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140

Natura indulget. Steriles moriuntur, et illis
Turgida non prodest.condita pyxide Lyde,
Nec prodest agili palmas praebere Luperco.

Vicit et hoc monstrum tunicati fuscina Gracchi,
Lustravitque fuga mediam gladiator arenamı
Et Capitolinis generosior et Marcellis
Et Catulis Paullique minoribus et Fabiis et
Omnibus ad podium spectantibus. His licet ipsum

145

well, he says, that nature grants their wills called Capitolinus. The Marcelli were a no power over their bodies.

plebeian family of the Claudia gens. The 141. condila pyxide Lyde,] This is an first was M. Marcellus, the conqueror of old fat woman (turgida) professing to sell Syracuse A.u.c. 542. See Hor. C. xi. 12. drugs to cure barrenness, -pyxide condita' 45: “ Crescit occulto velut arbor aevo Fama being a box full of such.

Marcelli.”. Catulus was the name of a fa142. palmas praebere Luperco.] The mily belonging to the Lutatia gens, who Luperci were priests of the god Lupercus, vere plebeians. C. Lutatius Catulus, by whose festival, the Lupercalia, was cele. his naval victory over Hanno off the coast brated every year on the Ides of February, of Sicily, brought the first Punic war to a from the earliest times to a late period of close, a.u.c. 513. Q. Lutatius was the the empire. Lupercus was the god of fer. colleague of C. Marius, alluded to in viii. tility. “At his festival the priests, among 253. He was afterwards included in Ma. other ceremonies, ran about the city with rius' proscription, and destroyed himself thongs in their hands cut from goats sacri. A.U.c. 677. His son, who was first the ficed on the occasion, and with these they colleague of Lepidus in the consulship, and struck any one who came in their way, and afterwards defeated him at the head of the the effect was supposed to be the gift of remains of Marius' party ten years after his fertility. They struck the people on the father's death, was an honest and able man, back or on the palms of the hands. Ovid a staunch supporter of Cicero's. The Pauli makes Lupercus the same as Pan. (Fast. best known in history were of the patrician ii. 266, sqq.) • Agili' is explained by the Aemilia gens. L. Aemilius, who died at activity of the priests, who put off their Cannae A.u.c. 538 (“ animaeque magnae clothes that they might run the quicker. prodigum Paulum,” Hor. C. i. 12. 37), and

143. Vicit et hoc monstrum] He says that his son Lucius, who had the cognomen even this monstrous vice is surpassed by Macedonicus for his victory over Perseus, the indignity offered to the nobility by their and triumphed for the same A.U.c. 587, members appearing as gladiators in the were the most illustrious of the family, but arena of the amphitheatre. The retiarius,' their distinction was such that Juvenal who was one of the many classes of gla. speaks of all their descendants being endiators, carried a net, which it was his nobled by them. The Fabia gens, which business to throw over the head of his ad. was patrician, was distinguished in various versary if he could, and a three-pointed families from the earliest times of the respear, 'fuscina,' which was another name public. All the gens was destroyed by the for Neptune's trident. He wore only a Veientes at the river Cremera, A.U.c. 277, tunic, and did not wear armour as the Same with the exception of one man. See below, nites did.

v. 153, n. The name they then bore was 145. Et Capitolinis generosior] Capito. Vibulanus, which was dropped for Ambuslinus was a cognomen in the Quintia gens tus, and this was lost in Maximus, earned and the Manlia. The latter derived it from by Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus, the conM. Manlius, who saved the Capitol from queror of the Samnites in the second war. the Gauls (A.U.c. 361), according to the lle was great-grandfather to him who, for common tradition, and T. Quintius Bar. his tactics in the war with Hannibal, was batus, who was six times consul, and called Cunctator. triumphed for his victories over the Aequi 147. Omnibus ad podinm spectantibus.] and Volsci A.U.c. 286, was the first of These were all men of station, who had a that family who bore it. The dictator Cin. place to themselves between the 'podium' cinnatus was of the same family, and was or wall which ran round the arena, and the

150

Admoveas cujus tunc munere retia misit.
Esse aliquos manes et subterranea regna
Et contum et Stygio ranas in gurgite nigras,
Atque una transire vadum tot millia cumba
Nec pueri credunt, nisi qui nondum aere lavantur.
Sed tu vera puta, Curius quid sentit et ambo
Scipiadae ? quid Fabricius manesque Camilli?

ordinary seats which rose to the top of the of his contemporaries. As to 'manes,' the amphitheatre. (See Hor. Epp. i. 1. 6, n.) spirits of the good, see note on Hor. Epp. • Ipsum' means the editor ludorum,' the i. 1. 138. person who gave the show, and who sat on 150. Et contum] P. has `pontum,' and a high seat within the . podium,' called the the Scholiast has pontum' by an over• editoris tribunal.' Here probably is meant sight, for he quotes Virgil (Aen. vi. 302): the emperor himself, whose throne was Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque micalled suggestus' or cubiculum. If it nistrat,” where also he writes ' ponto.' It is was Domitian, the man who was of nobler strange that sensible editors like Grangaeus birth than all the families just named would and Henninius should adopt this word, certainly be nobler than he, for his father which has no sense here. One MS. of no Vespasian was the son of a man of obscure character has 'cantum,' which Ruperti birth in the municipium of Reate in the rather prefers, but does not adopt. Sabine country. This use of admovere' 152. nisi qui nondum aere lavantur.] for • adjungere' is not noticed by Forcellini. Except those who are too young to go to As to retia misit,' see note above, v. 143. the baths, where the ordinary price for

149. Esse aliquos manes] One MS. has bathing was a quadrans, or about half a . aliquid,' on which authority Ruperti adopts farthing of our money. See vi. 447, and it. It is more likely, perhaps, that one Hor. S. i. 3. 137: “dum tu quadrante lavacopyist should have invented aliquid' than tum Rex ibis," where see note, and also that all the rest should have fallen into an Becker's Gallus, Exc. on the Baths. “ Unde error in aliquos.' The former is the more datur quadrans?" (Martial iii. 30.) plausible reading, particularly as Propertius 153. Sed tu vera puta,] •But in your had written “Sunt aliquid Manes, letum non case only suppose it all to be true.' As to omnia finit" (iv. 7. 1), and Ovid (Met. vi. Curius, see above, v. 3. The form Sci. 543) “Si numina Divum sunt aliquid.” piada' is used by Horace (S. ital. 17), Persius (v. 152) has "cinis et Manes et fa “Scipiadam ut sapiens Lucilius," and by bula fies," which he has imitated from Ho- Virgil (Georg. ii. 170), “ Scipiadas duros race (C. i. 4. 16), “ Jam te premet nox bello," and (Aen. vi. 843) “duo fulmina fabulaeque Manes," where see note. Lu- belli Scipiadas, cladem Libyae, parvoque cretius, the exponent of Epicurean doctrine, potentem Fabricium,” where, as here, the says:

two Scipiones are associated with C. Fa.

bricius Luscinus, the opponent of Pyrrhus “ Cerberus et Furiae jam vero et lucis and contemporary of Curius. Camillus is egestas

M. Furius, the conqueror of the Gauls, and Tartarus horriferos eructans faucibus æs the deliverer of Rome. • Cremerae legio'

are the Fabii mentioned above (on v. 145). Qui neque sunt usquam nec possunt esse The whole gens, consisting of 306 persons, profecto.”

(iii. 1024.) with the consul Kaeso at their head, having

quarrelled with the patricians, quitted Ovid makes Pythagoras say:

Rome, and founded a settlement on the

Cremera, a stream or torrent a few miles “O genus attonitum gelidae formidine north of Rome flowing into the Tiber. mortis

From this point they carried on war with Quid Styga, quid tenebras, quid pomina the people of Veii for two years, and were vana timetis,

finally surprised by them and cut to pieces. Materiem vatum falsique piacula mundi ?" The number of men the Romans lost at (Met. xv. 152, sqq.) Cannae, including their consul Paulus (v.

146) and many of their best officers, is said Juvenal probably spoke the opinion of most to have been about eighty thousand.

tus

155

Quid Cremerae legio et Cannis consumta juventus,
Tot bellorum animae, quoties hinc talis ad illos
Umbra venit? Cuperent lustrari, si qua darentur
Sulfura cum taedis et si foret humida laurus.
Illuc heu miseri traducimur! Arma quidem ultra
Litora Juvernae promovimus et modo captas
Orcadas ac minima contentos nocte Britannos :
Sed quae nunc populi fiunt victoris in Urbe
Non faciunt illi quos vicimus : et tamen unus
Armenius Zalates cunctis narratur eplebis

160

156. Tot bellorum animae,] This is an 160. Litora Juvernae] This is the form unusual sort of expression. It cannot of the name given by Ptolemy, who calls mean “tot animae bellatorum,' as Ruperti one of the tribes 'Iovépvioi, and the island supposes. • Tot' belongs to “bellorum,' 'lovepvia, a form of the native name. Ierne, and the meaning is, souls of so many Irerna, Hibernia, are others. Agricola had wars,' that is, which have known so many thoughts of taking the island, which he wars. He says they would ask to be purified told Tacitus could easily be done with one if such a degenerate spirit came near them, legion and a few auxiliaries, but there is provided there was at hand sulphur and no evidence that the Roman legions ever pine branches, and a wet laurel bough. entered it; but mercatores probably had • Lustratio' or purifying was performed in been there, and from them Ptolemy may a multitude of matters by the Romans when have got some of his knowledge of the pollution had been or might have been island. It was in the year A.D. 83, the year contracted, and consisted usually in sprink- after Domitian's accession, that Agricola ling water by means of a branch of olive or turned his attention to Ireland. (Tac. Agr. laurel, and carrying round the object burn. 24.) The Orkneys and Shetland Islands ing sulphur or pine torches, besides the sa- (Orcades) were first discovered and taken crifice of a victim. Tibullus (i. 2. 61) says, possession of by Agricola when he sailed

round Britain in the last year of his govern“ Et me lustravit taedis, et nocte serena Concidit ad magicos hostia pulla therefore, could not have been written before

ment, A.D. 84. (Tac. Agr. c. 10.) The Satire, Deos."

that year, or many years after it, for he Servius, on Aen. vi. 229,

says ' modo captas.'

161. minima contentos nocte] So Ta“ Idem ter socios pura circumtulit unda, citus says (Agr. c. 12), “ Dierum spatia

Spargens rore levi et ramo felicis olivae, ultra nostri orbis mensuram et nox clara et Lustravitque viros,"

extrema Britanniae parte brevis, ut finem says circumferre' is equivalent to puro ternoscas.”

atque initium lucis exiguo discrimine in. gare :' “nam lustratio a circumlatione dicta

163. et tamen unus) The barbarians we est vel taedae vel sulphuris.” Ovid, describing the lustration of flocks at the Pa: conquer do not the gross things we do, and lilia (Fast. iv. 739), says,

yet if they come to Rome evil communica.

tions soon corrupt them likewise, as was " Caerulei fiant vivo de sulfure fumi

the case with the Armenian hostage.' Tactaque fumanti sulfure balet ovis." 164. Armenius Zalates] This is a name

not otherwise known. Ruperti supposes he 159. Illuc heu miseri traducimur !] .To may have been one of those obsides' with this point poor wretches are we brought whom Caligula is said by Suetonius (c. 36) and changed ;' that is, to what follows. The to have carried on an unnatural intercourse, expression is like Horace's “Nimirum hic and that he is meant by “Tribuno.' (See ego sum,” Epp. i. 15. 42; “ne fueris hic xi. 7.) It may be so. Armenia was at this tu," Ib. i. 6. 40. The Greeks used éreios, time governed by its own kings of the race ενταύθα in the same way. . • Traducere'is of the Arsacidae, but the Romans had freused for changing, bringing over from one quently to interfere in its affairs, and its state to another, as Ovid, Met. xv. 483: kings were under their protection. On two “ gentemque feroci Assuetam bello pacis occasions Tacitus mentions hostages being traducit ad artes."

given to the Romans by Vologeses, king of

165

Mollior ardenti sese indulsisse Tribuno.
Aspice quid faciant commercia: venerat obses.
Hic fiunt homines : nam si mora longior Urbem
Indulsit pueris, non unquam deerit amator:
Mittentur braccae, cultelli, frena, flagellum.
Sic praetextatos referunt Artaxata mores.

170

the Parthians, who claimed the crown of meaning 'viri' would be used. The stop Armenia to the expulsion of Rhadamistus, should be at .obses' (for which one MS. the king whom they recognized. Cn. Cor- only has hospes '). bulo was sent against him by Nero (A.D. 54), 169. Mittentur braccae,] • They will and he retired, and sent some of the noblest soon throw aside their trowsers, their huntof his family as hostages to Rome (Ann. ing-knives, their reins, their whips, that is, xiii. 9). These were not Armenians, but all the manly sports of their boyhood, and Parthians; but the difference might not be carry home immodest manners learnt at observed by Juvenal, or hostages may have Rome.' • Artaxata,' which is plural, was the been sent by others. Every new reign be. capital of Armenia, situated on the Araxes. gan in violence of some sort. This man, • Praetextatus' is applied, by later writers, more soft than any of the Roman youth, is to language, in the sense of impure. (See. said to have given himself up to the passion Forcellini.) It is no where else used in of the tribunus. This is a regular con that sense with mores,' or anything but struction with indulgere ;' it is repeated language. The origin of this meaning is immediately below. Ephebus' is a term plainly contained in the word itself, which borrowed from the Greeks, with whom it is only another form of praetexere,' and signified a youth of eighteen to twenty. means to put a veil or covering over anyThe Romans applied it to those who had thing. Braccae' (breeches) were worn by attained the age of puberty: adolescentes' all the barbarians, that is, all but the is the proper Roman word, though that Greeks and Romans, who in their better extends over a longer space of time. days despised them. They were looser than

167. Hic fiunt homines] . It is here that we wear them now, but not so loose among men are fashioned.' Some take the pas. the European nations as in the East. Dusage as if these words were opposed to ring the empire they were partially worn • venerat obses,' he had come a hostage, by the Romans. but here they become men.' For this

SATIRA III.

INTRODUCTION. This satire is perhaps better known than any of the others. English readers are familiar with Johnson's imitation of it who are not so familiar with the original, which has the advantage of having been written for the scene it describes, while the other is too close a copy to be always applicable to its subject. I think the merits of Johnson's poem have been exaggerated.

Meaning to describe the vexations and inconveniencies of a town life, Juvenal supposes his friend Umbricius leaving Rome in disgust to retire to Cumae; he accompanies him a little way out of the town; and while the carriage is being packed Umbricius breaks out and tells his reasons for leaving his native place. No honest man can thrive there, he says; the town is overrun with cunning foreigners and upstarts who have tricked them. selves into riches and intluence, making themselves necessary to families and getting their masters' secrets. The poor too have no chance, and poverty apes wealth ; every thing has to be bought, and every thing is dear. There are tires and falling houses, and even these are only ruinous to the poor : the rich help one another, while the poor man starves.

The noises at night are such that no one can sleep, at least no poor man in the lodginghouses. The rich man rides safely through the streets, while the poor is elbowed by the crowd, and has a good chance of being killed by great beams and stones, or by pots from the upper stories, and so forth, or by some drunken brawler who picks a quarrel with him, or by robbers who break into his house at night.

There are some parts of the satire which remind the reader of Horace's style; particularly the quaint description of a poor man's encounter with a drunken bully, who, after beating his victim savagely, summons him for an assault.

Umbricius is anybody. There was an • haruspex' of that name, of whom Tacitus relates that he warned Galba of his fate. But there is no sense in supposing him to be the man. It was a common name. The satire may have been written about the same time as the last; but it is impossible to say.

ARGUMENT. V. 1. Though I am in despair at the loss of an old friend, I cannot but commend Umbri.

cius' resolution to quit the town and go away to the pleasant shores of Cumae. There is no wilderness I would not myself prefer to the dangers and annoyances of this

city. V. 10. While his family and goods were all being packed into one cart, we stopped in the

valley of Aegeria, whose wood is let to beggarly Jews, and her native fountain disfigured

by art. And thus my friend began : V. 21. “No room is here for virtue, no return for honest labour; and as I am getting poorer

every day, I mean to take myself to Cumae while I have any vigour left. I bid my native place farewell; let rogues live there, and by their dirty trades get rich; till trumpeters shall rise to give the shows they once proclaimed, and get monopolies of every thing, raised high by fortune in her merry moods. What can I do at Rome? not lie, or praise poor books, or tell the stars, or search the insides of frogs. I am no pimp or thief. So all avoid me as a useless limb. None but accomplices are patronized, with horrid secrets burning in their bosoms. The thief loves him who can accuse him when he pleases. No gold will pay you for the wretched nights it costs you to be feared

of your great friend. V. 58. “The town is overrun with Greeks; and worse, Syria has poured her refuse into

Rome-her language, customs, harps, and drums, and harlots. Away all ye who love the turbaned strumpets! Thy hardy sons, Quirinus, put on Greek shoes, and grease their necks for the palaestra.' From every town they swarm and creep into rich houses_clever, abandoned, impudent, prompt, fluent. What should you say that man was? Any thing you please, all arts and sciences he knows; the starveling Greek will

put on wings if you bid him—for Daedalus was a Greek, and born at Athens. V. 81. “What, must I not avoid their purple ? shall that man rank before me who came

to us with the plums and figs? Have I not breathed from infancy the air of Rome, and is that nothing? These flatterers by trade know how to gain belief when they praise a blockhead's talents, and a plain man's face, long neck, and squeaking voice. If I should praise them, no one would believe me. Their acting is quite perfect; their whole tribe are players. You laugh, they laugh still louder; you weep, they weep but grieve not; call for a fire, they'll get their cloak; say you its hot, they sweat. So we're no match; they have the best of it who never cease from acting. No woman in the house is safe from them, resolved to worm their master's secrets out and get him in

their power.

V. 114. “Speaking of Greeks, let's pass to the Gymnasia and to a crime of deeper dye.

Think of that Stoic who killed Barea, betrayed his friend and pupil, the old wretch born at Tarsus. There is no room for Romans here, where slaves of Greece are kings, who keep their great friends to themselves and thrust me from their doors by poisonous

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