangements are being made for a things from corruption. The other inter- grand celebratiou: he therefore intends to pretation of Horace's meaning is, that the offer a hundred pairs of gladiators, and asks wine had never crossed the seas, and so who shall prevent him. The Caesar he some interpreters take this place as a taste means is Caligula, whose ridiculous preof home growth. This is the interpretation tence of an expedition against the Germans, of Turnebus (Adv. 30. 7), and of Meister, B.C. 40, is related by Suetonius (Caligula, who has written a treatise on this passage. 43, 999.). Tacitus speaks of it and a pre(Ueber A. Persii S. vi. 37–40. Leipzig, tended exp :dition against Britain as 1810.) The words as they stand in the narum expeditionum ludibrium" (Hist. iv. text will not bear this meaning, and to sus- 15). His object was plunder, of which he was tain it they separate ‘nostrum hoc maris insatiate. The son of a British chief came expers' from what goes before. When I to Caligula in North Gallia and ceded the wrote my note on Horace (l. c.) I thought whole is and to him, whereupon he sent a this was the meaning of Persius and of flaming letter to announce the fact to the Horace. But on tarther reflection I do not Senate. Afterwards he got up a sham engagethink it is, but that maris expers’ here ment in a wood by the Rhine, sending some means • without salt' (wit), as there it is German prisoners across the river to repre• without salt water.'

sent the enemy, who were then reported as 40. Foenisecae crasso] “Foenisices' is coming down in great force. He marched his the more common turm. It means.mowers.' army down to the sea-shore, and when they He uses it generally for country labourers, got there ordered them to pick up shells as as he uses tossor' (v. 1:2:2). Heinrich spoils of the ocean, to be dedicated in the and Jahn have · ae' in the first syllable on Capitol and Palatium, and built a lightthe authority of the MSS. Orelli has.oe,' house to commemorate this victory. He and Forcellini says that is the right diph- then made arrangements. for a triumph on

“ Caia


Insignem ob cladem Germanae pubis, et aris
Frigidus excutitur cinis, ac jam postibus arma,
Jam chlamydes regum, jam lutea gausapa captis
Essedaque, ingentesque locat Caesonia Rhenos.
Dis igitur, Genioque ducis centum paria ob res
Egregie gestas induco ; quis vetat ? aude;
Vae, nisi connives ! oleum artocreasque popello
Largior; an prohibes ? dic clare ! “Non adeo (inquis):
Exossatus ager juxta est.” Age, si mihi nulla


a magnificent scale, for which he ordered the provisions of his will (Hor. S. ii. 3. 85). that contributions should be collected from The number exhibited on great occasions every quarter. As to 'laurus,' see note on went on increasing during the Empire till a Juv. iv. 149, “ venisset epistola penna." hundred became a small show. (See Dict.

45. Frigidus excutitur cinis,] The old Ant., Gladiatores.) ashes were removed, he means, to make way 50. Oleum artocreasque popello] He for fresh sacrifices. Caesonia (Caligula's threatens to add to his extravagance by a wife, whom he had married two years before, largess of oil and bread and meat to the having had her for his mistress) contracts people. •Artocreas' (äpros, kpéas) is not for arms to hang up at the temple doors, found elsewhere. It seems to be a comhires shawls for the kings to wear whom pound of visceratio,'a distribution of meat, he is to bring home captive, and shaggy and 'frumentatio,' of corn, which were both auburn beards for his pseudo-German common on great occasions. (See note on prisoners, and war chariots, and stout Horace last quoted.) • Vae’ is a threatenGauls from the banks of the Rhine. Sue. ing exclamation, 'Woe betide you!' tonius (c. 47) says that besides his Ger. 51. Non adeo (inquis):] 'Not at all,' say man prisoners and deserters he chose you, your land is pretty well exhausted ;' out the tallest Gauls he could get, tho like a body wit the bones, it is worthwho would best adorn his triumph, and less. So he supposes the man to turn up some Gaulish chiefs too, and ordered them bis nose at the inheritance. Forcellini's in. to dye their hair red, and let it grow, and terpretation of exossatus as land that has to learn the German language, and bear been well looked after and cleared of stones, German names. "Gausapum' or 'gausape'is is certainly wrong. a rough woollen cloth. But it is used in 52. Age, si mihi nulla] He goes on, iv. 37, an obscene passage on which I have • Very well, if you don't want my inheritnot commented, as a shaggy beard, and that ance, and if I have not a relation left, I can is probably the meaning here. As to go and pick up a heres among the beggars,' • locare,' which signifies to give work to be who were numerous on the Via Appia. done or something to be used, see note on • Bovillae' was on that road, and about Hor. C. ii. 18. 17, “Tu secanda marmora twelve miles from Rome, of which the poets Locas.” Forcellini understands Rhenos to speak of it as a suburb. Prop. v. 1. 33, mean • statues of the Rhine,' such as were Quippe suburbanae parva minus urbe carried in triumphal processions. So the Bovillae.” Ovid, Fast. iii. 667, “Orta river Jordan is represented on the arch of suburbanis quaedam fuit Anna Bovillis.' Titus. Jahn so understands it too. But This old woman employed herself in making there is no reason to suppose a number of cakes for the poor people, with whom her such statues would be carried in the proces. neighbourhood abounded. The

• clivus sion, and the above passage of Suetonius Virbi’ is the clivus Aricinus,' where the shows what Caligula's orders were. The Appia Via enters Aricia, about four miles form Rhenos is Greck, Pijvoi. Rhenanos further than Bovillae from Rome. See is the Latin form.

· note on Juv. iv. 117, Dignus Aricinos qui 48. Centum paria] A hundred pairs of mendicaret ad axes.' This place derived gladiators whom he intends to send into its name from Virbius, who, according to the arena (inducere in arenam) in honour Virgil (Aen. vii. 771 sqq.) and his commenof Caligula's Genius. A hundred pairs was tator, Servius, was the same as Hippolytus. the number to which Staberius' beredes When he was killed, Diana, admiring his were condemned if they did not carry out chastity, had him restored to life by Aescu


Jam reliqua ex amitis, patruelis nulla, proneptis
Nulla manet patrui, sterilis matertera vixit,
Deque avia nihilum superest, accedo Bovillas
Clivumque ad Virbi, praesto est mihi Manius heres.

Progenies terrae !” Quaere ex me quis mihi quartus
Sit pater: haud prompte, dicam tamen ; adde etiam unum,
Unum etiam, terrae est jam filius : et mihi ritu
Manius hic generis prope major avunculus exit. 60
Qui prior es, cur me in decursu lampada poscis ?

lapius, and placed him under the care of on a royal message through the country by the nymph Aegeria in the woods of Aricia. mounted couriers (viii. 98). Lucretius (ii.

56. praesto est mihi Manius heres.) 77 sq.) illustrates by the torch race the sucThere was a proverb, "multi Manii Ariciae,' cession of generations in the animal world : the meaning of which is doubtful. Erasmus follows Festus, who says it means there “ Inde brevi spatio mutantur secla ani. were many distinguished persons at Aricia. mantum, This is not the meaning if it is to this pro Et quasi cursores vitai lampada tradunt." verb Persius aliudes. “He has only to go to Aricia, or its neighbourhood, and he will Plato had used the illustration in the same find ready to his hand a Manius for his heir.' way (Legg. vi. p. 776). The author of the Manius was a son of Earth, we see.

treatise Ad Herennium (iv. 46), applies 57. Progenies terrae !] As to this and it to one general succeeding another in com• terrae filius' (59), see note on Juv. iv. 98, mand of an army, and here Persius likens “Unde fit ut malim fraterculus esse gigan- to the runners a man of fortune and his extis.” The man says Manius is a son of pectant beir. Earth, he cannot tell his own father and Qui prior es' is variously interpreted. mother. To which the poet answers, that The commentators before Casaubon, and if any one were to ask him who was his some since (Jahn, and most of our own •abavus,' his great-great-grandfather, he translators). suppose it to mean that the might be able to tell, though not very heir stands in advance of the man he is to readily. Add another to him (atavus), succeed, and receives the torch from him. and yet another (tritavus), and you come There is no point in this, though Jahn tries to a son of Earth, like Manius, who there. to make one by saying the man in advance fore turns out (v. 130, n.) in the course of would try to snatch the torch from the man generations to be brother to the poet's coming up as quick as he could, especially ancestor in the sixth degree. • Major if it was nearly out. But if the runners ocavunculus' is properly uncle to one's cupied their own gond, and the rules of grandfather, and maximus avunculus' is the race required that each should stay at one degree farther back. So as the poet his post, the one who left it would lose his cannot call Manius properly his major chance. “Our critics would make a poor avunculus,' he calls him prope major,' figure at Newmarket," says Gifford ; but he which appears to Jahn “ratio sane frigidius. is not more successful himself

, and says this cula."

is almost the only line in Persius in which 61. Qui prior es, cur me] The reference he has found much real difficulty. here is to the lauraingopia, torch race, prior es' refers, as Casaubon, Plum, Koenig, which occurred at several of the festivals in Heinrich say, to the superior claims of the Greece. Some difficulty is found in deter- ‘legitimus heres' over Manius. Gifford sees a mining all the conditions of the race, but pathetic allusion to the poet's delicate state the chief feature of it was the passing of a of health, because he died young. For in lighted torch or sort of candle from hand to decursu,' which is the reading of nearly all hand, each runner being careful not to ex the MSS., and of all editions but his own, tinguish the trame, till he had delivered the Heinrich reads .indecursum :' but though torch to the runner in advance of him. spatium decursum 'is a proper expression This practice served the ancients as an il. (Cic. de Senect. c. 23), cursor decursus' lustration for several purposes. Herodotus is not. compares with it the Persian way of passing

• Qui


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